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Norfolk archaeology 

Norfolk and Norwich Archaeological Society 


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Sorfolk %xc)^mlo^]o. 


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Nescto qa& nnta}e f>l}uiic (KiicecHne capU^ 
Ducit, et immento^eft iriniinTfeve sui!*,* ; 

Vol. VII. 



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Wickhampton Church.— i^w. C. It. Manning y M.A., Hon. Sec. . 1 

Notice of an ancient Lock Plate in Norwich Cathedral. — Mt\ J. V Estrange 9 

Notice of Roman Coins and Antiquities found at Caister next Yarmouth, 

hy the late Rev. E. S. Taylor.—^. W. Movant, Esq., F.S.A. . .11 

Norfolk Church Goods, temp. Edward YI.— Walter Rye, E<q. 20 
Church Goods of St. Andrew and St. Mary Coslany, Norwich, temp. 

Edward YI.^Mr, J. r Estrange 45 

Hasaett's House, Pockthorpe, Norwich. — Jiev. James Bulwer, M.A. 79 

Acoustic Pottery.—i2«?. Q. JT. W. Minns ...... 93 

On some Reaping Machines of the Ancient Gauls.—iSiW. P. Boi/eau, Bart., 

F.R.S., r.P.S. A., President 102 

• Norfolk Guilds. — Messrs. J, L* Estrange and Walter Rye . . .105 

Ancient Lecterns preserved in Norfolk Churches.— i?«\ C. R. Manning, 

M.A., Hon. Sec 122 

Notice of a discovery of Roman Coins at Beachamwell. — Robert Fitch, 

Esq., F.G.S., F.S.A., %c., Hon. Trcas. and See 128 

MSS. in the Public Record Office relating to Norfolk.— Walter Rye, Esq. 137 

^oTihCie^^B Khhay. ^O. A. Car thew, Esq., F.S.A 153 

Grimes* Graves Weeting. — Rev. C. R. Manning, M.A., Hon. Sec. . .169 
Notices of the Church at Randworth. — Messrs. A. W. Morant, F.S.A., and 

J. V Estrange 178 

Seal of Breccles Deanery. — Mr. Henry Plowright 212 

Harford Bridges : a Paper read by the Rev. James Bulicer, M.A. .213 

Notices of the Church of St. Nicholas, Great Yarmouth. — A. W. Morant, 

Esq., F.S.A., F.G.S., fe 216 

The Star Hotel, Great Yarmouth,— a /. Palmer, Esq., F.S.A. . . 249 

Mural Paintings at West Somerton Church. — Mr. J. r Estrange . 256 

Cranwich Church Tower.— J?fv. -4. 5m^/o» 260 

Extracts from the Assize and Plea Rolls of the Thii'tecnth Century, about 

Norwich Thieves.— -ff. Harrod, Esq., F.S.A 263 

Notes on the Port and Trade of Cromer alias Shipden. — Walter Rye, Esq. 276 

Kenninghall.— .ReJt'. C. R. Manning, M.A., Hon. See 289 

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Notes on Stareton Church, and a Mural Painting lately discovered there- 
in. M, Fhipsotiy Esq., F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A. . * . . .300 
Discovery of a Mural Painting in the Church of Sporle. — Mr. C. J. W, 

Winter 303 

, Notes on a Letter and Declaration of the Gentry of Norfolk and Norwich 

to General Monk.— ^. W. Morant, Esq., F.S.A., F.G.S. . . 309 

Notes on Sculthorpe Church. — Mrs. Herbert Jones 321 

Coins found at Diss. — Bev. C. R. Manning^ M.A,, Hon. See. . .341 

Appendix 349 

Index 375 

Report read February Ist, 1865. 
Report read January 10th, 1866. 
Report read Februrary 6th, 1867. 
Report read February 19th, 1868. 
Report read February 24th, 1869. 
Knport read February 16th, 1870. 
Report Read February 1st, 1871. 


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Tomba of the Gerbridge Family ia Wickhampton Church ... 1 

Lock Plate, Norwich Cathedral 9 

Ilassett's House, Pockthorpo, Norwich . . , 79 

Acoustic Pottery 93 

„ Woodcut of Jar at St. Laurent en Caux, Normandy . 97 

„ Jars in St. Peter Mancroft, Norwich .... 98 

„ „ in St. Peter per Mountergate, ditto ... 99 

Lithograph of ancient Reaping Machine of Palladius .... 102 

Lecterns in Scole and East Harling Churches 123 

Lectern in Shipdham Church — ^Elevation and Plan 125 

„ „ „ * Side Eleyation 125 

Woodcut of Jar, containing Roman Coins 129 

North Creake Abbey 153 

Woodcut of Seal of ditto 168 

„ Sketch of the Weyboume Pits 170 

Seal of the Deanery of Breccles 212 

St. Nicholas Church, Great Yarmouth — 

Ground Plan 216 

Elevation, West Front 216 

View of East End as it appeared in 1862 ) 

View showing intended Restoration ) ' "^ * 

The Nelson Room, Star Hotel, Great Yarmouth 249 

Fragments illustrating the Apartments of ditto 252 

Mural Painting at West Somerton 266 

Window in Cranwich Church Tower 260 

Plan of Earthworks at Eenninghall 289 

Woodcut of Carving on a Bracket in Kenninghall Church . 298 

Colored Drawing of a Mural Painting in Starston Church . .301 

Sepulchral Slab, in Starston Church 302 

Drawing of Mural Painting in Sporle Church 306 

Woodcut of the Arms of Hoadly 318 


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Two woodcuts of Seals of the Kings of Arms 320 

Shields of Arms in Sculthorpe Church (two plates) .323 

Pont in Sculthorpe Church 338 

Three sides of the same 339 

Jet Chessman, found at Thelton 364 

Ivory Chessman 355 

Portion of an Ancient Brass Astronomical Instrument .... 358 


Report for 1866, p. iii. line 8, /or stencilled read in outline. 
Page iii. line 16, for northen read northern. 
Page 260, note, for 1868 read 1866. 


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Maidstone, Kent 
Youell, Edward P., Esq. Great Yarmouth 


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1. That the Society shall be called, "The Norfolk and Norwich 


2. That the object of the Society shall be to collect the best information 
on the Arts and Monuments of the County, including Prime^'al Antiquities ; 
Numismatics ; Architecture, Civil and Elcclesiastical ; Sculpture ; Painting on 
Walls, Wood, or Glass ; Civil History and Antiquities, comprising Manors, 
Manorial Rights, Privileges and Customs ; Descent ; Genealogy ; Ecclesiastical 
History or Endowments, and Charitable Foundations ; Records, &c., and all 
other matters usually comprised under the head of Archaeology. 

3. That all information thus received shall be entered in books kept for the 
purpose, which shall be open to the inspection of the Members of the Society, 
and be kept in the custody of the Secretaries. 

4. That the Officers of the Society shall consist of a President, Vice- 
Presidents, Treasurer, Secretaries, and a Committee of eighteen. 

5. That all such Antiquities as shall be given to the Society, shall be pre- 
sented to the Norwich Museum. 

6. That six of the Committee shall go out annually in rotation, but with the 
power of being re-elected ; and also that the Committee shall supply any va- 
cancy that may occur in their number during the year. 

7. That the President, Vice-Presidents, and Treasurer and Secretaries, be 
elected at the Annual General Meeting for one year, with power of being 
re-elected, and shall be ex-officio members of the Conunittee. 

8. That any person desirous to become a member of this Society, shall be 
proposed by at least two of its Members, at either a General or Committee 

9. That every Member shall pay the Annual Subscription of Seven Shillings 
and Sixpence, to be due in advance on the first of January. 

10. That distinguished Antiquaries, not connected with the County, may be 
elected as Honorary Members, at any of the General or Committee Meetings of 
the Society, on being proposed by two of the Members. 


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1 1. That four General Meetings shall be held in the year, at such times and 
places as shall be from time to time determined by the Committee. 

12. That such short Papers shall be read at the Meetings as the Committee 
shall previously approve of, and that the Meetings shall conclude with the exhi- 
bition of, and discussion on, such subjects of interest or curiosity as Members 
may produce. 

13. That the Committee may, on such occasions as they shall think necessary, 
call Special Meetings by advertisement. 

14. That the Accounts shall be audited by two of the Committee, and a 
statement of the affairs of the Society shall be given at the first General 
Meeting in the year. 

15. That the Committee shall meet the first Tuesday in every month, at 
Twelve o'clock, to receive such information, and make such arrangements as 
may be necessary, preparatory to the General Meetings. That three shall be a 
quorum, and that the Chairman shall have the casting vote. 

16. That a short Annual Report of the Proceedings of the Society shall be 
laid before the General Meeting, and that a List of Members shall be printed 
from time to time. 

17. That all papers deposited in the archives of this Society shall be con- 
sidered the property of the Society ; but that it shall be optional with the Com- 
mittee to receive communications firom Members, who are writing with other 
objects in view, and to return the same, after perusal, to the author. 

i8. That the Committee shall have the power of making Bye Laws, which 
shall remain in force till the next General Meeting. 

19. That the Committee shall have the power of publishing such papers 
and engravings, at the Society's expense, as may be deemed worthy of being 
printed ; that each Subscriber shall be entitled to a copy of such publication, 
either gratis or at such price as the fimds of the Society will admit, from the 
time of his admission ; and to such further copies, and previous publications 
(if any there be in hand), at a price to be fixed by the Committee ; that the 
author of such published papers shall be entitled to fifteen copies, gratis ; and 
that the Committee shall have the power to make such arrangements for re- 
printing any of the parts of the Society's Papers, when out of print, as they 
may deem most conducive to the interest of the Society. 

20. That the Society in its pursuits shall be confined to the County of 



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attfia^0l05UaI Sntuta. 

Eead Febetjaby IsT, 1865. 

In presenting to the Society their Report for the past 
year, the Committee desire to bring to the notice of the 
Members the principal subjects which have occupied their 
attention during that time, and in which they think they 
have much ground for congratulation and encouragement. 
The total number of Members is now 271, of whom seven- 
teen have been added in the last year ; and they have to 
regret but few whom they have lost. Two of these were of 
the number of oux Vice-Presidents — the Earl of Gosford and 
Mr. Hudson Gumey. The last-mentioned name, long con- 
nected with the Society, they cannot pass over without a 
tribute of respect ; for he not only supported the Society 
by his influence and patronage, but, being himself a most 
learned antiquary, devoted much time of his long life to 
archsDological pursuits, and had enriched our volumes with 
many liberal contributions. The loss of his name, his as- 
sistance, and of the information he so largely possessed, and 
so readily imparted, is one that can hardly be replaced. 

Two Excursion Meetings have been held during the year, 
and the numbers of persons who joined them testified to the 
continued approval by the Members of these pleasant and 


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interesting gatherings. The first took place in the north- 
western part of the county, and embraced the Bumham 
Churches, North and South Creake, and Creake Abbey. Of 
the beautiful ruins of the latter some excellent photographs 
haye since been taken at the cost of the Society, as it was 
feared that high winds might destroy them, their condition 
appearing very unsafe; and in consequence of representa- 
tions made to the proprietors, Christ's College, Cambridge, 
the most dangerous portions have been supported by brick- 
work, and rendered more secure; and although there has 
been some sacrifice of the beauty of the building on this 
account, yet it will be allowed that it was better to do so 
than to make any attempt at restoration. 

The other Excursion was held at Diss, in conjunction with 
the Suffolk Institute of ArchsBology, to visit the Churches at 
the head of the Waveney Valley, on each side of the stream, 
including the interesting ones of Fersfield, South Lopham, 
and Redgrave. Fersfield, as the birth-place, residence, and 
burial-place of our great historian Blomefield, was a fitting 
spot for a pilgrimage of congenial minds ; and a proposition, 
made at the time, that the Society should initiate a subscrip- 
tion, for the purpose of erecting some memorial to his fame, 
has been under consideration by the Committee. It was 
suggested that the East window of Fersfield Church should 
be filled with stained glass to Blomefield's memory; and 
although the chancel is modem and its architecture faulty, 
there are many who would be willing to subscribe for this 
purpose. From the pressure of other business, the Com- 
mittee have not decided what steps they should be justified 
in taking in the matter. 

Since the Annual Meeting of last year, much attention 
has been paid by the Committee to the consideration of 
the best mode of expending the funds in the Treasurer's 
hands, in accordance with the resolution then agreed to. It 
has been thought desirable to continue the printing of the 


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"Visitation of Norfolk," so kindly and ably furnished by 
Dr. Howard and Mr. Dashwood. This^ as the Members are 
aware, is separately paged from the other " Papers " of the 
Society, so as to form, when completed, a volume by itself. 

Besides this, the Committee have been very desirous to 
carry out the suggestion that they should publish a volume, 
or. series^ of a larger size than that of their ordinary num- 
bers, to illustrate the Screen-Paintings of Norfolk. Our 
connty is admitted by all to possess such an extent of these 
interesting. and valuable remains, that they may be regarded 
as its ^ecialitp in mediaeval archaeology ; and it is felt that 
if we could publish some good illustrations of the best that 
are preserved, accompanied by letter-press from some gen- 
tleman of competent artistic and archaeological knowledge, 
such a volume would be a fit result of the accumulation of 
our funds, and of permanent value beyond the limits of our 
own Society and county. It has been, however, a matter of 
greater difficulty to make satisfactory arrangements for this 
object than might at first have been expected. An estimate 
of the cost of printing in colours only one screen, and issuing 
only 300 impressions, was found to reach about £70, besides 
the expense of employing an artist to make drawings from 
the original. It would therefore be impossible to publish all 
or any large number of the screens. Then, in making a 
selection, opinions differ as to which are the best ; whether 
those should be chosen which are the most perfectly pre- 
served, or those which are most richly carved and decorated ; 
or whether the preference should be given according to the 
subjects depicted, or, lastly, whether according to the style of 
art in which they were painted. 

In order to arrive at some decision on these and other 
points, to the satisfaction of the Members, the Committee 
have requested them to exhibit to-day any drawings or old 
examples they may possess, and to discuss the subject of the 
best method of publication. The plan which seems to the 


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Committee most feasible, is that three or four of the best 
screens should be selected to begin with ; that in each case a 
drawing of the whole screen should be given in outline, and 
some of the paintings and decorative portions by themselves 
on a larger scale, in Chromo^lithographp, together with a 
descriptive paper by a qualified hand ; and that this volume, 
or first part, should be presented to each Member who has 
paid the subscription for three years previous to the time of 
issue; but that any future parts which the fimds of the 
Society may allow them to publish, be sold to the Members 
at a low price. The necessity for this will be apparent when 
it is recollected that the first part wiU exhaust the Society's 
accumidations of the past nine years, and there will be no 
sufficient balance each year, after the publication of the 
Society's regular Papers, to meet such a heavy additional 

The Committee desire to recommend the name of the Right 
Honourable the Earl of Orford, to be added to the list of 

The following gentlemen retire from the Committee in 
rotation this year : The Rev. J. Bulwer, the Rev. F. Cubitt, 
the Rev. E. Gillett, the Rev. J. Gunn, the Rev. J. Lee- 
Warner, and the Hon F. Walpole ; and the names recom- 
mended for election are, the Rev. J. Bulwer, the Rev. E. 
Gillett, the Rev. J. Grmn, the Rev. R. Hart, the Rev. J. 
Lee- Warner, and the Hon. F. Walpole. 


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Read January 10th, 1866. 

An Annual Report of a Society such as our own must 
necessarily present somewhat of sameness in character as year 
after year passes by. As our work consists chiefly in gathering 
information of various kinds, in publishing a selection of 
Papers on subjects belonging to our studies, and in visiting 
places of antiquity and exploring their remains, the useMness 
and prosperity of the Society is better shown by its continued 
and steady perseverance in these objects, than by any detailed 
account that can be given of its operations in any particular 
year. Its financial position being all that can be desired, and 
the public interest in its pursuits in no degree lessened, and 
seventeen new Members having been elected since the last 
Sieport was made, and two now to be proposed, we have every 
reason again to congratidate ourselves on entering our twenty- 
first year. 

Another number of our Papers has just been published, 
making the second issued in 1865. Considerable progress has 
also been made in obtaining drawings of the Screen Paintings 


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which it was agreed at the last Annual Meeting that the 
Committee should have prepared. Randworth and Fritton 
Screens have been accurately and beautifully copied by 
Mr. Winter, and that at Barton Turf is in a forward state. 
It will now be the duty of the Committee to arrange for the 
best method of publishing an instalment of them. 

There have not been any discoveries of antiquarian interest 
reported to the Committee, or ancient relics exhibited, which 
require notice here : if we except the finding of some Mural 
Paintings in Sporle Church, near Swaffham, the subjects of 
which have not been ascertained. 

The Annual Excursion of the Members for the past year 
was held at Loddon and its neighbourhood, where the Society 
was received with great kindness and hospitality at Langley 
Park, by Sir Thomas Beauchamp, and made visits of much 
interest to Heckingham, Norton, Hales, &c. There is the 
promise in the ensuing year of an Excursion of a highly 
instructive kind, to visit the British and other early remains, 
which have not yet been investigated as theydeserve, in the 
neighbourhood north of Brandon. 

The following Members of the Committee go off in rotation 
to-day : The Rev. G. H. Dashwood, T. Jeckell, Esq., the Rev. 
•S. W. King, R. M. Phipson, Esq., the Rev. S. Titlow, the 
Rev. E. T. Yates, and are eligible for re-election. 


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Eead February 6th, 1867. 

In giving to the Members of this Society a brief Report of 
its work in the past year, one of the principal subjects to be 
referred to is the progress of its promised publication of 
drawings of the Randworth Screen. It was agreed, as the 
Members will recollect, that those beautiful and valuable 
illustrations should be printed in lithography by the artist 
who executed them, — Mr. Winter of Norwich — ^in twenty- 
eight subjects in outline, and one coloured facsimile. After 
the contract with that gentleman was entered into, he 
proceeded with much dispatch and ability to draw them on 
the stones, and by September last as many as twenty were 
finished, and their beauty and accuracy is entirely to the 
satisfaction of the Committee. They deeply regret to say, 
however, that at this point the work was unavoidably stopped 
by the serious illness of Mr. Winter, whose unremitting atten- 
tion and excess of labour upon it proved too great a strain 
upon his health. Had it not been for this misfortune the 
publication might already have been in the hands of the 
Members. The Committee can only hope that before long 
he will be restored to health and be able to resume his work. 
In these circumstances they must beg the forbearance of the 


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Members, and are sure that Mr. Winter has their sympathy 
and sincere wishes for his recovery. 

The Society held two Excursion Meetings in the past year, 
the first from Brandon to visit the very curious British 
dwellings at Grimes' Graves in the parish of Weeting, 
Weeting Church and Castle, the early Tower at Cranwich, 
the fine Easter Sepulchre at North wold, and the large and 
very valuable Museum of Egyptian and other Antiquities 
at Didlington Hall, where the kindness and hospitality of 
Mr. Tyssen-Amhurst, High Sheriff for the year, as well as 
that of Mr. W. Angerstein at Weeting, demand our best 
acknowledgments. The second Excursion took place in the 
neighbourhood of Long Stratton, when visits were paid to 
interesting churches, &c., at Tasburgh, Fritton, Shelton, 
Hardwick, Stratton, Wacton, and Fomcett, and every facility 
was afforded by the clergy and others for an agreeable and 
instructive day. 

Perhaps the most important discovery of the year in our 
county has been that of the Flint Celts in the drift at Thet- 
ford. Our Treasurer has already exhibited specimens of 
them, and the "find'' has attracted much attention from 
eminent geologists and archseologiBts, as they are of the same 
primaeval type as those found at Hoxne, and in the valley of 
the Somme. 

The frequency of church restoration at the present day 
causes every year further disclosures of Mural Paintings on 
the walls. The principal example of these brought to our 
notice this year has been those at Sporle near Swaffham, 
where a curious series is depicted relating the history of 
S. Catharine of Alexandria. Careful drawings of them have 
been made by Mr. Winter, at the expense of the Society of 
Antiquaries, the subject having been laid before that body by 
Mr. Carthew. Other waU decorations have been reported 
from Hethersett by our President, and from Brunstead by 
Mr. Gunn. 


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Another discovery of " Acoustic Pottery " was made this 
year in All Saints' Church, Norwich, in all respects similar 
to the examples described by Mr. Minns in our published 
papers. Outside the same church, the existence of Consecra- 
tion Crosses was also pointed out by Mr. L'Estrange. In 
another Norwich church, S. John Sepulchre, a portion of a 
fine screen was discovered, having figures of saints stencilkd 
upon it. Of this also drawings were made by Mr. Winter. 

The antiquities sent for exhibition to the Conmiittee have 
not been very numerous. The silver seal, with a full-faced 
female head, found at S. Clenient's Gates, will be illustrated 
in a future part. Still more rare is a Saxon or Norwegian 
chessman of jet, found in the year at Thelton. It has the 
small ornament of concentric circles so commonly seen in 
northen articles of a similar kind. It has been submitted 
to the Society of Antiquaries, and Mr. Franks, the Director, 
considers it a specimen of much interest. 

Another part of the Society^s Papers is in the press, and 
upwards of one hundred pages are already printed. 

The Society has received the accession of twenty-seven 
new Members during the past year, and has to express its 
deep regret at the loss of two of its valued Vice-Presidents, 
the Right Hon. and Rev. Lord Bayning, and the Hon. and 
Very Rev. the Dean of Norwich. 

The following Members of the Committee retire in rotation 
this year : The Rev. W. Grigson, Mr. Blake Humphrey, The 
Rev. J. J. Smith, Captain Bulwer, The Rev. G. W. W. Minns, 
and Mr. F. Worship ; and are eligible for re-election. Another 
Member, Mr. Yates of Aylsham, has left the county for two 
years, and has requested that his name may be removed from 
the Committee for the present. In accordance with a wish 
expressed last year, the Committee desire to recommend the 
appointment of Mr. A. W. Morant in his place. 


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Bead Febeuaby 19th, 1868. 

The Committee of the Norfolk and fTorwicli Archsoological 
Society have once more the pleasure of presenting their 
Beport to its Members at the Annual Meeting, and con- 
gratulating them on the continued prosperity and usefulness 
of the Society. The space of twelve months is but a short 
time for rendering an account of any objects attained in a 
body such as our own, which does not measure its success 
by business-gains and commercial credit. Much of its work 
is seen in its moral effects of sustaining in the public mind 
a reverence for the spirit which produced the works of art 
and architecture of old time ; in promoting beauty and good 
taste in the life of our own day ; and in storing up, not only 
in museums, but in men's minds, the materials for the more 
exact and truthfiil history of our country. 

A proof of the interest taken in our operations may be 
indicated by the number of new Members who have joined 
us during the past year, which amoimts to twenty. 

A part of this accession is due to the terms on which the 
Bociety^s publication of the Eandworth Screen Paintings has 
been issued. The production of this work, the Committee 


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belieye, has been higUy satisfactory to all the Members, and 
has been greatly appreciated far beyond the limits of our 
own county. A very yaluable review of it has appeared in 
the Gentleman's Magazine for December last, from the pen 
of Her Majesty's Librarian, chiefly with a view to call 
attention to the relation which existed between Germany 
and England in matters of art, in the commencement of the 
fifteenth century, as more intimate than has been hitherto 
suspected, and to commend the examination of our Norfolk 
Screens to students of the subject, both in Germany and 

It will give pleasure to the Members to learn that the 
Committee have agreed to proceed to the publication of 
another Screen, as their funds may admit, and that they 
have arranged with Mr. Winter, to whose talents so much of 
the credit in the matter is due, to execute lithographs of the 
paintings at Barton Turf Church. 

A volume of a difierent character, quite ready for the 
press, has also been placed in the hands of the Committee, 
which they would publish with great satisfaction, if their 
resources would allow. The MS. is entitled " ViUare Nor- 
folciemey' and is " An Attempt at the Derivation of the Names 
of the Towns and Villages of Norfolk," by a learned and 
competent Member of our Society, the Rev. G. Mimford of 
East Winch. The scientific principles in which this volume 
has been compiled entitle it to a much higher estimation 
than many of such attempts have found, and the Committee 
desire to express their especial thanks to Mr. Munford for 
the gift of it, and trust that in course of time they will be 
able to place it in the possession of all their Members. 

The Excursions made by the Society last year were at two 
opposite parts of the county ; one from Yarmouth, to visit 
the coast churches as far as Winterton and Martham ; and 
the other at Hunstanton, where an interesting day was spent 
at the Church and Hall, and in inspecting Holme, Thomham, 


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Ringstead, Sedgeford, and Snettisham churches ; but where, 
from its remoteness, the attendance of Members was small. 

The Committee cannot omit to notice, on the occasion of 
its first meeting this year, the expected visit to the city of 
Norwich in August next, of a learned Society whose pursuits 
are in many respects kindred to their own, — the British 
Association for the Advancement of Science. They feel that 
the occasion is one when our Society should give a cordial 
welcome to so important a body, and may receive much 
advantage from its discussions; and they hope to make 
arrangements by which an Excursion in common may be 
taken. They sincerely hope that the health of our highly 
valued President, Sir J. P. Boileau, will enable him to take 
a personal part in some such scheme of united action, in 
concert with our worthy Treasurer, the City Sheriff. 

The Committee desire to propose the name of Dr. W. 
Jackson Howard as an Honorary Member, in acknowledg- 
ment of the very valuable assistance he has given the Society 
in providing the copies of the Visitation of Norfolk, which 
they are now publishing under the care of Mr. Dashwood. 

The Members of the Committee who retire in rotation 
this year, are the Rev. J. Bulwer, the Rev. J. Gunn, the 
Rev. E. Gillett, the Rev. R. Hart, the Rev. J. Lee- Warner, 
and the Hon. F. Walpole, who are eligible for re-election. 


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Bead Febetjaby 24th, 1869. 

The Norfolk and Norwich ArchaDological Society has now- 
reached the close of its twenty-third year; and the Com- 
mittee have no reason to think that its labours have been 
unrewarded, or its usefulness diminished. In this, as in 
all other scientific pursuits, every year's advancement calls 
for a wider range of knowledge, and more accurate investi- 
gations on the part of those who follow them. Every year 
it is more plainly seen that the field of study is enlarged 
and deepened, and inseparably connected with other branches 
of learning ; and although our limits are nominally confined 
to a small area, the line cannot be drawn between them, and 
a far more comprehensive range of observation, of which 
the results that may hereafter be deduced, and the con- 
clusions that may be arrived at, are of no small importance. 
This must have been very evident to those of our Members 
who attended the International Congress of Pre-historic 
Archaeology held here last year, during the Meeting of the 
British Association for the Advancement of Science. It 
cannot be doubted that the researches of such a body of the 
most learned men in Europe in this particular field, must 


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be of great value in a science such as pre-historic antiquity, 
which may be said to be yet only in its infancy; and 
whether we are disposed to agree with their views or not, 
the opportunity of attending their Meeting at Norwich, and 
reading the Papers that were then communicated, is one 
which none of our Members can afford to forget. 

The occurrences of this Meeting, and that of the British 
Association, together with the circumstance of a General 
Election engrossing public attention in the past year, com- 
bined to make the operations of our own Society less promi- 
nent than usual. One Excursion Meeting was held, in 
conjunction with the sister Society of Suffolk, and an in- 
teresting round of churches was visited between Haddiscoe 
and Lowestoft, including the curious and apparently very 
early ruin of Flixton. A few articles exhibited at this 
Meeting are worthy of further notice and illustration, viz., 
some fine British Swords, discovered in the dry bed of the 
lake at Saham, near Watton, exhibited by Mr. Grigson ; 
and a Seal of the Hundred of Lothingland, found last year, 
and produced by Mr. Fitch. 

The Committee have the pleasure of informing the Mem- 
bers that the Royal Archa}ological Institute of Great Britain 
and Ireland have very handsomely offered to present to our 
Society the back volumes of its Journal, Vol. VII. to XXIII., 
inclusive, and to exchange with us our respective publications 
in future. This liberal proposal has been gladly accepted, 
and the numbers are being put into covers, at our Society's 
expense. We may also congratulate ourselves that the 
Royal ArchsBological Institute intend visiting East Anglia 
this year, their Amiual Meeting for 1869 being arranged 
to be held at Bury St. Edmunds. 

It will be remembered that after the publication of the 
Society's Illustrations of Rand worth Screen, it was agreed to 
proceed in the same manner with the drawings of that in 
Barton Turf church. These consist of six figures on one 


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screen and four on another, and ai-e quite ready for issue, 
only awaiting a letter-press description which has been 
promised by Mr. Gunn. Another screen, that belonging 
to Hunstanton church, which the Members will recollect 
inspecting in a fragmentary state at the Vicarage, when 
they met there in 1867, is about to be replaced in the 
church if the Vicar can obtain the requisite funds ; and as 
much interest was expressed in its fate by those who saw it, 
it may be hoped that some of them will be disposed to con- 
tribute to a judicious restoration. 

It is gratifying to the Committee to state that Mr. 
Munford, whose MS. volume of Norfolk Local Etymology 
was mentioned in the last Report as having been entrusted 
to their care for publication, has regained his health suffi- 
ciently to enable him to try to proceed with it himself. 
Whether and how our Society could assist the publication, 
which is much to be desired, is a matter for the consideration 
of the Members and the Committee. 

The Third Part of Vol. VII. of our Original Papers was 
issued in the past year, together with the fifth portion of 
the "Visitation," and the first portion of the "Norfolk 

It is with very deep sorrow that the Committee have to 
record the unexpected loss they and the whole Society have 
sustained within the last few weeks by the death of the 
Rev. G. H. Dashwood, one of their oldest supporters, and 
the editor of the " Visitation." His genealogical knowledge, 
his industry and energy in preparing the pedigrees for the 
press, and his frequent liberality to the Society, make his 
removal a serious misfortune to us. They trust that the 
valuable services of other Members, well versed in the 
subject, will not be wanting to continue the publication of 
the " Visitation," which to many of the Society is of great 
interest. The Committee also grieve to say that two other 
very useful and accomplished Members of the Committee 


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have been removed from them by death in the past year-^ 
the Rev. S. W. King and the Rev. Edward GiUett. They 
have also been deprived of the services of two others on the 
Committee — the Rev. G. W. W. Minns and Mr. Jeckyll, who 
have ceased to reside in Norfolk. On the other hand twenty- 
one new Members have been added to the Society in the 
past year. 

The Committee desire to propose that the Yenerable 
A. M. Hopper, Archdeacon of Norwich, be elected into the 
list of Vice-presidents of the Society. 

The names of the gentlemen who would have retired from 
the Committee this year, had we not otherwise lost their 
services, are Mr. Dashwood, Mr. Jeckyll, and Mr. Eong ; the 
other three being Mr. Phipson, Mr. Titlow, and Mr. Morant. 
It is proposed to re-elect the last three, and in place of the 
others to request Francis G. M. Boileau, Esq., the Rev. 
Hinds Howell, and the Rev. W. Yincent to take office. 
Two more names will then be required to supply the places 
of Mr. Minns and Mr. Gillett, and the Committee hope to 
obtain the services of F. E. Watson, Esq., and W. T. 
Bensly, Esq. 


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Eead Februaey 16th, 1870. 

In presenting a Eeport of our Society to its Members for 
the year 1869, the first duty to discharge is a melancholy 
one. That year has been marked in a way which has filled 
every one of its supporters with deep regret, through the 
death of its much- valued President. Sir John Boileau had 
fiUed that office for fourteen years in succession, and had so 
long taken a lively personal interest in the Society's work, 
and had contributed so much, from his own great antiquarian 
knowledge, to explain and illustrate objects visited or ex- 
hibited at our Meetings, as well as to enrich the pages of our 
publications by his pen, that his loss wiU be felt to be quite 
irreparable. It is not too much to say that the success which 
has attended the Society for the principal part of its ex- 
istence, and the spread of an interest in its pursuits in the 
county, has been chiefly owing to the constant friendship 
and close attention to its affairs shown by the late President. 
In proof of the sincere interest he felt in the continued 
prosperity of the Society, the Treasurer has to report the 
receipt of his kind legacy of £100 to the Society's funds. 

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The Committee has not yet formally decided on the appli- 
cation of this very liberal bequest, but it is their general 
opinion that it would be most in accordance with Sir John 
Boileau's own views, and with the objects of the Society, 
to expend it in the publication of a "Boileau Volume,*' 
to contain illustrations of unpublished examples of Art- 
Archaeology in Norfolk. 

As the loss which the Society thus sustained occurred 
early in last year, it became necessary to fill up the office of 
President for the intervening months ; and it was with very 
great satisfaction to the Committee that the Very Rev. the 
Dean of Norwich was prevailed upon to accept it. It is 
their hope that the guidance and co-operation of one so 
gifted, and so highly esteemed, will long continue to further 
and strengthen the Society's work. 

The number of new Members added to the list during the 
past year is fifteen. 

The Illustrations of the Screen in Barton Turf church 
were issued to the subscribers for 1868-1869, and will be 
delivered also to any others elected in 1870 who shall pay 
the subscription for 1869. Much interest has been felt in 
this and the preceding similar publication by the possessors 
of them, and their appearance has caused a considerable 
accession to the funds of the Society. It is proposed that 
the next Screen to be illustrated be that in the church of 
Fritton, near Long Stratton. 

The past year has not been marked by many archapological 
discoveries worthy to be placed on our records, except that 
of an extensive Saxon cemetery at Kenninghall. This spot 
was visited by the Members at the autumn excursion, and it 
is hoped will receive a fuller examination at another time. 
At the same Meeting, the Society visited the site of Ken- 
ninghall Palace and several interesting churches, and were 
most kindly and hospitably received at Quidenham Hall 
by Lord Albemarle. The summer excursion comprised a 


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yisit to the churches at Yaxham, Mattishall, &c., when 
they were guided and warmly welcomed by the Rev. W. 
C. Johnson, the Rev. J. B. Johnson, and others. 

The Members of the Committee who retire in rotation this 
year are Capt. Bulwer, the Rev. W. Grigson, R. Blake- 
Humfrey, Esq., the Rev. J. J. Smith, F. E, Watson, Esq., 
and F. "Worship, Esq., who are eligible for re-election. 


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Head Febbuaby Ist, 1871. 

A retrospect of the year 1870 will cause painful feelings 
to arise in almost every direction to which we may have to 
turn our thoughts. In the presence of national calamities, 
and the fall of thrones and empires, disasters of a more 
private and local character are comparatively insignificant. 
In our own county, losses have been sustained which have 
made themselves felt in all ranks, from the highest to the 
lowest : and unfortimately our Society has not escaped. The 
amount of our funds in Messrs. Harveys' Bank, at the 
time of its suspension was, on the general account, 
£131. 16s, 8d,, and on account of the Boileau Legacy, 
besides £15 in notes in the collector's hands, £101. 3«. 5d. 
The total loss thus sustained is expected to be about £100. 
This misfortune has of course prevented any fiirther steps 
being taken with respect to the publication of the " Boileau 
Volume," as proposed last year ; but it has not stopped the 
issue of the 4th part of Vol. VII. of our " Papers," which 
is now ready to be delivered to the members. It is hardly 
necessary to add how desirable it is that all outstanding 
subscriptions be paid as soon as possible, that we may have 
funds for the continuance of our publications. 

The principal result of ArchsBological investigation during 
the year, is one which, although occurring in our own 
county, is of the highest scientific interest to aU who are 
engaged in the same study. The indefatigable labours of 
Canon Greenwell at "Grime's Graves," in the parish of 
"Weeting, have been crowned with success; and his dis- 
coveries have been fuUy reported in a Paper, contributed by 


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him to the Ethnological Society, of which he has liberally 
allowed us to make use. As we hope to publish his own 
account, it will be sufficient to report now, what is already 
known to most of us, that he has conclusively proved the 
pits at " Grime's Graves " to be quarries of the Stone Pepod, 
for the purpose of obtaining the best flint for making flint 
implements. The singular interest of the scene, on the 6th 
of April, 1870, when the chalk-cut horizontal gallery, forty 
feet below the surface, was exposed, with the primitive stag's- 
hom picks, in situ, and the flint block ready for working, 
just as it had been left, probably from the falling in of the 
chalk on some day, perhaps thousands of years ago, will not 
soon be forgotten by those who were fortunate enough to be 

The zeal and care of our President has been steadily 
directed to the Cathedral under his charge. The interesting 
patterns discovered on the walls and vaults of the Jesus 
Chapel have been preserved, and the rest of the Chapel 
restored in the same style. It now gives a very good 
illustration of the original appearance of a Norman interior. 

Much attention has been attracted, and beyond our own 
county, to the curious waU-painting discovered in the en- 
largement of Starston Church. The scene represented has 
been the subject of some valuable remarks in " Notes and 
Queries," and its meaning is still somewhat doubtj^. As 
the wall and the painting were obliged to be destroyed in 
adding an aisle to the church, it will be gratifying to our 
members that the liberality of the Rector, Archdeacon 
Hopper, has provided an excellent chromo-lithograph of it 
in the new number of our " Original Papers." 

Among the objects of interest exhibited at our Committee 
Meetings may be mentioned some fine fragments of early 
pottery, spindle-whirls, &c., found at Thetford; and some 
curious examples of brass badges, some with armorial 
bearings of Norfolk families. These are preserved in the 
rich cabinet of Mr. Fitch. 

A valuable publication relating to our own field of research 
has issued from the press during the past year, viz., the 
Rev. G. Munford's "Local Names in Norfolk." That diffi- 


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cult branch of our pursuits^ the etymology of the names of 
places, has here been investigated with much sober judgment 
and scientific care. 

The Summer Excursion of the past year was held on the 
north-east coast of the county, and a round of interesting 
churches was visited at Stalham, Ingham, Hickling, Eccles, 
Hempstead, Lessingham, Happisburgh, and East Buston. 
Some of the architectural remains there inspected were 
considered by the members present suitable for illustration 
in our publications ; and one, the fragment of the beautiful 
canopy of the tomb of Sir Oliver Ingham, is already sketched. 
It was hoped that a second Excursion might have been 
arranged in October, for which the weather proved highly 
favourable, but a variety of local engagements entirely 
prevented its being carried out. 

The Committee desire to express the difficulty they have 
in appointing, according to our rules. Quarterly Meetings in 
Norwich at regular intervals. They are natundly imwilling 
to call the members together without any provision of sub- 
jects for papers or discussion. It would greatly contribute 
to the more frequent holding of these meetings if members 
who have remarks to communicate, or matters of interest to 
report, would take the trouble to inform the Secretaries, that 
they might rely upon not calling a meeting to no purpose. 

The Committee deeply regret the loss of one of their 
Vice-Presidents, the late Lord "Walsingham ; and it is also 
their painful duty to report the very recent death of an 
Honorary Member long connected with the Society, and one 
whose accurate knowledge of antiquities and records has for 
a long time past assisted our pursuits, and those of kindred 
bodies of more importance than ours — Mr. Henry Harrod, 
for some years one of our Honorary Secretaries. His loss, in 
the prime of middle Ufe, will be not less felt among those 
with whom he was latterly associated in London, than with 

The Committee who retire in rotation this year are "W. T. 
Bensly, Esq., Rev. J. Bulwer, Rev. J. Gxmn, Rev. R. Hart, 
Rev. H. J. Lee- Warner, and the Hon. F. Walpole, who are 
eligible for re- election. 


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Honorary Secretary, 

The Parish of Wickhampton is situated in the Hundred of 
Walsham, and Deanery of Blofield. The Church is about 
two miles from the Eeedham station, and stands at the ex- 
tremity of the slightly elevated land, looking over a large 
tract of marsheS) towards Yarmouth. It is a building of 
moderate size, consisting of chancel^ nave, tower, and south 
porch, and of mixed styles— the chancel being chiefly Early 
English, the nave good Early Decorated, and the tower 
Perpendicular. The east window of the chancel is now a 
Perpendicular one of three lights, but it has supplanted an 
earlier 'one, apparently of five lancets, traces of the two 
outermost lancets remaining, both on the inside and outside 
of the wall. On the south side of the chancel is an Early 
English window of two lights, the sill forming graduated 
sedilia; a lancet window, and a blocked doorway of the 
same Early English date. There is also a low-side window, 
square-headed, arched internally. The piscina is a plain 
recess with a small niche over it. On the north side of the 
chancel is one lancet window towards the east end, and the 
rest of the wall is occupied by two extremely fine canopied 
monuments, which give the chief interest to the church, and 
which I will describe presently. The chancel stiQ retains 
[vol. ^^I.] B 


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some curious old returned stalls, rather debased in style, and 
partly of deal. They are probably of the time of James I., 
and have poppyheads somewhat rudely carved with a cross 
between i^'r^Ies and stirf^/; An inscription in raised letters on 
the front part of tlj^, stalls appears to be "John Wysman," 
three tiisiL4'itepeated*J :T6eT6 is "an altar stone of small di- 
mensions, 3 ft. 9 in. by 2 ft. 8 in., with four crosses on it, 
upon the floor. The roof is coved and ceiled. 

The chancel arch is Perpendicular. At about 18 inches 
below the capitals are brackets in the form of heads, one on 
each side, probably to support a rood-beam. The screen is Late 
Perpendicular, and plain. The lower panels are pierced with 
two foliated circles. The two windows on the south side of 
the nave are very good Early Decorated ones, with rich 
mouldings, and are divided by buttresses. The south door- 
way is of the same date ; its arch is supported by corbel 
heads, and there is some fine iron-\Cork, of contemporary date, 
on the door. The north side of the nave has two plain 
Early Decorated windows, and a doorway. The wall appears 
to have had mural paintings, of which slight traces are dis- 
cernible.^ Several sculptured brackets remain, at different 
levels, on each side of the nave, near the chancel arch, and 
as high as the spring of it. The roof is a plain open one, 
thatched, and in a bad condition. The font is plain Early 
Decorated. There is a lofty beKry arch, with flowers on the 
mouldings, supported on corbels of grotesque heads, one 
stretching its mouth, the other lolling out the tongue. The 
tower has its buttresses and battlements panelled. The west 
window is of three lights, and there is a doorway below it. 
The door here has a closing ring of the same early date as 
that on the south door. The sound-holes in the next stage 
above are fiUed with tracery. The porch is Late Perpen- 
dicular. On the apex of the gable is an interesting and rare 

1 The Hey. G. Gillett informs me that among the subjects represented were 
three kings with as many skeletons, a greyhound in a leash, and a hare. 


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piece of sculpture — a small rood in stone. The crucifix is 
supported by the figures of St. Mary and St. John, the whole 
standing on a Calvary, on steps. The back of the stone- 
work is rounded, and it is probable that it was not originally 
intended for its present situation, but stood in a niche. 

It appears, therefore, judging from architectural evidence 
alone, that this church was originally a plain Early English 
one, with lancet or two-Ught windows ; and that the south 
side of the nave was rebuilt towards the close of the thir- 
teenth century, very probably by the lord of the manor and 
patron, whose fine monument occupies the place of a founder's 
or benefactor's tomb on the north side of the chancel. The 
lordship of this place, Blomefield tells us, *' was granted to 
the Bigots, Earls of Norfolk, and was held of them by the 
ancient family of De Gerbridge,"^ Jerbridge, or Gerberge, as 
it is variously spelt. " They took their name," he also says, 
"from the bridge at Yarmouth over the Yar, or Ger, and 
Jer," a derivation which is not supported by Yarmouth an- 
tiquaries of the present day. Mr. C. J. Palmer, who has 
obligingly furnished me with some notes on this family, as 
connected with Yarmouth, observes that no bridge was built 
there till 1417, and it is more probable, he thinks, that the 
termination meant burgh, as the more ancient spelling is 
berge; and brtgge or brig has the same signification to this 
day in the north of England. The family of Gerbridge 
flourished in this locality as early as the reign of King John. 
" William de Jerbridge was living in the 24th of Henry III., 
and purchased 148. rent in Yarmouth of Isabel de Castre, 
by fine.' Manship, on the authority of Speed, says, that 
the Monastery of the Grey Friars at Yarmouth was founded 
" by Sir William Gerbrigge, who, also, I find to be one of 
the incorporation, whose commendation we ought not to 
overpass, but to stir up our minds to maintain his memory 

3 Blomefield's Norfolk, zi. 135. 
' Blomefield, ibid. 
B 2 


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to all posterity hereafter, for, as it is said, good men ought 
to be remembered, especially they whose memory is godly 
and profitable."* This Sir "William Gerbrigge was Baili£P 
of Yarmouth in 1271 and 1272.^ John Gerberge, another 
of this family, was Bailiff of Yarmouth in 1282 and 1292. 
In 1284, he caused some men of Ostend to be arrested, " for 
default of justice in those parts," according to the retaliatory 
system of justice pursued in those times.^ 

In 1275, William Gerberge, the elder, and William Ger- 
berge, the younger, are named in a roll which sets forth 
that it was then the usage not to take customs of any vessel 
which lay so near the land of Lothingland that the bailiff 
of that part could touch it with a rod of an ell and a-half in 
length from the dry land. Sir William Gerberge was possessed 
of a moiety of the lastage*^ at Yarmouth, which he held of 
Henry de Hanville, of Dunton, who held the same imme- 
diately of the Crown in grand serjeancy, by the service of 
keeping a ger falcon for the king. He was also a benefactor 
to the Hospital of St. Mary the Virgin at Yarmouth,® for by 
his will he gave to it an annual rent for the maintenance of 
two priests. 

* Mansbip, i. p. 29. 

B Yarmouth was then, and for some time afterwarda, governed hj four BailiflEs, 
elected annually ; aubsequently by two Bailiflb ; and lastly, as at present, by a 

^ When Edwaid I. was in Flanders, some Zealanders carried off a ship be- 
longing to a servant of the king, who thereupon sent a writ to the Bailifis of 
Yarmouth to demand satisfisu^tion. The Bailiffs immediately arrested twelve 
unfortunate Zealanders who happened to be attending Yarmouth fair, and sent 
them to prison ; but these men pleaded that they did not belong to the district 
where the robbery was committed, and so escaped. — Palmer's Continuation of 
Manship, ii. p. 60. The practice of resorting to reprisals for redress lasted long 
in Germany. See Webbtsr's Gleanings from German Archives, 

"f A castomary payment levied on vessels frequenting the port. — Palmer's 
Manshipf ii. p. 7. 

s Some remains of this hospital existed until about the year 1835, when they 
were entirely removed by the Charity Trustees, and the ** Children's Hospital 
School " was erected on the site. 


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Sir William Gerberge, his son, who was many times Bailiff 
of Yarmouth, was warden or principal of this hospital. He 
was possessed of a moiety of the lastage, which he gave to 
Edmund Gerberge his son.^ 

William de Coston and dementia his wife, as trustees, 
settled on Sir William de Gerberge, of Wickhampton, and 
Joan his wife, seven messuages, a mill, two carucates of land, 

of meadow, 300 of marsh, with 60*. rent in this town, 

Tunstal, Halvergate, Moulton, &c., with the advowson of 
Wickhampton Church, for their lives and in tail.^ " In the 
20th of Edward III., Sir Edward Gerbridge was found to hold 
the third part of a fee." '^Balph Gerbridge and Alianore 
his wife settled it on themselves and in tail, by fine, levied in 
the 40th of Edward III."» Perhaps the above Edward is the 
same as Edmimd, son of Sir William, who was one of the 
customers, or farmers of the king's customs at Yarmouth. 
He served the office of bailiff in 1325, 1341, 1342, and 1348. 
He, with Katharine lus wife, in 1344, sold the lastage of 
Yarmouth, which he had of his father, to Thomas de Drayton. 

Eleanor, widow of Sir WilUam Gerberge, Knt., by her 
will, made in 1386, desired to be buried in the church of the 
Augustine Friars at Gorleston. 

" In 1397, Edward Gerbrygge was Lord of Wickhampton, 
and presented to the Church. This Edward left by Cecilia 
his wife, a daughter and sole heir, Elizabeth, a minor,'' who 
became the wife, as Blomefield supposes, of John Bray, who 
held the manor in the 13th of Henry VI.' 

Of the monuments, Blomefield merely says that they are 

• <• In 1297, Walter Gerberge was Lord of South Erpingham, and then Uved 
at Wickhampton, aa alao in 1315 ; in 1345, Edward Gerberge, hia son, had it, 
and he it was that conyeyed it to the Erpinghams." — Blomefield, vi. 420. 

1 Blomefield, xi. 135. In the 9th of Edward II. } There is a confusion here 
in Blomefield's typography. 

3 Blomefield, ibid. 

> Blomefield, ibid. 


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the effigies of Sir William Gerbrygge and hia wife, " with 
his shield of arms obscure by length of time/' The bearings 
are very plain now, and the monuments in a fair state of 
preservation. They are excellent examples of the monu- 
mental architecture of the reign of Edward I., and deserve 
to be classed among the best in the county. From the 
somewhat retired situation of the parish, it is possible that 
few of our members have ever visited them. Cotman, who 
neglected no relic of interest, has engraved them, and the 
effigies separately, in the second volimie of lus Miscellaneous 
Etchings^ but the architectural details are not very correctly 
given. There are two low altar-tombs on which are the 
separate recumbent effigies, and above them rise two large 
canopied arches, connected together by a pinnacled shaft, 
reaching to the roof of the chancel. The westernmost arch 
contains the effigy of the knight. He is clad in a hauberk 
of chain mail, but the rings are not represented by sculpture, 
and therefore they were probably expressed in painting. 
Over his hauberk he wears a loose surcoat, with a girdle 
roimd the waist, over which the surcoat hangs in folds. It 
is open at the bottom, and shows two imder garments, one in 
folds. He wears a round helmet on his head with a narrow 
circlet roimd it, and rests on a double cushion, punctured 
with dots. His hands are bare and raised, and hold a heart. 
His sword hangs on a loose belt, in an ornamented scabbard, 
and his shield, sculptured with his armorial bearings, is 
slung on his left arm. Blomefield gives the arms of the 
Gerbridge family from some painted glass then in the 
windows, as, Ermine, on a chief 5 lozenges of the first, i.e., 
ermine, but the lozenges on this shield are clearly vair. The 
knee-caps, which, as well as other smaller details, are quite 
omitted in Cotman's etching, are in the form of flowers, and 
circular in shape. He has pointed shoes and prick spurs. 
His feet rest on a lion. On the whole, the costume accords 
precisely with the military dress of the last years of the reign 


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of Edward I., or about 1300. The low tomb on which the 
effigy lies is ornamented with a row of seven shields^ bearing 
the arms of families no doubt more or less nearly connected 
with that of Gerbridge. They are as follows : — 

1. A cross moline. Bee ? 

2. Chequy, a fess ermine (Cotman gives it as 3 escallops 
on the fesse). Calthorpe ? 

3. A bend between 6 crosses crosslet^ fitch^e. Howard. 

4. Gyronny of eight. Bassingbaurne ? 

5. A maunch. Hastings, Toni, or Conyers ? 

6. A saltire engrailed. Kerdeston ? 

7. 3 bars within a bordure. Moulton. 

The canopy above the figure is a lofty triangle richly 
crocketed, enclosing an elUptic arch, seven-foiled, double 
feathered, the cusps being fleurs-de-lis, supported on low 
shafts, with floriated capitals. One of these shafts rises from 
a moulded base, the other from a corbel carved as the figure 
of a demon. The spandril within the great triangle has 
lost its tracery.* Near the apex of the triangle, one of the 
crockets on each side is carved as a bunch of acorns. The 
finial is gone. 

The other effigy rests imder a similar canopy, except that 
the central circle is more perfect, having six foliations ; it 
held some ornament, now lost, projecting into each cusp. 
The upper angle contains the device of a sun. The cusps 
of the lower arch are moulded circles instead of fleurs-de-lis. 
Among the crockets are the bimches of acorns as in the first 
tomb. The figure is that of a lady in the dress of a widow, 
and from the whole composition being that of a double tomb 
of the same character and details, there can be no doubt that 
they are of one date, and probably the lady is the wife of the 
knight. She wears a close-fitting under-garment only visible 

« Cotman'8 sketch ahowB a central circle, with three amaU foliated ones in the 
angles. There are now two iron pegs in the middle, which probably supported 
an aehieyment, or some heraldic or religious emblem. 


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at the arms^ and an upper one of the same plain character, 
without sleeves. Her hair appears in braids on each side 
of the face, covered by a widely-extended veil, and round the 
crown is a similar circlet to that on the knight's head, which 
is entirely invisible in Gotman's sketch. The wimple is 
worn round the face, and the barbe, the sign of widowhood, 
on the neck. Her hands are joined in prayer, and her feet 
rest on a dog. The plinth on which the effigy lies has also 
a series of shields, but only six in number, they are — 

1. A fess between 6 crosses flory (or 6 crosses crosslet). 
Beauchamp ? 

2. Ermine, on a chief 5 lozenges vair, for Gerbridge, as 
on the knight's shield. 

3. A plain cross. Norwich Priory ? 

4. Gerbridge as before. 

6. A bend fusily. Tavemer ? 

6. 3 roses (cinquefoils P) Bardolf. 

Of the two shafts which support the internal arch to this 
canopy, the capitals are, on one side, vine leaves and grapes, 
beautifully designed ; and on the other, which is somewhat 
broken, apparently two dragons, one with the head in the 
other's mouth. 

As to the persons to whom these interesting monuments 
shoidd be ascribed, there can be no doubt, from the bearings 
on the shield which the male effigy carries on his arm, 
that they are of the Gerbridge family, and probably they 
represent Sir William de Gerbridge, the elder, the same who 
was Bailiff of Yarmouth in 1272, and his wife. 

The church and its monuments will be found well worthy 
of a visit from any of our members, and I trust the parish 
authorities will continue to preserve these fine remains with 
the care they so well deserve. 


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%n %mmi f 0tli in ftorfeic^ Ca%kal. 

00]afl7NICA,TSD BT 


Ths following note^ and the accompanying illustration 
from a drawing by the Rev. G. W. W. Minns, may throw 
light upon a point connected with the architectural history 
of the Cathedral, concerning which some misapprehension 
has existed. On the western side of the door opening from 
the south transept into the chancel aisle is an ornamental 
lock-plate of wrought iron, containing the initials, R. C, 
connected by a knot, and below them the letters, P. N. The 
engraving, showing this plate and the reverse side of the 
lock, will save further description; but there is a peculi- 
arity in the construction which may be observed. The key- 
holes are not opposite each other, the bolt being furnished 
with two catches. The present fastenings are modem, and 
the lock could easily be taken off from the inside, but origi- 
nally iron bands passed through square holes, shown in the 
engraving, on each side of the keyhole, and were secured 
on the outside. 

Britton, in his Norwich Cathedral, gives a plate of the 
doorway and screen above, and remarks that, from the initials 
on the lock, "it is generally supposed that the whole was 
erected by the last Prior and first Dean, William Castleton." 
He however rightly observes, that, ''although P. N. may 


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stand for Prior of Norwich, it is not so easy to make R. C. 
stand for William Castleton." 

The editor of Murray's " Hand-book " to the Cathedral 
draws attention to this ironwork, and arbitrarily assigns the 
screen to Prior Robert Castleton. The Christian name of 
Castleton was certainly William, but the prior immediately 
preceding him, Robert Bronde, adopting the name of his 
birth-place, as was usual with ecclesiastics of the period, 
was called Robert Catton. In the printed lists he occurs 
as Robert Bronde, but when mentioned in documents he is 
called Catton.^ To the period of his priorate, 1504 — ^29, 
the erection of this screen may therefore reasonably be 

The present notice serves to add an item to the slender 
stock of information on record concerning Prior Catton. In 
1519, he obtained a bull from Pope Leo X., and license from 
Bishop Nix, his diocesan, to assume the mitre, pastoral staff, 
and other pontificals:' an unusual privilege, and one not 
known to have been granted to any other prior of Norwich. 

In the east window of the chancel of Catton church, glazed 
by Prior Bronde, he placed lus own effigy, holding a mitre 
in lus hands, and supporting his pastoral staff on his shoulder, 
with these arms : — ** Gul. an Ounce or Cat of Mountain 
Arg., spotted Sab., between 3 Annulets Arg. on a Chief Or, 
3 Cinquefoils pierced Sab., and on the Chief a pale Ai, 
on which a Mitre Or."^ Blomefield supposes the mitre on 
the pale to refer to the arms of the See ; but the mitre is 
more likely an augmentation adopted in consequence of the 
privilege granted by Leo X. and mentioned above. 

» "Compoua dni Roberti Catton, Prions," &c. : 1504. 6, 11, 17, 22, 25, &c. 

' The following item occun in Comp. £friB. Hen. Langrake, 1516 : " In sens, 
dauibufl, et aliis feiromentiB ad noua ostia juzta yestiarium." If this entry 
refer, aa it may, to the ironwork of this door, the date of the screen would be 
prior to 1516. 

3 Reg. 1, Eoolea. Cath. N. f. 91. 

^ Blomefield, vol. ii. p. 435, fo. edit 


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'^amm Corns antr ^nliqmtiies, 






The Roman Camp at Caistor next Yarmouth was probably 
situated on the top of the hill at the north-west side of the 
church, which is the highest ground in the neighbourhood, 
and was therefore selected for the site of the Service Reser- 
voir of the Gbeat Yarmouth Waterworks. There are not 
any remains of either masonry or earthworks, and if it were 
not for the name, the former existence of a camp would not 
be suspected. 

When the ground was excavated to form the reservoir, in 
1856, great quantities of broken pottery were found — some of 
the common earth, and some of Samian ware — ^but no speci- 
mens in a perfect state; a small bronze head, apparently 
that of a Faim, very similar in size and general appearance 
to the head supposed to be that of Geta, discovered at Caister 
next Norwich, and now in the cabinet of R. Fitch, Esq. ; ^ 
a bronze pin, and numerous coins, chiefly Third Brass. 

' Figured in the Norfolk Arehaology^ yol. iv., p. 232. 


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From the quantity of oyster-sliells and bones found mixed 
with the broken pottery^ the spot would seem to have been 
a rubbish-hole for the camp. 

Homan remains are known to have been found in this 
neighbourhood for a long period. Sir Thomas Browne^ in 
his Sf/driotaphia, written in 1658^ observes that the most 
frequent discovery of urns and coins in Norfolk ^'is made 
at the two Castors by Norwich and Yarmouth, at Burgh 
Castle, and Brancaster/' 

In a field at the north-west of the church, and near the 
side of the Norwich road, a bricked pit, eleven feet long, 
seven feet wide, and about four feet in depth, was discovered 
in 1837 : it contained bones of the ox and pig, mixed with 
fragments of Roman pottery and oyster-shells. This was 
fully described by the Rev. Thomas Clowes in the Gentleman* 8 
Magazine, vol. viii., New Series, p. 518. In 1851, a Roman 
kiln, containing two mutilated urns, was also brought to 
light in this locality.' 

Many skeletons have been found in the field in which the 
pit was discovered, and also in one south of the church, called 
East Bloody Burgh Furlong. 

The Rev. John Gunn also has in his possession a perfect 
urn, which was foimd in a cJay-pit near the church ; it was 
buried about two feet below the surface, the mouth covered 
with a tile, and it contained bones and earth ; he also has a 
fragment of Samian ware with figures representing the 
hxmting of the hare. 

Coins are very frequently turned up by the plough in the 
fields in the vicinity of the reservoir, and having collected all 
that could be obtained from the labourers in the neighbour- 
hood, I gave them to the late Mr. Taylor, who examined and 
described them, and also all those in two or three private 
collections. He prepared the following list, intending to offer 

' Norfolk Archaology^ iv., 362. 


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it to our Society for publication, but omitted to do so ; and 
after Us untimely death, thinking it would form an in- 
teresting companion list to those of the coins found at Caister 
near Norwich, (published in vol. iv., p. 234, and vol. v., 
p. 203, of the Norfolk ArehcBology) I procured it from his 
family, and now bring it before the Society, that his intention 
may be carried out. 

The date of the coins identified and described extend over 
a period of two hundred and sixty-five years, viz., from about 
A.D. 80 to A.D. 370. Mr. Taylor observed that, "There are 
also numberless small brass coins, probably Eomano-British, 
found in this as in other Koman stations in England. They 
are frequently very minute, and are extremely barbarous 
imitations of the coins of the Lower Empire. The greater 
part attempt to depict a head with radiated crown, and a 
very clumsy imitation of a Roman reverse. There is scarcely 
any legend, — a letter or two only perhaps, and those scarcely 
recognisable. They were probably struck in the interval 
between the Roman evacuation and the Saxon invasion. 
The earlier £entish Sceattas of the latter people are often 
equally rude attempts at the Roman ty{)e.'' 

1. Antoninus Pius, AB. ANTONnrvB. ato. pits. p. p. tr. p. zn. Severte : 

COS. mi. Figure standing, heaping ears of com in a modius ; a plough 
in her left hand. 
(Also an illegible coin of Ant. Pius in Middle Brass.) 

2. Marcus AuieUus, iE. i. m. aktonints. avo. tb. p. xxy. lUverae : ncp. 

Ti. eos. ni. A Victory, elate, supporting a shield on a fir tree. On the 
ihieJd: tig. obb. 

This coin commemorates the yictory over the Marcomanni in his third 
consulship. — Cooke's MedaUU Eiitory of Imperial Rome, 

3. Lucius Yerus, iB. i. L. atsbl. tbrys. ayo. ARimnAo. Reveree : cos. ni. 

Figure standing ; a balance in right hand, a comuoopis in left. 

4. Gommodus, JE. i. m. ooicmodtb. antoninys. ayo. piys. Reveree: ann. 

AYO. TB. p. Yin. COS. iiH. P. P. A female figure holding a Victory 


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with laurel branch in her right hand ; a comucopiaa in her left. At her 
aide ia a yaae filled with ears of com ; on her left, a portbn of a ship, in 
which are three infants. 

Cooke describes a similar reverse thus : The emperor, with a cornu- 
copias in his left hand, and the figure of Ceres in his right ; at his feet is 
a measure of wheat, and behind him, a ship with rowers. Legend : ann. 
Avo. TR. p. vni. ncp. ti. gos. . . . Commemorating the establishment 
of a fleet by which regular supplies of corn were imported into Africa 
from Rome. 

5. Septimus Sererus, AR. beybb .... bt. max. Reverte: yi&tvs. atoo. 

Valour armed ; a Victory in his right hand, a lance in left, leaning on 
a shield. 

6. Caracalla, AR. antonints. pitb. ayg. Reverie-, part. max. pont. tr. 

p. mi. The Parthian Trophy, with two captiyes. 

7. Elagabalus, AR. imp. antonints. pits. ato. Reveree : stmmts. sacbk- 

DOB. AVO. The Emperor sacrificing as Priest of the Sun, which appears 
oyer head ; Patera in his right hand, laurel branch in his left. 

The Phoenician name of the Sun is /I33 /tt £1 Gabal, Deus Creator; 
hence Elagabalus. Cooke, 

8. Julia Paula, AR. iylia. payla. ayo. Reverse : goncx>bdia. The Em- 

press, sitting : in her right hand a patera ; below, a star, or perhaps the 
sun. This coin is said to commemorate her marriage with Elagabalus. 

9. Seyerua Alexander, AR. imp. c. m. ayb. asy. Alexander, ayg. Reverse : 

p. M. TR. p. ini. eos. II. p. p. A soldier : a spear in his right hand, 
a shield in his left. 

10. Julia Mamea, AR. iylia. mamaea. ayo. Reverse : itno. gonseryatrix. 

The goddess standing : a patera in her right hand, a lance in her left, her 
peacock at her feet. 

11. Gordian III., AR. imp. c. gordianyb. piyb. pel. ayg. Reverse: lae- 

TiTiA. AYG. N. Figure of Joy : a garland in her right hand ; in her left, 
an anchor (or perhaps the hasta pura). 

12. Valerian, AR. imp. e. p. lio. yalbrianyb. ayg. Head of Valerian, with 

radiated crown. Reverse: pideb. militym. A female figure with a 
standard in either hand : probably those of the 30th and 6th legions, 
XJIpia and Pia Fidelis, which were particularly attached to Valerian. 

13. Oallicnus, JB. iii. oallienys. ayg. Reverse: laetitia. ayg. Much re- 

sembling No. 11. 

14. — GALLiBNYB. AYG. Reverse : libero. p. gonb. ayg. 

A panther. 
16. — OALLiENYB. AYG. Reverse: dianae. cons. ayg. A 

16. — IMP. oaluenyb. ayg. Reverse: loyi. cons. ayg. A 



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17. GaUienoB, ^. iii. oallibnts. ato. Reverse: fostvna. bbdyx. Female 

standing : a ship's rudder in her right, a comucopisd 
in her left hand. 

18. — OALLiENYS. AYO. Reveree : abyndantia. avg. Plenty 

pouring riches from a comucopise. In the field : on 
the left, 8. 

19. — OALLIENYS. AYO. Reverse: mabtt. pagifebo. Mars 

holding aloft an olive branch, and touching a spear 
and shield with his left hand. 

20. — OALLIBNYS. AYO. Reverse : afoluni. cons. ayo. 

The flying gryphon. 

21. — OALLIENYS. AYO. Reverse : dianab. cons. ayo. A 


22. — OALLIBNYS. AYO. Reverse : A consecration type. An 

eagle displayed. 

23. Gallienus, AR. (base), oallienys. p. p. ayo. Armed bust of the Em- 

peror : a lance on his right shoulder, a shield in his left hand. Reverse : 
OBBMANicus. MAXY. A trophy between two captiYCS sitting, their hands 
bound behind their backs. 

This coin is by no means of usual occurrence. The title of Germanicus 
Mazimus was given to Gallienus when, having been appointed his father's 
colleague, he was sent into Gaul to repel the attacks of the Germans. 
These he thoroughly Yanqnished. Gruter giYcs an inscription in which 
he is called Bacicus and Geimanicus Mazimus, p. 276. 

24. Salonina, M, iii. salonina. ayo. Reverse : pydigitia. A female figure 

veiling her face with her right hand, a spear held horizontally in the 

25. Postumus, AR. imp. c. postymys. p. p. ayo. Reverse: ioyi. pbopyo- 

NATOBi. Jupiter, hurling lightning with his right hand, and holding his 
eagle with left. 

26. Postumus (jun?) iE. iij. imp. g. postymys. p. p. ayo. Rev, : yictobia. 

AYO. Victory : in her right hand a crown, in her left a palm, her right 
foot on a sitting captive. 

27. Yictorinus, M. iij. SeYcral types, barbaric and illegible. 

28. — M. iij. IMP. e. yigtobinys. p. p. ayo. Reverse : oiG . . . 

This coin, especially on the reversey which bears a rude figure blowing 
a trumpet, is of the rudest fabric, and is probably of barbarian work- 
manship. Bandini gives several examples of similarly inexplicable 

29. Tetricus, M, iij. imp. o. tetbicyb. p. p. ayo. Reverse : pax. atto. 

Peace, with olive branch and spear. 
Several varieties, all rude. 


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80. Tetricus, JE. iij. ncp. e. tbtrictb. p. r. ato. Rev,: fisbs. muTyx. 
Type as Valeruui. 
Seyeral examples of thia type, and others, illegible. 

31. — M. iij. IMP. TETBIGYS. P. F. ATO. Reverte : lABrmA. ato. n. 

Type as No. 12. 

32. Tetricus, jun., M, iij. c. pb. tbtrictb. cabs. Reverse ; pibtas. atgo. 

The sacrificial instmments. 
38. — ^. iij. PITB8T. TBTRiGTs. CABS. Retefse : obliterated. 

fGo^^is V I '*'' "-J* "'^" ®' ^^'^^^^'^ ^^^' Reverse : mabs. tltor. 
Mars, nude, helmeted, with spear and shield. 
36. — JE. iij. IMP. clatdits. ato. Reverse : obnits. ato. 

A nude figure, with the modius on his head, 
standing by an altar and holding a patera. 

36. — M, iij. IMP. 0. clatdits. ato. Reverse : jbqjitas. ato. 

Equity, standing, with balance in her right and 
oomucopisB in her left hand. 

37. — iB. iij. IMP. C. CLATDITS. ATO. ReveTSS : FfDBS. BXBRC. 

A figure, standing, a standard erect in her 
right, another held transTersely in her left 

38. — -3S. iij. IMP. CLATDH-s. ATO. Reverse : fblioitas. ato. 

A figure standing, a caducous in her right, 
comucopisB in left hand. 

39. — M, iij. IMP. GLATDnrs. ato. Reverse : forttna. bbdtx. 

Type as No. 17. 

40. »- M, iij. DiTO. CLATDio. Reverse : combeoratio. A 

blazing altar. 

41. — JE. iij. Dnro. clatdio. Reverse : gonbbgratio. An 

eagle displayed. 

42. — M. iij. A similar type, but the eagle holds a thunderbolt 

43. Aurelian, M, iij. imp. atrbliants. ato. Reverse : dacia. fblix. A female 

figure holding a staff surmounted by an ass's head. 

44. Diocletian, JE. ii. imp. c. dioglbtiants. p. f. ato. Reverse: oehio. 

poptli. romani. Type resembling No. 36. 

45. Galerius Mazimianus, JE. ii. maximiants. nobil. g. Reverse: resem- 

bling preceding, on one side s., on the other f. Exergue: i. tr. 
i. e., Mint No. 1 of the TreTiri (TreTes.) 

46. Garausius, .£. iij. imp. c. CAiiATsnrB. p. f. ato. Reverse: pax. ato. 

Type as No. 29, lance held transTersely. Exergue: m. l. 
(Moneta Londinensis.) 

47. — iB. iij. A similar type, but the figure leans on the lance. No 

letters in exergue. 


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48. Garauaiusy u£. iij. imp. cabaybits. p. ato. Reverse : laetitia ayo. 

Type as No. 11. 

49. — M, iij. Carausius [Valerian, Tacitus, or Florianua]. Reverse : 

PBOYiD. ATO. A female figure, a small staff lield transyersely 
in right hand, comuoopie in left. In the Jield : s. c. (See 
60. Allectos, JE, iij. imp. c. allegtys. p. p. ayq. Reverse : pax. ayo. ^' ^' 

51. — ^. iij. IMP. 0. AXLECTYS. p. P. AYO. Reverss : yirtys ayq. A 

ship, with the pilot at the stem and five rowers : it has mast and 
stay^ but no sailyard. Ex, : qg. 

52. Gonstantius I, M. ii. constantiys. nob. c. Reverse : oenio popyli 

(Ghlorus) BOMANi. T3rpe resembling Nos. 85, 44, and 45. 

53. — M. iL A similar type, but in the Jield b. t. Exergue : tb. 

54. Theodora, iB. iij. pl. max. theoooba. ayo. Reverse : pdbtas. bomana. 

The Empress standing, an infieuit in her arms. Exergue : tb. p. 

55. Gonstantine I. M, ii. pl. yal. constantinys. nob. c. Reverse: resembling 

(Magnus) those of Diocletian, Mazlmian, and Gonstantius Ghlorus. 


PBINC. PBBP. Two Yictories holding a shield, on which is 
inscribed yot. pb. OYer a cylindrical altar. Ex. : p. tb. 

57. — iE. uj. CON8TANTINY8. MAX. AYO. Reverse : two soldiers, 

with lances and shields, hold each a labarum. Exergue : 

TB. B. 

58. — iE. iij. OONSTANTINYS. AYO. Reverse : sabmatia. dbyicta. 

Victory walking, a trophy in her right hand, and a palm 
branch in her left; with her left foot she tramples on a 
captiYe. Exergue : p. lon. 

59. — ^. iij. IMP. OONSTANTINYS. AYO. Reverse : soli, inyigto. 

eoMiTi. The Sun as a male figure, his right hand extended, 
lus left holding a globe. In the field': a. s. Ex, : p. l. o. 

60. — ^. iij. As preceding ; a star to the right. Exergue : p. l. n. 

61. — ^. iij. IMP. OONSTANTINYS. P. P. AYO. Reverss : as pre- 

ceding. In the field: t. p. Exergue: p. l. o. 

62. — -SI. iij. OONSTANTINYS. P. P. AYO. Reverse : similar. 

Exergue : p. tb. 

63. — .S). iij. Dcp. OONSTANTINYS. AYO. Bust of Goustantino in 

armour and crested helm, a spear on his right shoulder. 

Reverse : , similar to No. 56, but the altar is square ; 

on its front, a cross on a laurel garland. Exergue : p. l. n. 

64. Grispns, M, iij. iyl. gbispys. nob. o. The Gssar with laureated head, 

mailed, a dart in his right, a shield in his left hand. Reverse : 
bbata. TBANQYiLLiTAS. A squsro altar : on its front is inscribed 
YOTiB. XX ; aboYe it, a globe and three stars. Exwgue .- s. tb. 
[vol. VII.] C 


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65. Crispiis, ^. ii|. crispys. nob. caes. Rcverte: yibtvs. bxbrcit. Between 

two sitting captiree a labarum, on which is tot. xx. Exergue: p. l. it. 

66. DelmatiuB, M. iij. fl. dblkattys. nob. c. Reverte : olobia. BXSBcnrs. 

Two soldiers with spears and shields holding standards, hetweeu which is 
an oliye hranch. Exergue : p. const. 

67. Constantinople, M. iij. The small coin struck on the occasion of the 

building of Constantinople ; of these there was a great yariety. 

CONBTANTINOPOLT8. A youthful hcad helmed and laureated, mailed, 
and holding a sceptre. lUverse : no legend. A Victory, with right foot 
on the prow of a ship, armed with spear and shield. Exeryue : tb. p. 
Others with p. l. c. and a star, tb. s., &c. 

68. The City of Rome, JR. iij. A similar one for the ancient capital. 

YRBS. ROMA. Head similar to the last. Reverte: Romulus and 
Remus suckled by a wolf, aboye two stars. Exergue: same yarieties 
as preceding. Both are exceedingly common. 

69. Constantine II., ^. iij. constantixts. rm. nob. c. Reverse: olobia. 

BXBRCiTys. Type as Delmatius, but without oliye branch. 
Exergue : p. l. c. 

70. — .£. iij. As preceding, but a labarum between the soldiers 

on which is the sacred monogram of Christ. 

71. — .^. iij. ooKSTANTiNys. IVN. N. c. Reverte : similar to 

that of Crispus, No. 64, but with a single star. Ex- 
ergue: p. LON. 

72. Constans, JR. iij. constans. p. f. ayq. Reverte : yictorls. d. d. Ayoo. 

Q. NN. Two Victories, stepping, hold garlands, a palm branch in the 
left hand of each. In the field : d. Exergue : tb. p. 

Other yarieties of this type from Caistor haye in the field : p. r. 
Exergue : p. lc. A kind of plant between the VictorieB, and tr. s. in 
the Exergue, Or the letter c. in the field; and Exergue, s. arl. (i. e. 
signata Arelate. Aries.) This type howeyer is generally rare. 

73. Constantius II., JR. iij. coxsTANTiys. p. f. Ayo. Head of Constantins 

with a diadem of gems. Reverte : olobia. exbrctits. 
Type as No. 70, but on the labarum i. Exergue : tr. p. 
and a star. Another has m. Exergue : idem. 

74. — M. iij. coNSTANnys. p. f. Ayo. Reverte : fbl. tbmp. 

rbparatio. The Emperor in armour is striking an 
enemy from his horse with a spear ; a shield is on his 
left arm and broken weapons at his feet. An exceedingly 
common type. 

75. MagnentiuB, JE. ii. d. n. MAONXNTnrs. p. f. ayo. Reverte : yiGTORiAB. 

DD. NN. Ayo. ET. CABS. Two Victorics hold a garland, in 
which is yoT. y. ittlt. x., with the saci'ed monogram aboye. 
Exergue : amb. and a palm branch. 


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76. MagnentiuB, iE. iij. d. n. icaonbmtiys. f. f. ayg. Reverse: fsligitas. 

BBiFYBLiCB fnej, Tho Emperor, holding in his right hand 
a Victory, standing on a globe ; with his left he leans on the 
labarum, on which is the sacred monogram. 

77. Magnus Maximus (?) M. ii. Legend illegible. Portrait resembling 

Magnentius or Magnus Maximus. Reverse: fblicitas pyblica. The 
Emperor holding a Victory, which is in the act of crowning him. Banduri 
giyes this reyerse on a coin of Magnus Maximus from the Museum 
Mediobarb, which he calls '* nummus rarissimus." 

78. Valentinian I., M. iij. d. n. yalemtinianvs. f. f. ayo. Reverse : 

sBGYBiTAs FYBLiKA. Viciory Walking, a laurel crown in her right, a 
palm branch in her left hand. Exergue : b. fbima. 

79. Valens, M. ill. d. n. yalens. f. f. ayo. Reverse : sbcybitab. beifyblicab. 

Type resembling that of Valentinian. Exergue : t. oon. 

80. — ^. iij. As preceding. Exergue: s. gon. 

81. — -SI. iij. Ditto. But in <Afl/aW: OF. I. ^ar^ue : lyo. f. (Lyons.) 

82. — .Si. iij. As No. 79. Exergue : s. u. Aa. b. (Aquileia Mint, No. 2.) 

The coins of Valens and Gratian are numerous at Caistor. 

83. Gratian, M. iij. d. n. obatianys. f. f. ayg. Reverse: globia. bomanobyx. 

The Emperor with his right hand seizes the head of a kneeling 
captiye, whose hands are tied behind his back; with the other 
he holds the labarum with the sacred monogram. In the field : 
^^' and o. Another specimen has f. n. 

84. — M, ill. D. K. OBATIANYS. AYGO. AYG. Rsverse : OLOBIA. NOYX. 

babcyli. The Emperor holds a labarum, on which is the sacred 
monogram, and supports a shield with his left hand. In the field 
is N. Exergue: t. con. Another specimen wants the letter 
in the field. 

c 2 


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iturfulk Cl^urt]^ (Suubs, 




The origin and history of the conunissions and orders which 
directed inventories to be made of all church goods is so 
little known, that a few notes from one who has spent some 
time oyer the documents relating to them preserved at the 
Record Office, may prove of some interest. 

When, at the end of the reign of Henry VIII., the proceeds 
of the sale of the greater and more important stores of jewels, 
plate, vestments, &c., which had filled the suppressed monas- 
teries, were running low in his exchequer, he turned his 
attention to the less valuable contents of the parish churches, 
which had hitherto remained untouched ; and, as far as I 
can make out, commenced the system of obtaining written 
acknowledgments from the minister or churchwardens of 
each parish, as to what goods were in their custody. 

In April, 38th Henry VIII., indented inventories ^ of the 
goods of various chantries, and one guild in the city of Dur- 
ham, were taken. These are the earliest inventories I have 
been able to discover. By them the incumbents (in one 
instance the churchwardens) acknowledge to have received 
and taken the parcels of plate, goods, and ornaments therein- 
after mentioned, " the same surely to keep and preserve to 

^ Written across long slips of pardunent, which are indented down one side. 


ized by Google 


his majeBties use, and until his majesties pleasure in this 
behalf be further known." 

I can find no document relating to Norfolk dated in Henry's 
reign ; but a certificate of plate sold at Holme Hale is 
couched in such different language and form, and written 
in so entirely different a manner and shape to any of the 
dated certificates or inventories temp. Edward VI., that it 
may, I think, be referred to his father's reign. It runs thus — 

" Holme ff« Plate sold 

" In pmis, solde to M Why?, &c. on pax of silv gilt 

and oon chalec silv broken, wyyng together xxxvij unc & 
di viij^ viij' iiij** pc of the unc iiij* yj^ solde for the re- 
pacions of the churche & the churche wall, wheroff v* ij* is 
bestowed and the resadew rei2. Hijs testib} Thoma Deynes, 
Thoma Ward, Thoma Snow, Jacobo Vyncent, Ric Browne, 
W° Tuddenhm, et Rico Whyte. 

" Thomas Deynes and Thomas Warde, Churche 
Wardeyns, certyfie the premysses to be true."* 

The ordinary certificates of the reign of Edward VI. begin 
by giving the names of the parish and churchwardens, the 
amount of plate^ vestments,. beUs, &c., sold, and for what 
money ; and end by stating how that money has been ex- 
pended, and how much, if any, of it remains. 

The order, or instructions, in the reign of Edward VI., 
to make these certificates, must have been issued about the 

2 Since writing the above, my friend Mr. John L' Estrange informs me that 
this Holme Hale certificate is mentioned with others, which were certainly 
made in 1547, in an undated return to the Duke of Somerset, now in the 
Bishop's Begistry, Norwich. As this return, however, only purports to be a 
list of *' the certificate of everie churchwarden where anie such sale have bene 
made within the said diocese,'* I do not think this &ct entirely disproves my 
conjeoture, as such return would naturally include every certificate theretofore 
made, whether in the reign of Edward VI. or of his father. 


ized by Google 


autumn of the first year of his reign, for the earliest I 
can find is that of St. Margaret's, Norwich, which is dated 
2nd September, 1547. Next in date to that, are those of St. 
John Sepulchre, St. Martin's at Bere Street, and St. Bar- 
tholomew, all dated the 26th ; and St. Michael Coslany and 
St. Peter per Mountergate, the 27th October, 1647. These 
are printed (t. a.) by our President, Sir John P. Boileau, in 
voL vi., pp. 360 et. seq. of the Society's Papers. 

In addition to those printed by him, 23 in all, I have 
found the certificates of St. Martin's Coslany, (27th October, 
1547) St. Edmund, St. Swithin, St. Andrew, St. James, St. 
Symon and Jude, St. Laurence, St. Cross, and St. Botolf — 
aU of which, except the first, are bound up, out of their place, 
at the end of vol. iv. of Norfolk Church Goods Papers, in the 
Record OflBce. 

There can be no doubt whatever that aU these Norwich 
certificates were taken in 1547, and not in the 6th Edward VI., 

Besides these Norwich certificates, those of Horsham St. 
Faith's, 29th October; Aylesham, Sparham, Whitewell cum 
Hackforth, and Ingworth, Slst October ; Baconsthorpe and 
Geyst, 3rd November, 1547 ; Skemeng, 1st Edward VI. ; 
and Walpole (which, though undated, refers to the year 1645 
as being two years past), must have been taken imder the 
same authority. As the Aylsham and Baconsthorpe certi- 
ficates are intrinsically interesting, I have added them in 
the Appendix, Nos. 1 and 2, where they will serve as 
specimens of the dated certificates. 

The certificates above-mentioned are all that bear date, 
though a few others may have a kind of negative date 
attached to them, from their referring to former sales ; thus 
Wigenhale Petri mentions sales made in 1544; Wigenhale 
St. Mary, sales made in 35th Henry VIII. ; and Sharmyngton, 
(Sharington P) sales made in 1546. 

I may here, before taking leave of the certificates, say, that 


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the remainder are undated, and in several different hand- 
writings. As specimens, I subjoin three or four in the 
Appendix, Nos. 3, 4, 5, and 6, and I cannot help thinking 
that most of them are the Bishop's certificates, referred to in 
the final commission of 6th Edward YI., and I am confirmed 
in this opinion, by a few being headed in deaneries and not 
in hundreds.^ The majority were probably taken at the same 
time as those above-mentioned, October and November, 1547, 
and the remainder may have been taken as ancillary with 
the inventories of 6th Edward VI. Some dozen or so are 
signed " Anthony Stile," who was, I believe, a notary, con- 
nected in some way with the Bishops of Norwich. Almost 
all (inventories as well as certificates) have some name in 
the right hand bottom comer — e. g., " p me Simonem Balles 

The following memorandum, of the same date, (October, 
1547) is the only one of its kind I have seen, and would seem 
to prove that goods were removed under some commission, 
as early as 1st Edward VI. (vol. 500, No. 96, N, C. G.) 

Bettering) ** A Remembraunce of suche certen goods as wer 
Parva. j conveyed owte of the Churche of Lyttell 

Bytteryng, by George Heydon, esquyer, 
and his Deputf, uppon Twysday in the 
momyng before Symont & Jude anno 
primo Edward sexti, & divse other tymes 

ffyrst owte of the cliaimcell too candelstykf 

Itm oon payer of challys 

Itm iij vestments & a koope 

Itm ij ratchyts 

Itm a cloth hangyng uppon the lectorn 

' I hare since found the certificate of *• Folahm " (3 Nov. 1 Edw. VI.) which 
is directed to William, Bishop of Norwich. 


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Itm iij hangyngs of steyned clothes hanging 

before the aulters 
Itm ij clothes lyeng uppon the aulters 
Itm a cussyn of sylck 
Itm the sepulker w^ all necessaryes to that be- 

Itm too greate bells w^ the roopes and certen 

leade that lay abowte the bells 
Itm too hand bells 
Itm a stoppe of bell mettcll 
Itm a bybyll conveyed owte of the same churche 

by John Sephar gente was bowte by the 

pson, & other psons dwellying in the same 


On the last day of April, 1548, the Protector and Council 
sent a letter to the Archbishop, requiring him to strictly 
charge every parish church in his diocese, not to sell, give, 
or alienate any bells, or other ornaments or jewels belong- 
ing thereto, under pain of the King's highest displeasure. 
Nothing is said about taking any inventories. 

The next stir the Council made, seems to have been on the 
15th February, 1548-9, the beginning of the third year of 
Edward's reign, when they sent out a general letter, which 
I believe has never been printed. After reciting that a great 
many of his majesty's subjects, forgetting their bounden 
duty, had presumed, contrary to his Highnesses most dread 
commandments, to alien and sell as well the vestments, plate, 
jewels, and ornaments, as in many places the bells and lead 
also, of their churches and chapels, it directs that the com- 
missioners should meet, and haying divided the county into 
different parts, call before them the parson or vicar, or in 
his absence, the curate or churchwardens, and three or four 
of "the discreetest and most substantialest " men of the 
parish, and make a true inventory of all manner of vestments. 


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ornaments, plate, jewels, and bells; such inventory to be 
made in duplicate ; and leave one copy when signed in the 
keeping of the Cnstos rotulorum of the shire, and the other 
with those having the custody of the goods in question, who 
are to be cautioned by the commissioners not to presume to 
sell, alien, &c. 

If any one attempts to sell, notice is to be given to such 
of the commissioners as shall be justices of the peace. All 
goods sold within one year before the date of these direc- 
tions are to be restored, unless they were sold by the assent 
of the parishioners, and' the proceeds applied to some good 

The commissioners are empowered to require the officers 
of the Bishop of the diocese to supply copies of any inventory 
heretofore made of any parish, and after good inventories are 
made, to compile short extracts therefrom of as much as 
relates to the plate and bells only, and, as far as I can make 
out, send the same up to the Council. The date of these 
instructions in the original draft is 16th February, 1648, and 
the six large Norwich inventories refer to the 16th February, 
2nd Edward YI., as an epoch from which an account of the 
church goods was taken. Another hand has in the margin 
of the draft altered the date to 15th February, 1548-9, which 
is just the beginning of the third year of the reign, and I 
believe this to be correct. 

The only result of this letter of instructions I can find in 
Norfolk is an inventory for Tibenham (If. C. <?., vol. iv., 
p. 2) which is dated 4th May, 3rd Edward VI. As it 
mentions the two first commissioners, Sir John Shelton and 
Thomas Qawdy, Esq., (the latter afterwards one of the 
Norwich commissioners in 6th Edward VI.) and is of rather 
a curious form, I have printed it in Appendix, No. 7. 

A little later in the year (3rd Edward VI.) there would 
seem to have been sales of goods belonging to the difierent 
guilds. At vol. 503, p. 37, is preserved a paper signed by 


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Robert Grene, and dated 20th June, 3rd Edward VI., ac- 
knowledging the receipt from the churchwardens of Croxton 
of " XX oz of a gyld stoke * there cauled the asup^tion of our 
Lady," &o.y and 2s. 4d. for the rent of a guild hall and three 
acres of land thereto belonging, due to the King at Easter 
last. On the 9th of November in the same year, Thomas 
Croke (vel Crooke) '' gentillman, the kings ma^** surveyor 
of his possessions in the Goimtie of Norff," sold to Richard 
Sponer^ of Sething, gent., certain goods lately appertaining 
to a certain guild in that town. 

Probably the inventories and accounts of sales were being 
made too slowly to please the Council, the next I find being 
an " inventory " of sales for Mundham St. Peter, taken 6th 
May, 4th Edward VI. ; for on the 7th August, 4th Edward VI. 
they addressed a letter to Sir Thomas Glere and Sir Thomas 
Woodhouse, Knights, and Thomas Crooke, Esq., (probably 
the same mentioned above) which woidd seem to have di- 
rected them to make lists of, and to receive, certain church 
goods. I was not aware of the existence of this letter until I 
accidentally stumbled across a mention of it in the Worstead 
Inventory, one of those taken 6th Edward VI., which, after 
giving the ordinary information found in inventories of that 
date, adds a " true copie of the Inventorie that was takyn by 
Sir Thoin Clere," &c., "declarynge all soche goods late 
^teyning to the seid church of Worstede as were receyvyd 
by the seyd Sir Thos Clere," &c., " by vertu of a letter from 
the kyngs maties most honorabiU councell to them directed, 
bering date the vij daye of Auguste, in the iiij** yere of the 
kings maHes rayne," &c. 

It was in 6th Edward VI. that the great commission (copies 
of which for several counties are extant and printed in the 
Dep. Keep, of Pub. Rec. 7th ^ep. pp. 307—18, and 9th Rep. 
pp. 233 et seq.) issued. The names of the commissioners 

* " Guild stock** — money, or silyer. 


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for Norfolk, Norwich, and Yarmouth have been already 
printed in the Society's Papers, vol. i., p. 76. 

It would seem also by an inventory dated 3rd October, 
6th Edward YI., the' name of which has been unfortunately 
torn off, that " M' Bame'se, esquyer, M' Anthony Browne, 
esquyer, and Mast. AyUffe, esquyer,*' were on that date also 
commissioners. Perhaps they were delegated by the others, 
though by what authority I cannot imagine. The great 
commission recites that the king had at sundry times there- 
tofore, by special commission and otherwise, commanded a 
just view, survey, and inventory of .all church goods to be 
taken ; that such inventories had accordingly been made by 
indenture, a duplicate whereof had been left with the church- 
wardens, or those having the custody of the goods. It also 
states that, by his commandment, the bishops and their 
ecclesiastical officers had also made other inventories and 
returned them to his Council. That these bishops' inven- 
tories were even then comparatively rare, may be seen by 
the fact of the London Commissioners, in their answer to 
this commission, strenuously denying their existence, and 
even casting doubts on their ever having been made. 
That some inventories were taken before the 6th year of 
Edward YI. there can be no doubt, for, besides the two or 
three before mentioned, we find occasionally, in the notes of 
the commissioners in the margins of the 6th Edw. YI. in- 
ventories, references to them ; e. g., in the margin of that 
for Kanworth the commissioners have noted that two chalices 
are mentioned in the " old inventories," but not in the then 
present one. 

The commissioners set to work in Norfolk in the autumn 
of 1552, and must have done their work thoroughly, for 
there are even now extant about 690 of the large indented 
and dated inventories, taken by them. The number 759, 
stated by the late Mr. Dawson Turner to be preserved, in- 
cludes the certificates. 


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These inventories, after giving the date, and the names of 
the commissioners of the one part, and those of the parson of 
the church, the churchwardens, and sometimes the parish- 
ioners, of the other part, witness that tiiere remained in the 
custody of the parties thereto of the second part, on the day 
of the date thereof, the articles thereunder specified, which 
are written in an inner margin, with their values placed 
opposite to them in a column to the right. They conclude 
with an assignment of certain articles to be left for the ad- 
ministration of divine service, and the usual testatum clause. 

The inventory for All Saints, Lynn, printed by the late 
Mr. Dawson Turner, at p. 78, vol. i. of Norfolk Archceology^ 
is a fair specimen of those taken by this commission : by far 
the finest I have seen are those of six Norwich Churches,^ 
three of which are mentioned in 7th Rep., p. 329, and two 
of which are printed in this volume. Those for Hunworth, 
Wyghton, Walsingham Magna, and Walsingham Parva, I 
have placed in the Appendix, Nos. 8, 9, 10, and 11. Some 
few, as Waborne, Frensham P'va, and Cromer, include 
memoranda of goods belonging to guilds situate in the parish, 
as well as the church goods. The Cromer inventory I have 
added in the Appendix, No. 12. 

The last commission in this reign, bearing on these church 
goods, is one dated 16th January, 1553, and printed at 
p. 312, of 7th Rep., which I take to be a general commission 
to persons therein named, for aU England to collect all inven- 
tories which had been lately made,' und to bring in, as therein 
directed, all the ready money ^ plate, and jewels certified to remain, 
giving them, however, power to leave communion plate at 
their discretion; and also, at their discretion, to distribute 
among the poor the residue of the linen, ornaments, and 

In the Papers of N. & N. S., yoL i. p. 116, one of these (St. Peter per Monn- 
tergate) is erroneously ascribed to 2nd Edward YI. These inyentories seem 
to have been most perplexing to those who have not personally inspected them. 


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implements, after leaving enough for the communion tables, 
surplices, &c. 

They were also to sell all copes, vestments, altar cloths, 
and, except as otherwise provided, all metals, except great 
bells and saimce bells, which were to be kept until his 
Majesty's further pleasure therein should be known. This 
last commission is, of course, the pith of the whole affair — 
the getting in of the plunder. 

The late Mr. Dawson Turner, in his paper on Norfolk 
Church Goods, above referred to, states, that in the third 
commission, that *' of Jan. 16, the Xing proceeds to extre- 
mities; and it is accordingly to this that the subjoined 
documents refer.'* This, however, is clearly incorrect, the 
documents he subjoins (ordinary inventories) being dated in 
August and September of the preceding year, 1552. The 
commission of the 16th January, 1553, acts on the in- 
formation already given by them; moreover, it refers to 
them as having been made. 

How far the untimely death of Edward VI. put a stop to 
the collection of these goods, and how far the reign of Mary 
brought forth hidden stores and fresh offerings, must remain 
matter for conjecture to a great extent. I will, however, 
endeavour to collect what documents I can bearing on the 
point, and at some future time hope to submit the results to 
those who may take an interest in the subject. 

Ayleshm. "The laste day of October, in the first yere of 
the regno of our Sovereyn Lorde Kynge Edwarde the 
Sexte, &c. 

Willm Wyethe \ 

Henry Droury > Churchewardeyns. 

Henry Olyver J 


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The said chirchewardeyns do oertifie that there is sold of 
the chirche plate too & twenty score unc}, after y* rate of 
iiij" viij^ y« iinc}, unto these parsons whose names are und^ 
written, y* is to say 

John Wyeth Henry Droury Nycolas Barker 

Thomas Knolles Henry Olyver Willm Harvy 
Robert Clare Symon Cressy John Swanne 

Henry Barker Richard Tompson Thomas Clampe 
Christopher Wroo Robert Pecke Robert Marshm 
Thomas Elvered John Olyver Gregory Chamberleyn 

Sm of which plate amounteth to cij" xiij" iiij^. 

The use of which money is employed & to be employed Upon 
these things hereafx ensuenge 

ffirst for the reedifienge of the north yle of the chirche 

of Aylsham, decayed, fortye pounds. 
Itm for m£jdng again of y® great brygge o9 j^ kyngs 

ryver at Ayleshm aforesaid, whiche brigge is a comon 

passage for horse & carte both to y® market of Ayleshin 

& to y® coaste for y* countrie, xij^*, 
Itm for the reparation of the graiS scole house & yj 

almes houses, vy ruynows, w^in y" same towne, viij^. 
And the residue of y*' said money is employed and to be em- 
ployed upon the poore people of the same towne, which are 
in number fowre skore & moo, which for debilitie of age, 
syckenes, & extreme povertie, are dryven to lyve upon y* 
allmoys of y* Inhabitants of y® same towne. 

And y® said towne is now of late tyme so greatly decayed by 
the meanes of owttownesmen who hath purchased & bought 
y® best messuages places & tenements w4n y® same towne to 
y* quantitie of y® iij**® parte & more, almoste y* halfe of y* 
said town upon whiche messuages & tent* y* greatest & best 
households have bene kept, but now are [piece torn away] 
decayed, and no householde upon them kepte, and y* occu- 
pyers of ye saide iij*** part and more of y* lands & tenemen^ts 


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of y* said towne beare no charges of y« same towne, nor 
mynyster any reKefe to y* pore people of ye same. So y* all 
y* charges of y® towne reste upon a fewe householders yet 
Inhabitinge y* same towne Which otherwyse not beenge able 
to susteyne & beare y* aforesaid charges, were enforced of 
necessitie to selle y^ said plate for y^ uses above written. 

And as concemyng bells, leade, or ornaments of y' said 
chirche of Ayleshm, there is non soldo, exchaunged nor 

Bakonsthorpe. The certificate of the Inhabitants ther 
maid the iij^* day of Novembre, in the flirst year of the 
reign of o'^ most dreade soSeign Lord King Edward the 
sixte, of all suche plate & ornaments as they have sould, 
belonging to the Churche ther. As hereafter foUowithe 

ffirst for as moche plate, sould after the \ 

rate of iij" viij^ the unce, as amoimtithe > iiij" xiij" iiij^ 
to . . . .) 

Sm iiij^ xiij" iiij**, wereof laid out as hereafter 
flfyrst for the whyting of the churche . xxxiij* iiij** 

Itm for a comon hoche • . . x" 

Itm for a mans hames . . xiij" iiij*" 

Itm for a bowe & sheflTe of arrowes . vj" viij* 

Sm iij" iij" iiij** 
And so remaynith to the poore mans hoche xx* 

Henry Wagstaf and Thomas Hows churche- 
wardeyns there, do certyfeye the ^ysses 
to be true. 

• " Hoche'*— chest, hutch, box. 


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Hunworth. John Dunne and Anthony Wilson, Churchwar- 
dens, Certyfye y* "they have sold" [struck 
through] there ys sold by the hands of Edmond 
Xydman, Thomas Brighty, Gregory Warous, 
Robt. Elves, and Anthony Wylson, a payr of 
censers, a paxe, and a payr of chalyces, weyng 
together xxxij unc for iij" viij** the unce, 
v^* xvij* iiij*. 
Bestowed for ij hames xxx' 

It for settyng forth of souldyers iij* yj** 
It for the Bulwarke iij* yj^ 

It for a pulpytt "vj* viij* 

It for the settyng up of the Bells viij** 
Remayng iij** xiij» in owre hands. 

Wells. The certificate of Henrye Goldsmith, Willm 
Heyer, Hugh Sabb, and John Neve, Churchwardens ther, 
of all ornaments, plate, Jewells, & bells, sold in our church, 
by and with the consent of the hole parysh ther. 
In primis we certifie that we have solde a sylver v 
crosse, a chalys, a Crysdmatorye, and a silv paxe, i 
weyenge togyther tcnne score one at iiij' the } 
one. Sm . . . . / 

Itm we do certyfie that we have solde syns Mydsom \ 
1547, a Sencers of silv, a shippe, and a silv > x** 
cruett, weyenge aU togyther 1, one at iiij*. Sm. ; 
Itm we haue solde in copys and vestmens so ) ..^ 
moch as comyth to the pryce of . . ) 

Wherof we have bestowyd upon the reparinge ) ,j. 
of thole church . . . ; 


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Also we have bowght a payer of organs, which \ 
cost js}\ and for the meynteynaimce & keping \ xvj" 
of our ha von, vj^* . . . ) 

And the rest of the mony remaynith in oure hands, in- 
tendinge therewith to repare, white, and mend our church 
as nede requireth therin. 

[The inventory of this church is among those found since 
the publication of the Seventh Report, and mentioned at 
p. 240 of Second Appendix to the Ninth Report.] 


Sowthwotton. Thomas Salter, )^ . 

^ -r> 11 } Churchwardens, do certiiye 

George Bull, ) ^ 

by the consent of the hole inhabitaunts 

ther that we have soldo certen plate, as 

folowith, viz. 

One chalys, weyenge xj one, at iij' viij** the one, for the 

sm of xlj*. 

Whereof we have bestowyd for ledinge of our church, 

xiij» iiij*. 

The reste of the mony remaynith in our hands, to mende 

the church as nede shalbe. 


Reppes. We Willm Wood and John Scurry, churchwar- 
dens, do certifie that we have not sold any plate nor ornaments, 
but all things remaien still onsold. And wee do knowledge 
oure selves straightly comanded, that we shal nor sell nor con- 
sent (convert?) thereout any churche plate, but abowt iij yerys 

[vol. VII.] D 


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past ther was sold a small brokon paier of chales, which war 
sold for xxTJ* viij*, the mony wherof was bestowed upon a 
bell frame. 

Tibenhm. This Indenture made the iiij daye of Maye, in 
the iij yere of the reygne of Kyng Edward the syxte, by the 
grace of God of Englond, ffraunce, & Irlonde, Kynge, De- 
fender of the faythe, and in earthe of the churche of Inglond 
and Irlonde the sup'me hettde. Betwene S' John Shelton, 
knight, & Thomas Gawdy, esquier, on the on pte, & Gregory 
Plate, vycar ther, Edward Seldred, James Crosmane, churche- 
wardons, John Buxton, Thomas Berber, Rychard Hime, 
inhabyters ther, on the other pte. For and concemyng 
the churche goodds, plate, juelles, and ornaments, Fyrste, to 
chalis, y* one gylte y* other sylver on gylt, a senser of sylver, 
on paxe of sylver, by estymacion waying all together xxiiij 
ouncf , on cope of red velvet, on vestment of red velvet, 
a cope of blwe velvet. Itm for the decon and subdeacon of 
the same suete (P) Itm a whight cope of damaske. Itm a 
vestment of whight damask. Itm a cope and vestments for 
y* decon and subdecon of changeable sylke. Itm a cope of 
blew changeable sylke. Itm a cope of changeable sylke, y* 
sydes whight. Itm a black cope of blewe saten (sic) of 
hriggf . Itm a vestment of blacke worsted. Itm ij old west- 
ments for feriall dayes. Itm a westment of blewe damaske. 
Itm a westment of whight fustian. Itm ij beer clothes, 
whereof the on is of blacke worsted the other of canvasse. 
Itm ij corporasf , y* on of blacke velvet y* other tyssue. Itm 
iij baner clothes. Itm a diaper awlter clothe. Itm ij old awlter 
clothes. Itm a aulter clothe of yelowe and grene satyn 
of briggf . Itm a awlter clothe of red and blew saten of 
hrydggf . Itm a crosse of laten. Itm ij hand bells. Itm 
ij candelstycks of Laten. Itm a fyer pane. Itm a holy 


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water stope of brasse. Itm v bells, waying Ixx' by esty- 
macion. [N. B. In another band is a memorandum about a 
silver cross, which seems to have been missing.] 


Himworthe. This Inventory, indented, mttde y^ seconde day 
of September, in the vj*^ yere of the Reigne 
of Our Sovereign Lorde Edward y* VI., 
by the grace of God Kynge of England, 
France, and Ireland, defendour of the feyth, 
and in therth of y^ churche of Englande 
and Irelande the supme heade. Between 
S' Wyllm ffermour, S*" John Robsarte, Sir 
Xpofer Heydon, Ejiyghte, Osborne Mounde- 
forde, Robt. Bamye, and John Calybutt, 
esquyers, comyssyoners, amongst others as- 
sygned by vertue of the kings maties comys- 
syon to them dyrected, for the surveye of 
church goods in Norff. of thone ptye, and 
John Dunne, Antonye Wylsone, church- 
wardens ther, Edmunde Kydman & Thoins 
Bryghtene, of thother ptye, Wytnesseth, 
that ther remayneth in the custody of the 
said John Antonye, Edmimde and Thomas, 
thes goods underwrytten. 

In pmis one challyce, w^ a wht > 

patyne of sylver, wayinffe x f , 

J ^ >xxxiii"mi* 

ownces, and eiiy ownce va- i 

lewed at iii' iiij* . ^ 

Itm ij copas, wherof one is\ 

grene"^* sylke, and y* other f .^ ,..^ 

»^' "'^^ of changeable sylke, p* ^-^ 

valewed at . . ) 

D 2 


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Itm iij vestments, wherof one 

is of wliyght damaske," one of / . ^ . . . ^ 
grene ^^' ™^'* sylk, and the other ^ 
of blacke saye/j* valewed at 

Itm festive (serteyn P) olde 
Lynnen clothes, valewed at 
xx** [This line is struck out 
in the original.] 

Itm iij Steple bells, wayinge 
by estymacon x**, wherof the 
greateste Ds the next iijS ^ vij" x' 
and the leste ij® waight, 
valewed at xv* ye hundret** 

Itm ij [originally iij] clappers, 
[of iron, wayinge by esty- 
macon xxx^, has been struck \ ij« 
out] valewed at [originally 

iJTJ''] • , • ... 

Itm iij handbells, wayinge viij \ ^..^ 
pounds, valewed at j 


Itm a cross of copper, gylte, 
valewed at . [MS. defective] 
Itm ij basons, valewed at ... . 
[MS. defective] 

Whereof assygned to be used in thadmynystracon 

the seid chally leste beUe, waying In 

wytnesse to these pntes. [N.B. The bottom of this 

Inventory has rotted away.] 

"Wyghton. This Inventory indented, made the thirde day 
of Septembre, in the sexte yere of the reign of our most dred 
soSeign lorde Edward the sixte, by the grace of God Kyng 


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of England, flfraunce, & Yrlond, Defender of the faithe, and 
in earthe of the churche of Ynglonde & also of Yerlond 
su^me heade, Bytwen S' Wyllm Fermour, S*" John Eobsarte, 
S^ Xpofer Heydon, Knyghts, Osbert Moundforthe, Robert 
Barney, & John Calybutt, Esquyers, Commyssones amongs 
others by vertue of the kyngs matf commission to them 
dyrected, for the survey of church goods in Norff. of then 
pte, & John Hallowe, curate ther, John ToUyng, John 
Dey, churchewardens, Richard Bell, Thomas Algood, Willm 
Walpole, & George Peake of Wyghton, afforseid, of thother 
pte, Wytnessithe that ther remayne in the custody of the 
seid John Tollyng, John Dey, Rychard Bell, Thomas Algood, 
WiUm Walpole, & George Peake, these goods under wrytten 

In p*« one chalice with the patent of sylver '\ 

geilte, weyng xix owncf , euy oimce > iiij^^ ij* iiij^ 
valued at iij® iiij"* . . . ) 

Itm one other chalice with the patent of \ 
sylver pcell gilte, weyng xiij owncf , euy > xlvij' viij^ 
ownce valued at iij' viij** . , / 

Itm ij crewetts of sylver, weyng ix owncf , \ 

eSy ownce valued at iij* viij^ . . ) •' 

Itm one pax of sylvS ^cell gilte, weyng | », ....^ 

ij owncf , euy ownce valued at iij" viij** ) 

Itm ij copes, wherof one redd velvett and \ 
the other blewe velvett, valued at . ) 

Itm ij Vestmtf, one of blewe velvett & the \ •« •••<! 

other of red damaske, valued at . ) J J 

It ij Alter clothes, one of .... & the other \ 
blewe silke, iij lynyng clother (sic) iij > \j*. viij** 
ToweUs valued at . . .) 

Itm ij Steple bells, wherof the one weith 
by estymacon viij^, and the seconde bell i 
weithe by estymacon vi*^, euy C valued i 
at XV' 


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Itm a lytle Sanctus bell, weyng by esty-| ...^ 
macon iiij^S valued at . j 

Itm ij bell clappers, weying by estymacon | ...^ ....^ 

xl^S eSy K valued i«> . J "•" "^^^ 

Itm ij latten candylstyks, weyng by esty- | ....^ ....^ 


macon P, valued at 
Itm ij'cobboms of yron, weyng by esty- 1 ^ 

macon xx", valued at . ) 

Itm ii olde pannes and one olde brasse ) .... 

potte, valued at . . . ) 

Assigned to be occupied & used in tli{tdministrac5n of 
devyn ?vyce tber, one chalice weyng xiij O), and one 
beUe weyng vj®. 
In Wytnesse wherof tlie seid commysoners and others the 
psons aboveseid, altematly to these puts have sett ther hands, 
the day and yere above wrytten 

by me John Harlow (sic) curate 

p me Ricu Bell 

George Peake 

by me Thorns Algood. 


Walsingham ) This Inventorie indented, made the iij*** daye 
Magna. J of September, in y« sext yere of y® Reigne 
of our most drede souegn lord Edward the 
sext, by the grace of God kinge of Inglonde, 
ffrance, and also of Irelond, defendour of the 
faithe, and inthearthe of the churche of 
Inglond and also of Irelond the supme heade, 
Betwen Willm ffermour, John Robsart, & 
Xpofer Heydon, Knights, Robert Bemey, 
Osbert Mondeford, & John Calybutt, Es- 
quyres, Comissiofis, emong others assyned 
by vtue of the Kyngs matf comission to 


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them dyrected, for the survey of churche 

goods in Norff, of the one ptie, and Willm 

Betts, Clerk, Curat ther, Edmunde Bullok 

^ & John Blogge of the same towne of the 

other ptie, wittenesse that ther Bemayneth 

in the custodie of the s* Churchwardens the 

daye & yere above written these goods under 


In pmis one paier of chalice of , 

silv pceU gilt, w* a patent, / _ 

« J- ^ /xlv*x« 
weyenge xij owncf di, eury \ 

ownce iij* viij* . . ' 

Itm iij Stepell Bells, weyenge by \ 
est xvj% wherof the gret beUe f 
weith vijS the ij«»« belle v°, & I ^^^ 
the iij*** belle iiij'c — ^xv' c / 

Itm iiij vestements, wherof one ^ 
the color blew velvett, one 
of whight damask, one of j 
whight Sylke, and another >xxx' 
of Redd Satten of Briggs, 
valued at [originally 27' 4^> 
which has been erased] 

Itm iij Copes of Blew damask, 
one of whight damask, & one 
of whight silke [originally 
15% which has been erased] 

It one alter clothe of blew dam- 1 

ask, valued atte . , j "J ^J 

Itm one awlter clothe of blewe ) 

velvett . . . Jvi'^ij- 

Itm iij bell clappers iij« 

Wherof assyned to be occupyed & used in the 
administracon of devyne svice the .... 
chalice and one Belle weyenge iiij*'. 


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In wittenesse wherof the seid Commis- 
sions and the seid psons to these 
Indenturs altematly have sette ther 
hands the day and yere above wrj'tten. 

by me Wyllra Betts 
by me John Blogge 
by me Edmunde Bullocke 
by me Wyllm Rogers 
By me John Churchlowe 
+ p me Rog' Bulwer. 


"Walsingham pa. This Inventorye indented, made the xxviij '** 
daye of September, in the vj*^ yeare of 
the raign of o' Souayngn lorde Edwarde 
the sexte, by the grace of god Kyng of 
Englond, ffraunce, & Irelond, defend' of 
the fiaythe, & in earthe of the Chnrche 
of Englond & also of Irelond the su^me 
Heade, Betwen Willm ffayrmor, John 
Robsart, Xpofer Heydon, Knyghts, 
Osbert Moundeferd, Robt Barney, & 
John Callybutt, Esquyers, GomissoSs, 
amongest other assigned by vertne of 
the kyngs matf comission to them di- 
rected for the survey of Churche goods 
in Norff, on thoon ptye, and Nycholas 
Broun, Robt Baxter, Nicholas Mar- 
shall, and Nicholas Bradde, of the said 
towne of TValsynghin, on thother ptye, 
witnessethe that ther remayneth in 
the custodye of the said Nicholas 


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Brown, Robt Baxter, Nicholas M^shall, 
& Nicholas Bradde, the daie of the 
date hereof these pcella under wreten. 

fiyrst thre Chalyces with iij patens of sylver ^ 

dobill gilt, whereof the fyrst weythe xviij r ,^ ..^ 
ounces i qt, the ij**' xviij ounce di, & the I •' •' •' 
iij*^* xvij ouncf , at iiij* iiij^ ye oimce. Sm ' 

Jtm a vestm* & ij tunycles of blak velvett w* \ 
ther albys, price . . . ) 

Jtm ij coopes of whyte tafFa, braunched with \ ^ 

UUyepotts / . . . j ""'^ "^ 

Jtm ij coopes of whyte damaske, braimched^ ...^ 
wyth flower de lucf . . . ) ^ 

Itm ij coopes of red bryges Saten braunched rj" Tiij** 

Jtm a whyte cope of bryges Saten braunched \ ^ 
w* lillyes & roses . . . ) 

Jtm X syngle vestm*^ wyth viij albys, wherof 
the first of blue & grene bryges Saten . 
TJ* viij**, & the ij^® of grene & red bryges 
saten v', ye third of whyte bryges saten i 
braunched iij' iiij**, the iiij^^ of blue velletti 
braunched with flowers xiij' iiij**, the v"* /xlix' viij'* 
of red damaske viij% the vj^^ of whyte I 
fustyan xx**, the vij^ of bustyan xx**, the i 
viij^ of bustyan xx**, the ix*^ of whyte 
velvett old iij" iuj**, and the x*^« of whyte 
Jean fustyan iij" iiij^. Sm 

Jtm ij aulter clothes of whyte bryges Satten iiij« 

Jtm one alter cloth of blakke brydges Saten ) 

I v" 
brunched . . . . j 

Jtm a pajTe of organes . . xxvj" viij** 

Jtm too lecterns of latyn, weyng by esty- \ .„ . ... 

macon v*', at ij* ye li. Sm , . j ^ ^ ^ 

Jtm in Iron y* was bell harres iij q*' . vij* 


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Itm iiij Steple bells weyng (by estimacon) 

lxiiij% wherof the first weythe xij^ the / 

ij<*« xiiijS the iij<»« xvijS & the iiij^»» xxj% i ^^"J^ 

at xv» y« hundred. Sm . , / 

Jtm iiij Clapps to the same bells, weyng by ) 

estimacon C xliiij", at i** y* li . . ] ^"J* 

In churche money in hands of Nicholas Bradde, Iv* 

Wherof assigned to be occupied & used in th'administracon 

of divine ?vyce ther, the iiij*^ bell weyng xxj«, & ij chalyces, 

the one of xviij ouncf qt, & y« other of xvij ouncf . 

In TVitnes wherof the sayd Comissiofls & others 

the sayd psons, have to thes ^sents alternately 

sett ther hands the day & yeare above wreten. 

- --. , By me Nycholas Browen 

by me Nichs ^1 ry t ^ r\x. ^ 

•^ ^^ , „ Bi me Robert Osbert 


be me Nicholis brade 


Cromer, This Inventorye indented, made the ij<*« daye of 
September, in the vj*** yeere of the raign of o*" 
SoSaign lord Edward the sext, by the grace of 
God Kyng of Englond, flfrance, & Irelond, De- 
fendo' of the faythe, & in earthe of the churche 
of Englond, and also of Irelond, the su^me 
heade, Betwen Willm flEayrmo', John Bobsart, 
Xpofer Heydon, knyghts, Osbert Mundeford, 
Robt Barney, and John Callybutt, Esquuyers, 
Comissiofls, amongest others assigned by vertue 
of the kyngs mat* commission to them directed, 
for the survey of Churche goods in NorflP, on 
thoon ptye, and Rychard Clayte, Willm Sadler, 
W" Colbek & Robert Blofeld of the sayd 
town on thother ptye, Wytnesseth y* ther re- 
mayneth in the custodye of the seyd Rychard, 


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xiij* iiij^ 


Willm^ Willm, and Robt, the daye of the date 
hrof, the pcells under wreten. 
%rBt, ij chalei, w* ij patens of \ 

silv dobill gilt, wherof the first j 

weythe xx oiincf , & ye ij'^* xix v viij^* ix* 

oiincf, at iiij' iiij'* y« ounce i 

Sm. 1 
Itm one sute of red clothe of ^ 

bawdkyn, vid) a cope, a vest- 
ment, ij tunycles, & iij albys, 

Itm an other sute of blak sylke, \ 

a cope, a "vestment, ij tuny- > viij* 

cles, & iij albys, pres . ) 

Itm V coopes, wherof the first > 

of whyte sylke w* roses, pryce 

iij", y* ij** of clothe of golde, 

pre xxxx", the iij*' of crimson V Iviij' viij*" 

vellett, vj* viij*, y« iiij"* of| 

whyte damaske, iiij% the v**^ 

of blue damaske, pee v* Sm. 
Itm vij vestments, whereof the . 

first of whyte sylke, w* roses, - 

price ij% y* ij*** of clothe of 

bawdkyn, pryce iij", the iij*V 

of crjrmson vellett, vj* viij*, the [ .... ...^ 

iiij"* of whyte damaske, iiij*, ^ 

the v*^ of red sylke of Bryges, 

ij*, the vj**» of red sylke .... 

alysander, xij*, the vij^ of 

grene damaske, v*. . Sm. 
Itm a canapye of paynted clothe, 

& iiij alter clothes, & a vayle. 

Sm vj. [This line is struck 



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Itm a crosse of laten, ij grett\ 
standyng candelstykks of la- 
ten, iiij small candelstykks of I ... 
laten, an holy water storpe of ( •* 
laten, weying Ixxviij" at ij* 
yMi . . Sm. 

Itm ij pewter basons and ij hand \ ....^ 

bells, pryce . • j 

Itm V steple bells, weying by \ 
estmacon Ixij^, wherof the first j 
viij% the ij*^« x% the iij**« xij<^, \ xlvj" x« 
y® iiij^ xiiij% & the v^ xviij% I 
at XV" the c. . . Sm. ) 

Itm y [struck out and 4 substi- 
tuted] clap^s to the same bells, 
weyng vj" pounds, at 1^ y« 
r. Sm. x« [The weight is 
struck out — and "valued at 
vij*'' substituted.] 
[In the margin is the following note : " Gylde 
Stufe — Itm iij brasse potts of Ix", at iiij* y« li. Sm. 
XX'. Itm xl^* of pewter, at iiij* the 1*. Sm. xiij* iiij*. 
Itm ij spetfl, weying xij^», at 1* y® T. Sm. xij^. Itm 
a masour, w* ij oimcf of silv (by estmacon pee,) 
Wherof Assigned to be occupyed & used in thadminis- 
tracon of divine svice, both ther (sic) sayd chales of 
xxxix ouncf & bell of xviij® with the clapp. 
In Wytnes wherof the sayd commissio&s & others, the sayd 
psns, pties to thes ^sents, have sett ther hands the daye & 
yer above wreten. 

Robert Bristow (?) Wyllm Sadler. 


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Sn i^t Sits of Nottoicfy, 




Amongst the various documents relating to Norfolk Cliurch 
Goods in the reign of Edward VI. preserved at the Record 
OflEice are six "Certificates'* concerning the following Norwich 
churches : — St. Andrew, extending over 16 quarto pages ; 
St. Peter per Mountergate, 24; St. Martin at Palace, 20; 
St. Michael at Plea, 11 ; St. Mary of Coslany, 11 ; and St. 
Martin of Bailey, 12. 

They are all dated 4th October, 6th Edward VI. (1562), and 
contain, first, an inventory of the money, plate, bells, goods, 
vestments, and ornaments, remaining in the respective 
churches, on the 15th of February, in the second year of 
Edward VI. (1548-9) ; secondly, an accoimt year by year, 
from the 15th February, 1548-9, to the 4th October, 1552, 
of all such of the aforesaid goods as had been sold, with the 
amoimts accruing, and the names of the persons to whom such 
sales had been made ; thirdly, a similar account of the 
manner in which the money had been expended; and, 
fourthly, an inventory of the money and goods remaining 
at the day of the date of the certificates. 

Our late secretary, Mr. Harrod, in a valuable article on 


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Church Goods in the 5th vol. of the Society's Papers, has 
transcribed a considerable portion of the first part of the 
St. Peter per Mountergate certificate, that is to say, of the 
inventory of the goods remaining, 2nd Edward VI., and he has 
given a few items from the St. Andrew's certificate, but not 
one of the six documents has been printed entire. It is, 
therefore, without the sKghtest hesitation that I place before 
the Society copies of two of the certificates relating to the 
churches of St. Andrew and St. Mary Coslany, for which I 
am indebted to my friend Mr. Walter Rye of Chelsea, who 
not only undertook the laborious task of transcribing them, 
but has also corrected the proofs with the originals. They 
contain much which cannot fail to be interesting as an 
illustration of a very eventful period in our history, both 
national and local. 

These certificates are also strikingly corroborative of what 
Heylin in his History of the Reformation has written with 
reference to the orders of the Council for removing un- 
necessary furniture from churches. " In all great fairs and 
markets,'' he says, " there are some forestallers, who get the 
best pennyworths themselves, and suffer not the richest and 
most gainful commodities to be openly sold. And so it fared 
also in the present business, there being some who were as 
much beforehand with the king's commissioners in embezzling 
the said plate, jewels, and other furnitures, as the commissioners 
did intend to be with the king, in keeping all or most part 
unto themselves. ... So that although some profit was thereby 
raised to the king's exchequer, yet the far greatest part of 
the prey came to other hands : insomuch that many private 
men's parlours were hung with altar cloths, their tables and 
beds covered with copes, instead of carpets and coverlits ; and 
many made carousing cups of the sacred chalices, as once 
Belshazzar celebrated his drunken feast in the sanctified 
vessel of the temple. It was a sorry house, and not worth 
the naming, which had not somewhat of this furniture in it, 


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though it were only a fair large cushion made of a cope or 
altar cloth, to adorn their windows, or make their chairs 
appear to have somewhat in them of a chair of state." 

For the few notes I have added, some apology is due ; I hope 
however that it will not be considered that I have underrated 
the intelligence of our members, by giving explanations which 
in these days of widely-diffused antiquarian information may 
be considered superfluous. Of most of the articles mentioned 
in these inventories, excellent explanations have already 
appeared in previous volumes.^ 

Seynct Andrews Booke in Norwic. 

The Certificate of M' Willm Rogers Alderman John 
Porter Robert Sokelyn and Thomas Kyng Churchwardens 
of the parisshe of St. Andrew in Norwich Thomas Sotherton 
Fraimcis Walmere John Sothertonne and Thomas Bemonde 
parissheoners there made and certified to the Right Reve- 
rende father in God Thomas Bisshopp of Norwich to the 
right WorshipfuU Thomas Gawdye Richarde Catlyn Osberte 
Moundeford John Corbet and Augustyn Stywarde Esquiers 
Commissioners the iiij^^ day of Octobre in the Sixte yere of 
the reign of our sovereign lorde Edwarde the syxte by the 
Grace of God King of Englaunde Fraunce and Irelande 
Defendour of the fayth and in earth of the Churche of Eng- 
lande and Irelande supreame Heade. The Seide Church- 
wardens and parissheoners swome and examyned saye and 
Certyfye uppon their othes as ensuith 

Inpmis theye certyfie that there was and did remayn in 
the seide Churche the xv^ day of Februarye in the seconde 

* Here, however, I would except the extraordiDarj definition of an albe as 
"a long white yestmont without opening except at top,*' which occurs in 
Tol. V. p. 94. 


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yere of the reign of our souereigii lord King Edwarde the 
Syxte in money Plate Bells goodes vestments and orna- 
ments as hereafter particulerly apperith. 

Imprimis * in readye money the some xiij^^ xviij** 

Itm the best Crosse w* the Cristall parcell\ 

gylte weing iiij** xv unces at v® the imce. | xxiiij%v» 
Sm . . . J 

Itm the lesser Crosse parcell gilte weing xxxyj ] 
imces at v' the unce. Sm 

^ The ready money was doubtless the produce of preyious sales of church 
goods ; for instance, no piz occurs in this certificate, and we know from the 
inventory of the goods of this church in the 14th century, printed by Mr. Harrod 
in Yol. Y., p. 107, that there were more than one ; nor is there any mention of 
the holy water stoup of silver weighing 70 oz., mentioned by Blomefield as 
given by the will of Nic. Colich, alderman in 1602, upon the foot of which he 
directed to be graven, ** that noe man selle it, ne set it to Pledge, as they will 
answer ad justum Dei Judicium." 

Agnes Est, in 1504, bequeathed *' a pair of beads of silver " to our Lady in 
the steeple, but of these we can hardly expect to find mention : they doubtless 
disappeared with the rest of the votive offerings, and they must have been nu- 
merous, when the images in churches were destroyed. The following doctmient, 
preserved at the Becord Office, may find a place here as illustrative of these 

** Be known to all men that John Ponsont & Bychard Fayrecheld bcyng 
Gherche wardyns of the pysche off Sant Andre in Korwyche dyd sell oyn 
napyn of velvyt on to M'. Leche for v«, iiij yerrs agone allso we sold oyn peyre 
off beds of corall for iij* iiij"* the wych velvett and bedp we sellyd for y bybeU. 

" Ite Reynold Gray & Thorns Pourett bejmg the Cherchewardyns off Sant 
Andres, Dede sooU the last yerre dyv* payr off chalys the wyche in wyght 
xvij ouns, the wych was sold to Master Sokelyng for iiij markys iii* iiij<^. 

" Ite we layd owt for the repayryng of owre Stepell for y« tymer* warke viij* ij**. 
Also Uie plomer* had a marke for ledde & for the warkmanshepp. Also we hade 
ij Bells brokyn att oyn tyme Uie whyche cost us v marks. Also for the 
hangyng of the Bells vj" viij^. 

" Ite remanyng in the hands of mother (?) Plattyng Lxiij* viiij*^ 

" Ite remaynyng in the hands of Bichd Fayrecheld xiij* iiij<*. 

'* Wettnus (sic) Reynold Gray, Rye Fayrcheld, .... Benedict, John Laws, 
John Howlett." 


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Itm the Cristmatorye parcell gilte weing xxxij \ 

imces at v' the unce. Sm . . ] ^^^ 

Itm a peir of Sensures parcell gilte weing ) . ,. 

xxxix nnces at v* the unce. sm . . ; 

Itm a nether peir of Sensures parcell gilte) „^ 

weing xlviij unces at v* the unce. sm ) ^ 

Itm twoo paxis parcell gilte weying xxxi unces | ..j. 

at v* the unce. sm . . • ) 

Itm a monstralP w* the burall* gilte weying xl) 

ounces at v" the unce. sin 

3 <*It I wulle haue Bowte to the laude of god and to be vsid in ihe seyd 
church of Nekton a monsfans of silu' and gilte, to the Sme of yj^* or z mark or 
more, to here In the holy blyssed sacrament vpon Palmesonday & Corp' x^ day, 
And at other times to stand vpon the bey Auter w* y« blyssed sacrament/* — 
WiU of Wm. CurteU of Necton, 1499. Reg'. Wyght, fo. 79. 

* •• Beryl, precyous stone. Berillus** 

** Beryl is used by Chaucer and the authors of the 14th and 16th centuries, 
to denote the precious stone so called, and also a finer description of crystal glass, 
which resembled it in transparency or colour. This distinction is not preserved 
here ; but it is made by Palsgrave : * Bcrall, fyne glass, herxL Beryll, a pre- 
cious stone, berU* Elyot renders * GUsaum^ crystal or berylle.' — See Whitaker's 
Cathedral of St. Germains, ii. 280." — Promptorium Parvulorunit p. 32. 

The Holy blood at Hales *' was inclosid within a rownde berall gamysshid 
and bownd on ev*y side with sylv*." — Orthodox Journal, vol. xii. p. 131. 

In the inventories printed in the Fabric Rolls of York Minster and Dugdale's 
Monastieony berills are of frequent occurrence, and I have no doubt that burall 
and berill are identical, and that it was in this instance a crystal pix, in which 
the consecrated species was inclosed, 'i'he following extracts will, I think, 
clearly show this. 

^^ Item duo angeli stantes ot portantes ferctrum de berillo, ad imponendum Cor- 
pus Christi, in cujus summitate est una crux argentea deaurata, et aymellata, 
cum tribus ymaginibus, et unus angelus genu flectens coram dominico feretro, 
tenens parvum vas de berillo ; pro reliquiis reponendis.'* 

" Item tabemaculum argenteum deauratum cum berillis in medio, ad CorpuB 
Christi imponendum, &c. Registrum omnium Librorum, vestementorum, re- 
liquarum, calicum, et aliorum diversorum omameDtorum liberaa capelhe regisd 
infra castrum de Wyndesore, Anno rcgni regis Ricardi secundi post conquestum 
octavo, tempore domini Walteri Almaly tunc ibidem custodis factum.** — Monat^ 
tieon Anglicanuntf vol. vi. part iii. p. 1362. See also Norfolk Arehcsolopy, 
vol. i. p. 48, note ♦ for a description of a beryl. 
[vol. VII.] E 


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Itm a Challeis parcell gilte weying vij unccB at \ 

v* the imce. sm . . ) 

Itm a Shippe parcell gilte weing vij unces at| 

V" the unce. sm. . . . J 

Itm another Shipp parcell gilte weing ix unces j 

at V' the imce. sm . . . ) 

Itm a peir of Challeis w* the paten gylte^ ^ 

weing xxiij imces at v« the imce. sm . J 

Itm another Challeis w* the paten parcell gilte \ 

weing xvj mices at v" the unce. Sm . j 

Itm a verge or wande of Sylver* cont an imce* v' 
Itm twoo coopes of blake tysshewe valued at . liij" iiij^ 
Itm an old sewte"' of redde velvet pondered wM . ...^ 

splayed ® egells valued at . . ) ^ 

Itm a Sewte of blewe velvet powdered w' moones \ 

valued at . .) 

Itm the Bisshoppes * Sewte w* a coope . x* 

Itm two coopes of tawney velvet powdered w* 

Sterres valued at . 




Itm twoo coopes of white and grene bridges M .^ ... 

satten valued at . . . | ^ ^ 

Itm iiij®^ childrens coopes ' w* a vestmente . yj* viij"* 

Itm an old sewte of white valued at . xv» 

' From the small weight of ailver contained in this wand, only an ounce, it 
would appear to hare been merely tipped or bound with silrer. In the inven- 
tory printed in the Fabric RolU of York Minster, there is this item : *' Virga 
Moysi cimi aliis," under which the following are given. *< Una Virga Moisi 
omata in utroque fine cum argento deaurato." ** Item iij yirgss pro sacristis, 
ez argento, pendens xyiij unc." 

* The aggregate weight of the plate is 354 oz. 

^ " Itm I wyll m3me executor's by for me an hole sute of suche color as the 
pysshners of saynt Andrew wyll have, that ys to sey one cope, one vestment, 
Deacon & subdeacon w^ all thynggf pteynyng to the same to the sum of xxx"/' 
-^Wai of Elizabeth HoUye of Norwich, 1627. Eeg'. Godsalve, fol. 8. 

> Displayed. 

9 For the Boy Bishop and his attendants. 

1 Bruges. 


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Itm a white coope w* Dunstane valued . xxyj* viij* 

Itm a sewte of redde Bawdekyn and a vest- J 

mete of redde damaske valued at . ) ^ J 

Itm the best Coope of blewe tyssew valued . viij^ 
Itm twoo coopes of redde tyssewe valued . viij^ 

Itm a vestment* and ij timycles of redde tyssewe 1 ....j. 

valued at . . . •) 

Itm a Coope of blewe tyssewe valued . yj" 

Itm a vestment and twoo tunecles of blew^ ^ ••vi"d 

tyssewe valued at . . . ) ' 

Itm ij coopes of redde velvet broudered w* 

aungells valued at . 

Itm a vestment and ij tunycles of redde velvet i 

broudered w* aungells valued at . . ) 

Itm twoo coopes of white damaske embroudered ) 

w* Lyllypotts^ valued at . . ) 

Itm twoo Coopes of white baudekyn valued . Ix" 
Itm a sewte w* a Coope of blak velvet valued at iiij" 
Itm a vestmete of blewe worsted valued . viij^ 

Itm iij lent vestmts w* iij awbes valued . xiij' 

Itm iij vestments of blewe Bawdekyn valued . xv' 
Itm ij white vestments and a lectom cloth . xiij^ iiij^ 
Itm a single vestment of redde velvet . xx» 

Itm a sewte of white damaske valued . xlvj* viij** 

Itm a vestmete of blewe velvet valued . xx" 

Itm a Cross baner cloth * valued at . . v* 

Itm a sacramete cloth of white sarcenet . ij* vj^ 

Itm a pUlowe valued . . . xij^ 

Itm ij Curteyns of blewe and redde . . v* 

' i. 6. a chasuble. It will be noticed that a chasuble is not once mentioned in 
this inventory, but inyariably " a yestment." 

3 The Pot of Lilies, an emblem of the Blessed Virgin Mary. 

* In the Black Book of Swaffham is an inventory of the church goods, dated 
1464, amongst which I find, **Item one cross of copper gilt, with a foot, a staff, 
and a banner, with the arms of Corpus Christi, sum of the whole £3." 

E 2 


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Itm ij Settill Chayo" valued at . . yj' viij'* 

Itm ij Curteyns of white sarcenet . . x* 

Itm iiij**' aulter clothes of white baudekyn . xiij* iiij'* 

Itm twoo old corporas cassf ^ valued at . viij** 

Itm twoo corporas cassf of tissewe at . v* 

Itm iiij corporas cassf of Cloth of Goulde . v» 

Itm a corporas casse of blak velvet at . viij^ 

Itm a pyxe* cloth of redde tissewe at . ij* 

Itm a certeyn Crystall at . . . iiij*' 

Itm ij litell pillowes valued at . . iiij** 

Itm a pillowe blewe and redde . . viij** 

Itm a Grene cusshen valued at . . xij** 

Itm twoo latten candelstyks w* iij images of the) 

Lectome weing CO xxi*^ xix« the C . j •' ^ 

Itm the ordyiince'' of the sepxdcre ^sed at . v" 

Itm twoo lenton Banner clothes valued at . viiij** 

Itm twoo verdure clothes Ht iij cusshens at . xxxv* 

Itm iij aulter clothes of blewe tissewe . v^* 
Itm iij aulter clothes of Bridges Satten paued®| 

w* redde and white valued at . . ) 

Itm a sepulcre clothe of redde tissewe . xx" 

Itm a Boxe w* Cypres and a stoolle . . xyj** 

Itm a certeyn olde Iron weing C iij qto" at . xiiij' 

Itm ij stayned clothes valued at . . ij" iiij* 

Itm a Coope of tawny worsted at . . x* vj** 

Itm a litell steyned cloth valued . iij** 

« CaB«8. 

< ** And the pyx wherein the Blessed Sacrament did hang was of fine gold, 
and the white cloth that hung over the pyx waa of yery fine lawn, embroidered 
and wrought about with gold and red silk, and four great tassels of gold hung 
firom the four comers of the cloth/' — ** Description of Durham Cathedral," in 
the Orthodox Journal^ vol. xx. p. 54. 

1 "Ordinaunce, apparel, Palsg." — Wright's Provincial Dictionary. The 
Easter sepulchre at this church occupied a recess under the window on the 
north side of the chancel, within the altar rails. 

* Query, paned. 



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Itm a banner Cloth and a Cloth that did hang) ...^ ....^ 

Bometyme before the roode valued . j J J 

Itm in Grrayles massebooks antyveners Le-| 

gendes and other quere ^ books valued at . ) 
Itm vj peees of ordynnce of the perke . vj* 

Itm iij Crossestaves a pixe clothe and a foote \ 

for a Crosse of copper and gilte cont in > iiij' viij'* 

weighte xiiij^ at iiij** the li . . . j 

Itm iiij Sacre bells weung xiiij" at ij** y* li , ij" iiij** 

Itm a greate steyned clothe and iij smull Steyned | .^ 

clothes valued at . . . ) •' 

Itm uj corporas cassf valued at . ij' 

Itm the seling in the Chappell in the stepillM ....^ 

w* the pascall shafte * valued at . • ) 

Itm viij shorte dyaper aulter clothes at . iij* vj"* 

Itm iiij Dyaper clothes and a foote cloth' i .... 

valued at . . . . ) 

Itm certeyn blak hangings valued at . vj" viij^ 

Itm a fl^er shelve valued at . . xij^ 

Itm a crysmatory clothe valued at . . vj** 

Itm a pawle of blak velvet and tissewe in the) , ^ 

} liir uil" 
myddes valued .)'*•' 

Itm a blak Berecloth of Saye valued . . iij" iiij** 

Itm iiij*' pawles of Bawdekyn valued . vj" viij** 

Itm iij Cusshions of blak Saye veJued . ij" yj** 

Itm ij Cusshiens of redde Saye . ij" vj** 

Itm iij Corporassf w* kerchers in them . v" 

• Choir, quire, qucre. 

^ The roof of this chapel, dedicated as Blomefield informs us to Our Lady of 
Grace, is a waggon vault, and hy no means ornamental ; the restoration of the 
ceiling is desirahle. 

' ** And under these stairs the Patchal did lie, and in time of Lent children 
were enjoined to go thither daily, to dress, trim, and make it hright for the 
jMuchal feast." — Orthodox Journal^ vol. zz. p. 6b, 

* Pede cloth, or carpet. 


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Itm yj Aulter clothes of Dyaper valued . x* 

Itm vj towells of Dyaper and pleyn cloth . x» 

Itm xiij Surpliess valued . . . xxiiij* 

Itm ij awter clothes of blewe and redde . x* 

Itm ij prykett candelstyks of latten at . viij** 

Itm a Crismatory of latten at . . vj^ 

Itm a greate latten lectome valued at . Lxvj* viij*^ 

Itm a Bason and an ewer of Pewter . . xx* 

Itm a Brasen pulleye valued at . • ^* '^j*' 

Itm ij pair of organnes valued at 

Sm to"« of) ,. ... 
_ . } ccxx" xix" 1^ 

the premissf ) 

Itm theye saye and Certifie that their dede remayn > 
the day and yere aforesaide in the Stepill Seven Bells | 
whereof one called the Saunts Bell conteyninge in | 
weight : — 



In the The first bell called the Santf bell di« 
Steple. The seconde Belle cont. . vij° 

The thredde Belle cont. vij° i*i*<»' xxj" 
The fourth BeU cont. ix« iij^^" xxiij^ Vlxx« iij <i*<»" 
The fyveth Bell cont. . xij<^ di xxiij" ' 
The sexte BeU cont. xv^ iijq^" xxyj^ 
The seventh Bell cont. by est. xviij* ' 

Whereof they say and certifie that sythens the seide xvth 
day of flfebruarye in the seconde yere of the reigne of o' 
Sovereign lord the King there hath ben soulde by dyvers 
Churchewardens by the consent of the parisshe to dyvers 
personnes suche of the forseide Goodes and ornaments vest- 
ments and Jewells as ben underwritten for suche sdmes of 
money as is hereafter declared. 


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AimosecuiidoB.^. Inprimis soulde bj John Tasburgh 

Ed. Sexti. Alderman Thomas Crane Boberte Hynder- 

8on and Fraunces Woolmere Churche 

wardens of the seide parisshe Too ffelyx Puttok * 

alderman and Thomas Sothertonne the parcells of 

plate hereafter expressed viz. : — 

The best Crosse w* the Cristall parcell gilte) ...,, 

. , „ ^ . ^, — JxxurxY* 

weighing uij" xv unces at v' the nnce. sm ) '' 

Itm the lesser Crosse parcell gilte weinge xxxvj | 

— i IX ' 

unces at v' the nnce. sm . . ) 

Itm the Crysmatory parcell gilte weying xxxij| ...j. 

imces at v* the unce. Sm. . • ) 

Itm soulde to them a peir of Sensures percell | . ^^ 

gilte weinge xxxix imces at v* the imce . / 
Itm soulde to them another peir of Sensures \ „^ 

percell gilte weing xlviij imces at v» unce . ) 
Itm to them twoo paxes parcell gilte weing xxxj ) ..,j 

unces at v" the imce. Sm. . ) 

Itm sould to them a monstrall w^ the burall \ ^ 

gilte weing xl imce at v* the imce . ) 

Itm a Challeis parcell gylte weing vij unces 



at V" the imce . . . ) 

Itm soldo to them a Shippe pcell gilt« weing \ 
vij unces at v® the unce. Sm. . . ) 

Itm to them soulde another Shipp parcell gilte 
weing ix unces at v* the unce 

Itm soulde by the seide Churchwardens to^ 

Mr. William Rogers alderman twoo settyll 

Chayor" at vj* viij^ twoo Curtens of white , 

Sarcenet at x* iiij aulter clothes of whytel ...« . ...^ 
^ . ^ \xxiijVtoj* 

bawdekyn at xiij" iuj** ij Corporas cassf i 
viij**. The beste coope viij^* twoo coopes of \ 
redde tyssewe at viij^ and a Cope of blew 
tyssewe yj^. Sm. 

* A goldgmith. 


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Itm soulde to M'. John Tasburgh alderman ij ^ 

stayned clothes at ij* iiij'* ij coopes of blewe 

tissue at liij" iiij** a sewete of redde velvet 

powdered with splayed egeUs at xxyj* viij* a i 

sewte of blewe velvet powdered w* mones atJ 

xl" the Bisshoppes sewte w* a coope at x* 

. > xiii^^ v' x*" 
ij coopes of tawnye velvet powdered with/^ •' 

sterres Ix* a cross banner at v" a sacramctej 

clothe of white sarcenet ij' vj** a piUowe at ' 

xij<* ij curtens of blewe and redde at v* a 

vestmete and ij timycles of redde tyssewe at 

iiij^^ Sin. . 

Itm soulde by the seide Churchwardens in the > 
seide yere to M*". flfelix Puttok alderman a 
Banner Cloth T: the Clothe that ded hang i 
before the roode at xxviij" iiij^ a white coope >iiij^' 
w* Dimstane at xxvj* viij** ij verdure clothes ' 
the one an aulter Clothe, and iij Cusshens w* 
the XXXV*. (sic) 

Itm solde M'. Thoinas Necton ^ alderman three ^ j. 
aulter clothes of blewe tissewe at . . ) 

Itm solde to Peter Peterson two corporas cassf '. 
of tissewe at v* iiij''' corporas cass of clothe 
of goulde at v' a pix clothe of redde tynsell \ xx" 
at ij' and a vestmete of blewe worsted at 
viiij'. Sm. . 

Itm soulde to Robert Hinderson iij aulter clothes \ 

of Bridges Satten at xx' a sewte of white Lxvj* viij** 
damaske at xlvj" viij^ 

Itm soulde to Thomas Crane a vestmente of \ 

blewe velvet broudered at xx* a Boxe wW ,.9 .... 
Cypres and a Stolle at xvj<* and a Sepulchre I ^ ^ ^"'' 
cloth of redde tissewe at xx" . . / 

8 A mercer, Norfolk Archceology^ vol. iii. p. 220. 


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Itm to Fraunces Woolmere a Sewte w* a Coope \ 

of blak velvet at iiij*^ and an olde Sewte / ....jj .^ ...^ 
of redde Bawdekyn and a vestment of redde r J J J 
damaske at xvj" viij** . . . / 

Itm to John Sotherton • a coope of tawny wor- \ 
sted at X* yj** and a litell steyned clothe \ x* ix^ 
at iij**. Sm. . . . . ) 

Itm soulde to William Gylberd a vestment and \ ,. .- ...^ 
twoo tunycles of blewe tyssewe at . ) 

Itm soulde to Thomas Sotherton too pyllows^ 

iiij childerns coopes a greene cusshion at j , .... 
viij" and twoo coopes of white Bawdekjoi f 
at Ix". Sm. . 

Auno tertio Itm soulde by the seide John Tasburgh 
R ^ Ed. Alderman Thomas Crane Robert (Hin- 
Sexti. derson) and Fraunces Wolmer Church- 

wardens of the seide parisshe in the ^viz 
thredde yeare of the Kings ma**®' reign 
by the consente of the parissheoners as 
hereafter ensuith 
Inpmis soulde to Thomas Lawrens twoo latten 

Candelstykks w* iij Images of a lectorn "^ weing / . . . . ^ . . . ^ 
CC xxj^^ at xix* the C and twoo Coopes k 
pondered w* Lyllepottf at xl' . . ' 

Itm soulde by the seide Churchwardens to John ^ .... 
Porter iij lente vestments at . . 1 

• A grocer. 

^ It will be Been upon reference to the inyentory of the goods remaining 4th 
October, 6th Edward VI., p. 66, that the lectern itself was permitted to remain, 
although the images were sold. Their fate may be surmised from the fact that 
the person who bought them was a bell-founder. The lectern in Norwich 
Cathedral was similarly despoiled, the figures at present round it are modem. 
There is a lithograph of it in the Illustrations to the Dictionary of Architecture, 
of the Architectural Publication Society, from a drawing made by Mr. Burgess 
before they were added. 


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Itm soulde to Peter Peterson three yestements) 
of blewe Bawdekyn at . . • j ^^ 

Itm to John Baaingham an old sewte of white \ 
at . . . .J^ 

Itm to John Alman twoo white vestments of) 

ffiistyanat . . J xiij* iiij' 

Itm Bonlde to Thomas Woobnan two coopes of \ 
redde velvet broudered w* aungells at . ) 

Itm soulde to John Sutton a vestment and twoo 
tunycles of redde velvet brodred w' aungells 
at . 

Itm soulde to Thomas Tesmonde a sengle vest- ) 

k XX* 

mente of redde veluet at . .) 

Itm to Thomas Bemonde two coopes of WhyteJ .^ ...^ 

and grene bridges Satten at . J ^ 

Itm soulde to Willm Gylbert® aU the books of) 

J XX* 

the quere for the some of 

ly vers \ 
I at vj* J 

Itm soidde by the saide Churchwardens to dy vers 
persons yj peces of ordynnce of the perke i 
iij crossestaves a pixe [clothe] and a foote for a > x* viij^ 
crosse of Copper and gilte cont in weighte i 
xiiij*^ at iiij** the li. Sin iiij" viij^ . . / 

* The Gilberts were grocers. Says Bale, writing in 15i9, ** I have been also 
at Norwyche, oure seconde cytie of name, and there aU the librarye monuments 
are turned to the use of their grossers, candelmakers, sopesellers, and other 
worldly occupiers/' If such was the fate of the Ubrary books, it could not be 
expected that the old service books would be preserved. It is clear, from the 
small amount they sold for, that they were purchased as mere waste material, 
for in a rich church like this the books must have been numerous and valuable. 
See vol. v., pp. 107-8, for the books of this church in the 14th century. Blome- 
field informs us that Nich. Colich in 1602 "gave 7/. to buy a new Legend*' 
for this church; and that this was not an unusual or excessive value, may 
appear from the will of Eatherine Gilbert, of North Burlingham St Andrew, 
1489, vol. i., p. 118, who bequeathed to the church there ** a boke most neces- 
sary to godds s'vice of the p'ce of x mrc*." The books of Swaffham Church in 
the 16th century were valued at £70. 13s. 4d., the principal missal being priced 
at £13. 6b. 8d., two new graduals at £9. 68. 8d., and two new antiphoners at £20. 


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Itm soulde by the seide churchwardens in the > 
seide thredde yere to dyvers personnes iiij 
sacre bells weing xiiij^^ at ij*^ the li ij' iiij*^ 
a greate steyned clothe and iij small steyned V xiiij* iiij^ 
clothes at vj" iij corporas cassC of blak velvet I 
at ij' the sealing in the Chappell in the 
Stepill with the pascall shafte iiij . Sin 

Itm soulde by the seide Churchwardens vij 
shorte dyaper aulter clothes at iij» yj** iiij 
dyaper aulter clothes and a fonte ^ cloth at I 
iiij' certeyn blak hangings at vj" viij** a fyre ! 
shelve xij** and a Crysmatorye clothe at vj^. 

' XV* viij'* 

Anno quarto Item soulde by Mr ffelix Puttok alderman 

R 1^ Ed. vj**. Thomas Sotherton William Loryson and John 

Gierke Churchwardens of the saide parisshe 

in the fourth yere of the kings mat^'" reign 

viz. : — 

Inpmis soulde by them to Thomas Warlowe n 

Goldsmyth a verge or wande of silver weing | vj' viij** 
an oimce . . . . ' 

Anno quinto Itm soulde by Mr Rogers Thomas] 
R 9^ Ed. Sexti. Sotherton John Porter and John | 
Clerke Churchwardens there to 
William Blewette Smyth a Bell 
Clapper price 

Anno Sexto Soulde nihil!. 

R & Ed. vj^. 

Sm to^" of thev 

parcellf soulde as is / , ..h -...« .^ 

beiore seide cometn i 

to the some of . / 

* Query, foot cloth : see p. 53. 

y. VJ^ 


ized by Google 


M** that M' WilKain Rogers alderman John Porter 
Robert Sokelyn and Thomas Kyng Churchwardens and 
other the aforenamed parissheoners of the seide parisshe 
Doo certyfye that they and the other churchwardens afore- 
named by the consent of the parissheoners of the seide 
parisshe have given and payed dyvers parcells of money out 
of the seide sum of thirtene poundes & xviij* remayning in 
the hands of the seide churchwardens of the seide Church 
the seide xv*^ day of flFebruarye as is aforeseide and out of 
the seide some of clxxvij" iiij" xj^ Receyved as is aforeseide 
for the parcells before soulde at it dothe hereafter perticulerly 

Anno secxmdo Imprimis the seide John Tasburgh alder- 
R 1^ Ed. yj*\ man Tho* Crane Roberte Hinderson and 
Fraunces Woolmere churchwardes in the 
seconde yere of the reign of o' seide sove- 
reign lorde King Edwarde the sext have 
payed by the consent of the parisshe for 
the altering of the Churche and Chauncell 
making of tables^ w* scripture and gar- 
nysshieng the churche and chauncell w' the 
same as in their booke booke (sic) ap- 
perithe . . . v*^ xvj" ij^ 

Itm given and payed to the Mayo' & coialtye 

of ISlbrwiche for and towards the amendy- f ...,. . .... 

> xiii vj vuj 
ing and skoring of the Ryver there for the I 

commodyte of the hooU Citie the some of ' 

Itm payed by them for a paraphrase x' and \ 

half a dozen psalters v' paper for songes / 

xij*^ and for other newe churche bookes ( 

X'. SiR. . 

XX vj" 

» One of these "tables," dated 1547, Decernb , remains at the church to 
the present day. The inscription is printed in Blomefield, vol. ii., p. 708 Of 
other "scriptures" on the walls I discovered considerable remains in 1863, 
when the gallery was removed. 


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Itm payed for a newe coope of white dyaper ) ,., 
tills yere the some of . . / 

Itm for iiij newe lecterns in the quere . viij* 

Itm for amending of the glas wyndowes and \ 
sweping of the strets against the Churche > xx** 
yarde . ' . . ' 

Itm for a Boxe for the poore and twoo keys ) ., ...^ 
thereunto and the mending of them . ' 

Itm payed for a Byble in the Churche . xiij* viij** 

Itm for fyve dossen of newe lether boketts x 

for the Churche w* ij ladders and a crome / jj ...^ ... 
to serve and healpe in the Cittie at casual- I ^ ^ 

tyes of %er in the same * . / 

Itm for a greate Cheste bounden w* Iron w^ \ 

iij lockes and keys standing in the churche > Ixvj' viij'* 
for the poore the some of . • / 

Anno tertio Itm the aforenamed John Tas- \ 
R IJr Ed. Y]'' burgh Thomas Crane Robert Hin- \ 
derson and Frances Woolmere 1 
Churchwardens in the thredde| 
yere of the reign of our seidel 
sovereign Lorde King Edward the > viij^Mij'j** 
syxte have payed for making! 
glasse wyndows making of tables' 
and the gamissing of them and 
other places of the churche w* 
scripture the some of . 

> In 1550, ** an ordinance waa also confirmed^ that all Parishes in the Citj 
should hare Ladders, Buckets, and Ropes for Wells, in case of fire." — Blomefield, 
ToL iL p. 186. 

The crome was '* used for pulling down a house when on fire, to prevent the 
flames spreading to other buildings." — Kussell's KeU*a Rebellion, p. 139, n. i. 


ized by Google 


Itm payed for the paraphraaf uppon th' epistells 

vj* and half a dossen psalters viij' iiij** and [ xix* (sic) 
pry king certen songes^ for the quere v*. S". 

Itm payed for vij yerdes a quart**' and nayle of 
white damaske for a Coope at viij' vj** the 
yerde Ixij" ij** and for fustyan lynen viij* ix^ 
and making thereof ij*. Sm. 

Itm for the paving of the streete againste the 
Churche uppon Ixx yerdes w* stoon marie & 
sand aboute the same 

Itm gyven and payed w' the consente of the^ 
parisshe towards the reparacon of the Gtites 
and walles of the Cittie and the fortifieng 
of the same, whiche was soore decayed by 
the Bebbells the some of * 

Itm for carryeng awaye of the muke from the x 
Churche walles and keping cleane the streets > xxij** 
aganest them . . . . / 

Ixxij" xj 




Anno Quarto Itm the aforenamed fPelix Puttok 
R^^Ed. vi^* Thomas Sotherton William Lorry- 
sonne and John Gierke Churchwar- 
dens in the fourte yere of the reign 
of the king o' sovereign lorde have 
payed for the makinge and setting 
uppe of newe Seats in the churche . 
Itm payed for a newe conmiimyon table . v* 

Itm for a newe booke of Serv5''ce for our Curate | ..... 
this yere . . . . ) 

xxiij* ij** 

' " Prick-Bong, Musick set down in notes."— "Wright's Provincial Dictionary. 

* In Bnssell's Ketft Rebellion, p. I87i is an account of the money received in 
1548-9, ** of certen churches in the Cjte, toward the great chai*ges the Cyte had 
by resin of a Gomodon;" the Chamberlain only charges himself with £10, 
received from St. Andrew's parish. 


ized by Google 


Itm gy ven and payed by the seide Churchwar- \ 
dens w* the consente of the parisshe for % 
towards the reKef of the poore in the Hos- ^ 
pitall the buylding of the houses lately brent | 
by the Rebbels and clerelye consumed withe 
fire the some of ^ . . . ^ 

Itm for ij belleroopes and mending the bells . xx* 

Itm for keping cleane the Streets againste the \ 

churche and carryeing away the fylthe > ij* iiij* 
thereof this yere . . . ; 

Itm payed for a plate for the poore mens cheste \ 
iiij** and for carryeing away of colder out of > ij* 
the Church yerd . . . ) 

Anno Quinto Itm the aforenamed William Rogers^ 
R 5^ Ed. TJ^'. alderman Thomas Sotherton John 
Gierke and John Porter Church- 
wardens, in the fyveth yere of the \ xx* 
Kings ma'^** reign have payed for 
an iron grate in the Wall at the 
Church Style the Some . . ; 

Itm for newe glasing and stopping of ^^^f jxxv* 

doon in the glasse wyndowes to Carre. Sm. ) 
Itm for making ^ setting upp of iiij long seats v 

in the Chappells heyuing the lectome and / ....j. .^ ..^ 
other things doon there by /the Carpenter! 
and nayles and seelings . . J 

Itm for mending of the bells and frames y* ij** v 

the keping clene of the streetes next the / .,, ..^ 
churche walles and carryeing away the fylthe I J •* 
w* carta from thens ij". sm . ,^ 

' After the defeat of the King's troops on Palace Plain, Aug. 1st, 1549, the 
rebels set fire to the city, and Mr. Bussell relates, that the Mayor's deputy, 
looking out from his highest gallery, ** saw that they had set y« whole howses 
in the streete calld Holmstrete, a fyer on both sydes, with a grett part of the 
HospitaU howses of office that longid to the poore in that howse." — KeU'» 
BebeUion^ p. 105. 


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Itm to Blewet for making the Qreate belief ^ ..^ 
Clapper v* ij** . . . . ) ^"^ 

Itm for a Belleroope ij* wasshing surplesses this \ 

yere vj* viij** skoring the lectern xvj^ sweping r .... ...j 

the churche yerds and streats and carryeng ( J •' 
the fylthe awaye iij" iiij**. sm . J 

Itm there was loste this yere out of the ^ 
some of Ixxxxiij^* xvij' ix** remayning 
in money at the twoo falles of moneye i 
by the first and second proclamacons « ^ ^ ^ 
of shillings to yj'* and groots ij^ the 
some . . . . ^ 

Anno sexto Itm payed in the syxte yere of the 
R 9^ Ed. vj**. reigne of the king by the present 

churchwardens to Edmonde Yongf .^ .. 
Plomere for amending of certen ( 
decayed places in the leade of the 
Churche this yere. Sm 
Itm to a man ij dayes to helpe him xij** for 
nayles & tooles iiij** ob for evesbourde xij^ a 
newe tome'' making the stolpes® T setting 
uppe w* that long to it ij" viij^ 
Itm payed to ij workemen for vi days wo^ke 
of masonscrafte at xiij* the daye vj» yj<* ii*^ 
of leade ij^ a loode of Sonde vj** iiij®' combes 
of lyme ij* for iij iron pynnes iij** a daye 
work uppon the stepill xiij** and for roosen 
and waxe ij**. Sm 

* ** And now, by the King's Proclamation, every shilling (so much was the 
coin clipped and debased) was reduced to 6<^., and every groat to 7d** — Blome- 
field, vol. ii. p. 186. '* These proclamations were made on the 9th July and 
17th August, 1650. See Stow^s AnndUy — Norf, ArchtfoLy vol. v. p. 110, n. 6. 

"^ Tome, i. e. tuinstile. 

' Stolpes, posts. ** It p"^ for vij stulpes for to stande ageinste y« walles.'* — 
Churchwardens' Accounts, St. Margaret's Parish, 1575. 


x» viij* 


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Sm of the money ^ 
payed and deducted | cxliiij" xiij* viij** 
as is aforeseide . ' 
Which some deducted out of the seide some of xiij^ and 
xviij** remayning in thandes of the seide Churchwardens in 
the seide xv^^ day of February in the seide second yere and 
out of the seide Some of Clxxvij^^ iiij* xj* for parcells soulde 
as is aforeseide there doo nowe remayne in money and goodes 
as hereafter followeth. 

Inprimis in ready moneye . . xlv^ xij* ix**. 

And there doo nowe remayne in the seide Churche \ 
at this daye one Communyon Cuppe weing 
xl unces parcell gilte at v» the unce Sm x** 
whiche was made of twoo peir of challeis w^ I 
the patens parcell gilte a verge or wande 
before contoyning in this present Certificate I 
which verge was altered into a communyon 
token weing togethers according to the rate 
of xl unces* . 
Itm a pawle of blak velvet w* tyssewe in the ) 

myddes thereof valued at 
Itm another here clothe of Saye psed 
Itm iiij pawlis of bawdekyn valued at 
Itm iij cusshens of blak saye valued 
Itm ij cusshens of redde saye valued 

liij« iiij^ 

iiJB iiijd 
yj" viij^ 

^ Before 1706, little more than 1*50 years from the date of this inventory, the 
plate had increased to a total of 226 ounces, viz. — 

Two silver fflagons . . 117 ounces. 

A Silver Bason . . . . 46 „ 
A Silver plate . . 20 „ 

Two guilt Cupps with Covers 43 „ 

All the other goods, with the exception of the bells, had diminished, there 
only remaining in November, 1706, besides the plate just mentioned — 

** A Comunion Table Cloath & Napkin, two Surplices, & two Tippetts, Eight 
Bells. The Tenor about Eighteene hundred weight, & the Treble about five 
hundred weight. A velvitt pulpitt Cushion & a Scarlett Table Cloath.*' 
[vol. VII.] F 


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Itm iiij°' corporassf w* kerchers in them 

Itm yj table ^ clothes of dyaper yalued 

Itm yj towells of dyaper & pleyn clothe 

Itm ij sieved surplesses for the curate 

Itm iiij®' sieved' surplesses for queresters 

Itm vij Sloppe surplesses goode & badde 

Itm ij foote ^ clothes of blewe & redde 

Itm ij pryket Candelstycks of latten psed 

Itm a crismiatory * of latten valued 

Itm a greate latten lectern valued 

Itm a bason and ewer of pewter 

Itm a brasen pulleye valued at 

Itm ij peir of organnes valued at 

Itm a Coffer for the Regester Bookes of oris- 

tenings marriages and buryalls valued 

Itm a booke of the comon prayo' valued 

8m tol^of the), 

} Ixxyi" 
premisses remayning ) '' 

Itm in the Steple vij bells whereof ane is 

called the Gabryell beU whiche Seven bells 

do conteyne in weight . 







Ixyj* viij** 


yj* viij* 

iiij- ij* 



The Boke of Seynt Marye of Coslanye in Norwyche. 

The Certyfycat of Jaffirey Mychellf and John Thurston 
churchewardens of Seynt Marys pysche in Coslanye and 
Rychard Cocke Symond Crabbe Robt XJmfreye and Symon 

^ These are auUer clothes at p. 64. 

> The unction in Baptism, and the anointing of the sick, were retained in the 
first Prayer-Book of Edward VI. 

' It might perhaps he inferred, that the copes purchased in the 2nd and Srd 
years of Edward YL, eee pp. 61-2, were no longer in use, as they are not 
mentioned in this inventory ; but this would be hardly a safe conclusion, for the 
Bible bought in 2 Ed. VI., p. 61, and the communion table, purchased, in the 
4th Ed. VI., p. 62, with all the other articles certified to be purchased, do not 
appear in the inventory. 


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Petty tt pyschners there made 1 certified to the ryght reuende 
ffather in god Thomas Byschope of Norwyche to y° ryght 
worshipfull Thomas Qnwdye Richard Catlyn Osbert Moimd- 
forthe John Corbett and Augpisfeyn Stywarde Esquyers Co- 
rny ssioSs the" iiij"* daye of Octobre in y* sixt yere of y* 
reigne of oure SoSeigne lorde Edward y® yj*^ by y« grace 
of God Kyng of Inglond ffrHmce 1 Irelond defender of y« 
faythe and in yerthe of y® churche of Inglond and Irelond 
supiSe heade the seyd Churchwardens and pyschners sworne 
and examynyd saye and certefye upon y^ othes as Insewythe. 

In p*mis they certefye that there was and dyd remajm in 
y* seyd churche the xv^** daye of February in the seconde 
yere of y* reigne.of oure seyd soueigne lorde kyng Edward 
y® syxte in plate bells goods vestments and ornaments as 
hereaftyr ptycularlye apearethe. 

In p^mis in redye money y® simi of xxiiij^* xvij* xj*^ 

Itm one payer of chales of sylv pcell gylt weyeng | 

xj ownces valued at iiij® the ownce. Sm* . ) ^ 
Itm ffyve owncf of sylv plate valued at iiij* vj 

tm nyve ownct: oi syiv piate vaiuea at mj» v|"\ ..^ . 
the ownce. Sm* , . . . ) ^ ^ 



Itm a verger wonde of Sylv weyeng one ownce) ... 
and three quarters valued at * . . . ) •* 

Itm three banfi clothes 1 too staves valued at . x* 

* The small quantity of plats (only 17$ oz.) is accounted for by the fact that 
the pariah had already sold oyer 300 oz. : see the Certificate in Norf. Archeol,, 
vol. yi., p. 367. In Hairison's MS. Collections is a 17th-century transcript of 
« A Certificate made To the noble and mightie Prince Edward duke of Somersett 
Lorde p'tector of all the hinges mates realmes dominions & subiects and goyemo' 
of his most royall p'son and to the residue of his highnes most honorable pryyie 
Counsaile of the Plate Jewella Bells and other omamentes belonging to certaine 
churches and chappells w^^in the diocesse of Norw^^^ sold as appeareth by the cer- 
tificate of eyerie church warden, where anie such sale haye bene made within the 
said Diocesse." Although not of the same yalue as a contemporary copy, it is still , 
to a certain extent, trustworthy, as it appears upon collation with the original 



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Itm a canapye of steyned woorke^ wj'the y® ffryng J 
of sylk w* y® fframe T; y* staves Tahied at . ) 

Itm three tabernacle clothes ® w* y° irons therto | 
belongjTig valued . . • ) 

Itm three Aulter clothes of fusteny napes valued . x» 

Itm a pyxt clothes valued at . . . viij* 

. xiiij'viij** 
. xxvij'vij* 
. X* viij'* 
iiij^^ iij' viij<* 

Itm vij Awbes and three Amyas valued 

Itm one Sute of Redde Satten valued at 

Itm three Aulter clothes valued . 

Itm a Sute of green velvett valued at 

Itm a sute of Clothe of tyssewe valued 

Itm a Sute of whyght damaske wythe flowers of 

golde valued at . 
Itm a Sute of whyte damaske powdred w* lylye \ 

potts of golde valued at . . j 

certificates, a number of 'which yet remain, that its errors are those of omission. 
It would occupy too much space, and not serve any particular end to print it 
here ; suffice it therefore to say, that it enumerates 346 chunjhes in the city and 
county from which goods had been disposed of at that date ; the amounts realised 
ranging from a few pounds, or in some instances a few shillings, to over a 
hundred pounds. The sum total of the money was £5131. Is, 4}(^., and there 
is good reason for belieying that to be below the actual amount. 

' Probably over the altar. In the will of Edward Segeford, Citizen and 
Mercer of Norwich, dated 1452, is the following bequest: **Item lego diet 
Conuentui fratrum predicatorum in Norwico ad facturam et operationem tabu- 
larum cum le yalaunces sine Selewrys earundem super altare dicte ecclesie in 
futur ibidem fiend et stabliend yiginti libras.'* — Beg''. Aleyn, fo. 173. 

Sir John Oxdiff, parson of Creting St. Peter, by his will, dated 30th August, 
1535, gave to the church there his *' Sarsnet typpet to make a canape cloth for 
the pixte.**— Reg'. Godsalye, fo 40. 

John Grene of Pulham, in 1541, bequeathed **to the gilting of the Canapie 
over the Sacreme't xr^.'* — Reg' Attmcre, fo. 352. 

In the Tanner MSS. p. 2119, under the head of '* Church Ornaments," are 
some extracts from the Harling Churchwardens' Accounts of the year 1460. 

** For a line for the Canape ij**. For whipcord to y* same j**. For Lynen 
cloth for y« Canape ij" viij<*. Item for working the same viij« ij<*.'* 

< Most likely curtains, or veils, drawn or let down before the images of saints 
at the conclusion of the service. 


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Itm a ^sbytorye valued "^ . . . . x* 

Itm ye hyghe Aulter w^ the deckyng therof valued xiij* iiij'* 

Itm as moche brasse and latten as was valued . xxxvj* 

Itm on vestement of Ciy^mson velvett valued at . xx* 
Itm a Cope of blewe velvett and a vestment of y® ^ 

same w* bellf valued at . . . i 

Itm an owlde cope of redd damaske valued at . iij* iiij** 

Itm an Awltre clothe of whyght damaske valued . v" 

Itm a sute of blacke worsted valued at . xiij* iiij** 

Itm yj Aulter clothes of blacke worstede w* bondf \ 

and letters valued at . . . j J .» 

Itm a grene clothe of Bawdkyn valued at . vj* viij** 

Itm too slevyd Surplesses valued at . xvj* 

Itm ffoure Towells valued a* . . . xvj** 

Itm three Aulter clothes of lynyn valued . xij** 

Itm a here clothe of blacke woorsted valued . v* 

Itm too Cuschyngf of redd velvett valued at . iij* iiij'' 

Itm too Cuschyngf of redd chamlett valued at . ij* 

Itm one CuschjTig of blacke sylke valued at . xij** 

Itm a payr of Organes valued at . . . Ixvj" viij** 

Itm a Chyste stondyng in y® vesterye valued . iij* iiij^ 

Sm* Ixiij^^ ix" iiij** 

Itm in y* steple fiyve bellf wherof the one is 
called a Gabryell bell whiche ffyve bellf con 
teynethe togetlier in weyght by estymacon 

That is to seye the grettest bell cont in weygth 

The ffourth bell con? in weygth . 

The thredd bell cont in weyght . 

XXX vj*' 




' " A stole which somtymo dyd stund at y^ highe Aulter called y« p'sbytoiye.'* 
—See p. 72. 

In the will of NicholaB Hews, dated 1 6th September, 1502, is this bequest 
to the church of St. Lawrence in Norwich. " Item to y presbitory my besto 
Carpett w^ iij Cusshyns of small verder for to be occupied at p'ncipall fcstC att y^* 
high auter in y*" seyde presbitory." — Reg'. Rixe, fo. 168. 


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The seconde bell cent in weyght . . . v^ 

The lytyll bell vidj y® gabryell bell cont in weyght one ® 

Wherof they seye and certefye that sythens the seyd xv 
day of February b^ y* second yere of y* reigne of oave seyd 
Soueigne lorde the Kyng there hathe byn sold by dyvse 
Churche wardens and by y* consent of y* parrysche to dyvse 
psons suche of the aforeseyd goodf ornament^ vestmentf and 
Jewellf as be underwrytten for suche sumes of money as is 
hereaftyr declaryd. 

A**, nf Ed* In phnis sold by Wyllm ChHmte 
vj'* secudo and Rob* Humfreye Churche war- 
dens of y* seyd pysche to Phelix 
Puttocke goldesmyth in y® seconde 
yere of oure Soueigne lorde y® kyng 
tfyye ouncf of silv plate affcyr y* 
rate of iiij' vj** y® ounce sm* Jixij* vj*^ 

I?m ther was soldo by y* seyd churchewardens to \ 
Richard Cocke the best banS clothe for . ) 

Itm ther was soldo by y* same churchwardens \ 
to Rob* Erode too banS clothys w* the stavj'^s for j 
Itm there was sold by the same churchewardens \ 
to Edward Leke three tabernacle Clothys wythe > vj* 
y® Irons thereto belongyng for . . / I 

I?m ther was sold by y' same Churchwardens to \ I 

Thomas Morleye one canapye of [blank in orig.] > x' i 

w* y® ffirynge of sylke the frame and stavys for ' 
Itm there was solde by y® seyd churchwardens \ 
to y® seyd Thomas Morleye three aulter clothes { x' 
of ffustenye napes for . . . - 

A^ rrf Itm solde by Symon Petytt one of 

E yj** tercio y' Churchwardens by y*^ consent of 

y« pysche to Edwarde Leke th'othyr 

of y* seyd Church wardens thear in 


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ye iijde jQ^e of y® reygne of oure seyd 
soueign lorde the kyng a verger 
wonde of sylver weyeng one ownce 
. iij quarters for . . viij* 

Itm there was soldo by y* seyd Symon" and\ 
Edwarde then churchewardens to Erles wyff \ viij' 
one pyxe clothe for . . . ) 

Ifm there was solde by y* seyd Churchwardens \ 

to Ch"unts wyjBf three Awbbys and three > viij» iiij** 
Amyas for . . ,) 

Itm there was solde by y* sey** churchewar- ^ ....^ ...^ 
dens to Wyftn Deynes wyff too awbys for . ; 

Itm there was solde by y* same church war- | ^ 
dens to Joone Cocke one awbe for . ) 

Km ther was solde by y* seyd Church war-'\ 
dens to Andrew G^ybson a sute of Redd satyn > xxvij* vij^ 
for . .) 

Km there was solde by y* seyd Churchwardens \ ^ ...^ 
to Symon Crabbe three Aulter clothys for . ) '' 

Km there was solde by y* seyd Churchwardens \ 

to Bichard Cocke one Sute of grene velvett > iiij^ iij* yiij** 
for. . . .) 

Ibn there was solde by y« same Churchwardens \ 

to Rob* XJmfreye one sute of Clothe Attyssue \ vj^* vj* viij^ 
for. . . .) 

Km there was solde by the same churchwardens j 
to Thom*8 Morleye one Sute of whyght I xl" 
damask w* fflowers of golde for . . ) 

Itm there was solde by the same churchwardens \ 
to ^rles wyffe one sute of whyght damaske > Ixx* 
w* lylye pottf of golde for . j 

A** rrf Itm solde by Thomas Butte and 

Ed' Sexti Andrew gybson Churchewardens of y* 

iiij'^* seyd pysche w* y* consent of y® pysche 


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to Thomas Morleye in y® fourte yere 
of y® reign* of our seyd soueigne 
lorde Kyng Edwarde y« syxte a Stole 
which somtyme dyd stond at y* highe 
Aulter called y® psbytorye for . x* 

If m sold by the same Churchwardens to John \ 

Thurston y^ heygh Aulter w* y® deckyng > xiij* iiij** 
therof for ® . . . . ; 

I&n there was sold b (sic) 

* The general order for the taking down of altars b dated 23rd Koyember of 
this year. It was in the form of a letter from the king and council to the 
bishoi>8, setting forth that although the altars in the more part of the churches 
were already taken down, there did fei remain altars standing in divers other 
churches by occasion whereof much yariance and contention ariseth ; the bishop 
is therefore specially charged and commanded, ** for the avoiding of all matters 
of farther contencon and striff aboughte the standing and takinge away of the 
said aulters to give substancyall ordre througoute all your Dyocese that w^ all 
diligence all the aulter^ in every churche or chappell as well in places exempted 
as not exempted w^in your said Diocese to be taken downe and in lieu of them 
a table sett vp in some convenyent parte of the chaunsell." Immediately upon 
the receipt of this» the Bishop of Norwich (Thirlby) sent the following letter to 
his archdeacons. 

''After moost hertie comendac'ons wheras J haue the second day of this 
instant Decembre Receiued the king his moost honorable Ires vndre his highnes 
signet and Signed with his moost gracious hande concemeing the taking downe 
of aulter^ w4n this my diocesse and in leu of them a decent table to be sett vp 
in some convenient place of every chaunsell and also a little boke imprinted 
shewing certeyn reasons why the LordC bourde shuld rather be after the foorme 
of a table then of an altar the copye of which Ires and boke J send vnto yow 
herin enclosed. And knowing that the mooste parte of all alterp within this 
my diocesse be all redye taken downe by co'mandement of my lorde of Can- 
turburye his gracf visitors in his late visitac'on this Diocese then being voyed 
yet mynding moost humblie to obey the said Ires and to do my dutie in accom- 
plisshing the same as apperteyneth. Thes shalbe to require you and in the 
King^ Ma**«» bihalf to co'mand you that ymediatlie vpon the receipte herof 
with all diligence and celerytie taking with you such graue precher as shalbe 
nere vnto you you do repayre to such markett Townes and grete Townes w4n your 
Archedeconry where calling bifore you the Curatp and chirchewardens of the 
p'ishes aboughte the same J charge you to sett fourthe the kingf pleasure and 
preceding^ in the premiss^ according to the trewe purpote effecte and meancng 


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Anno rrf Itm there was sold by Eychard Cocke N 

Ed^ vj" and John Woolsye chiwch ward ens of 

quinto y* seyd pysche church w^ the consent , 

oi Y* pysche to John Sadler of I 

Norwych in y* y^ yerc of y* reigne f •' 

of our seyd Soueigne Lorde Kyng 

Edwarde the syxte as moche brasse T 

latten as they receyvyd for yt 

The Sm* of the pcellf soldo ^ ,. .. . 

t XXV vii® i** 
as is aforesayd corny th to y* sm" of) -^ •' 

M'* that y® seyd Jaffrey Mychells and John Thurston 
Churchwardens and other y® aforenamyd pyschners of y® 
seyd pysche do certefye thaA y* other churchwardens afore- 
namyd by y® consent of y* pyschners of y® seyd parrysche 
hathe gevyn and payd dyvse pcells of moneye out of y* seyd 
Sm of xxv^* vij» j"* Receyvyd as is aforeseyd for y® pcells 
before soldo and out of y*^ seyd Sm of xxiiij" xvij" xj^ Re- 
maynyng in th'ands of y® Churchwardens of the seyd churche 
im the seyd xv*^ daye of Februarij as is aforesayd as hereaftyr 
by y* sevall declaracons therupon made dothe and maye apeare 

A^ ij^ In pmis the seyd Wyllm Chnmt 1 ^ 
Rob* Umfreye Churchewardens in y« 
seconde yere of oure seyd Soueigne i 

lord Kyng Edwarde the Syxte have' ^ 

payde by y* consent of y® pysche to [ "^ ** '' 
y® poore people of y* same parrj^sche 
for on hole yere that is to saye xx^ a 
weeke Sm* to^f 

of the said moost honorable letterp with such further Reasons apte for the 
same as shi^be thought moost convenient and agrcable by you and the said 
prechcr as you woU answcre at your parrell. Thus fare you well At Norwich 
this thred daie of Decembre 1560." — Reg', of Administrations, 1649 — 66, 

It will have been noticed at p. 62 that a new Communion Table was bought 
for St. Andrew's parish in this year. 


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A° iij° I&n tha aforenamyd Symon Petytt % \ 
Edwarde Leke Ghurchwardens in the 
thredd yere of the Keigne of our seyd 
fioiieigne lorde Eyng Edwarde the 
Syxte have payd to Wyttm Johnson >xxvj» viij<* 
Mason for pavyng of y* strete next 
adjoynyng to y® churche yerde as 
farre as y® pysche extendethe towarde 
Seynt Olaves y* sm* of 
Km the seyd Symon Petytt 1 Edward Leke 
Churchwardens in y® seyd thredd yere of ] 
y« reign of oure seyd soueigne lorde Kyng r ....^ 

Edwarde y* yj^ by y* consent of y« pysch- I 
ners have payd to WyUm Bevys for stone ] 
to pave y* seyd strete . 
Itm payd by y* same Churchwardens to John \ 

Ketheryngham for sonde to i>ave y« seyd > xj* vj** 
strete . . . . .1 

Itm payd by the same Churchwardens for^j 

waschyng the churche lynyng % for swepyng > iiij* vj** 
the strete next adjoyneg to the churche . ) 
Itm payd for a barrowe to be occupyed for the \ .^ 

seyd pavyng . . J 

Itm payd by the seyd churchwardens for the ex- \ ^ 

chaunge of xx** testems of y* churche money j 
Itm payd by the seyd churchwardens to Thomas ) 
Garrard for Ixxiiij lode of stone and sonde . j 
Itm payd by y* seyd churchwardens to Henry \ 
Balls £Por a bybyll xiij" for a booke callyd j 
the paraphras xj" for syx small Salters xv* > xl* 
and for iiij grett salters iiij' for y« churche 1 
to sey y® ?vyce thear . . . / 

Itm payd by the seyd churchwardens to Bevys ) ...*g . ^ 
for caryeng of Coldre to heyn y* Strete w* ® . ) 

» In 1641 the parish •* p** for 66 loode of Ashes to hajnie the streeitt w^** all 
02 02 00." — Churchwardens' Accounts, 


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Itm payd by y* seyd churchwardenB for b]«de| 

1. bere for woorkmen in y* seyd woorke . j ^ 
Itm payd by the seyd Churchwardens to Keth- \ 
eryngham for xiiij lode of stone for pavyng > vij* 
y* seyd strete . . . . ) 

Itm payd by y* seyd churchwardens to Wyttm j 
Johnson y* mason for woorkemimschyi^ at > xl^ 
a noy) ^ tyme fer pavyng the seyd strete . ; 
Itm payd more by y* seyd Churchewardens to . 

the poore people of y® seyd pysche by y* con- / ....j. ., ...^ 
sent of y® pysche xx^ every weke duryng en \ . 
hole yere 
A^ iiijo Itm Thorns Butt and Andrewe Gybson ^ 
Churchwardens in y® fourte yere of y* 
reigne of cure seyd Soueigne Lorde , 
Kyng Edwarde y* syxte by the con- Viiij^ yj* viij**. 
sent of the pyschners have payd to the I 
poore people of the seyd pysche xx** 
euy weke duryng on hole yere 
A° v^ Itm Rychard Cocke and John Wool- > 
sye Churchwardens in y« fyfte yere of 
y« reigne of cure seyd SoSeigne Lorde 
Kyng Edwarde the Syxte by the con- I 
sent of the pyschners have gevyn and 
payd to the reedefyeng of the howsys 
belongyng to the hospitall which were 
consumed 1. brent by y* Bebells in 
y* Comocyon tyme 
Itm payd by y® same Churchwardens to y' 
poore people of the seyd pysche xx** euy weke ( xlv** 
duryng xxvij weeks . 
Itm payd by y* same Churchwardens to y* 

poore people of y* seyd pysche when y* xij** [ viij* iiij'^ 
by y* first pclamacon was but ix** 

' Query, another. 


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Itm for y® losse of y'' seyd viij' iiij** . . iii* iiij** 

Itm thear was lost in xix^* iiij' iiij** beyng in \ 

y* chyste in y* churche when y* xij** by > ix^* vij' iiij** ob 

the second pclamacon was but vj** . ) 

Sm* of y* money payd and 
mynysshed as is aforesayd is xlj^* ij" ob 

Which Sm* deduoted [out of y® seyd S& of xxv^^ \ij* j^ 
Receyvyd as is aforeseyd for y** pcells before soldo and] out 
of y* seyd sum of xxiiij*^ xvij* xj** remayning in y* seyd xv^*^ 
daye of februarij anno secudo Eegf nunc ther do nowe 
remayn In mom T^ goods as heraft' followyth — 

A** vj® In redye moneye . . . ix*^ iiij' vj^ 

And ther do nowe remayn in y* seyd churcho at this daye 
one soldo of y* pcells above remembred thes pcells followyng 
that is to seye 
In pmis one chales of sylv weyeng xj ownce8^\ 

which is prysed at iiij* the ownce. Sm* . ) ^ 

Itm a vestement of Crymsyn velvet valued at . xx* 
Itm a cope of blewe velvet valued at . . xl" 

Itm an olde cope of Redd damaske valued at . iij* iiij** 
Itm an Aulter clothe of why te damaske at . v" 

Itm a Sute of blake worsted valued at . . xiij* iiij** 

Itm syx Aultre Clothys of blewe worsted wM •••,••••,! 

bondf and letters valued at . . j ^ ^ 

2 The present chnrch plate is described in the inventory delivered at the 
Bishop's Visitation in 1784 as follows : 

** Also there is belonging to the said Parish and Church of Saint Mary at 
Coslany, and now in use in the said Church, a service of silver plate for the Holy 
Communion, consisting of one Tankard or Flaggon weighing furty-six Ounces, 
On the front of which is Engraven this Memorandum, Deo optimo xaximo humi- 
lime Dicatur in Usum St** Eucharists in Ecclesia Sf" Maris in Norvico, Anno 
Domini, 1728 ; — One Antient Cup, with a Cover, weighing sixteen Ounces, and 
on the foot of the Cover is engraved in an Ornamented Square, Satnct Marye 
OP CosLANYB An<». 1669 ; — One Patten, or Salver, weighing twenty-six ounces, 
on which is engraven, St. Mary of Coslany, 1736 ; also a Bason for Alms, weigh- 
ing Sixteen Ounces, on which is engraven, St. Mary of Coslany, 1746." 


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Itm a grene cloth of bawdkyn valued at . vj* viij'^ 

Itm too slevj^d surplesses valued at . . xvj* 

Itm ffoure towells valued at . . . xyj^ 

Itm three Aultre clothes of lynnyn clothe . -xij** 

Itm a here clothe of blake worsted valued at . v' 

Itm too Cuschyngs of Redd velvett valued at . iij» iiij<* 

Itm too Cuschyngs of Redd chamlett vaiu^d at . ij» 

Itm on Cuschyng-of blake sylke valued at . xij^ 

Itm one peyer of organs valued at ^ . . Ixvj* viij'' 

Itm a chyst standyng in the vesterye valued at iij" iiij** 
Sm* of y® remayn xxij^ ix* x^ ob.* 

3 In 1688 the Churchwardens charge themselves with xvij* j<* reoeived " of 
Allen the pewterer for the o^n pipes con' xlj>» at r* the li." 

* The outgoing Churchwarden in 1627 delivered to his successor the *' Church 
goods ffoUowing, vidz. 

** Imprimis a Communion Cup p'cell gilt with a Cover to it 

" Itm a pewter stoope 

'* Itm wone Church Cloth of silke & gold imhroidered for the Communion tahle. 

** Itm 4 blew worsted Cloaths & an ould Blacke Cloath 

'* Itm two white linnen Cloathes for the Communion table 

*• Itm a Surplis 

*' Itm Jewells apology & Erasmus paraprase 

'* Itm a booke of homilyes and a booke of Canons 

** Itm a nother booke intituled the Defence of the Right of Kings • 

'* Itm a Register booke in p*chment 

" Itm a booke of articles 

" Itm a pulpit Cushion and eleven other Cushions 


In 1709 the following '* true & Perfect note of all & Singular the goods bookes 
omam'* & vtensiUs" was delivered at the Bishop's Visitation. 

** Imp" one Comunion table 

*' Item one silver Chalice with the Cover 

" Item one Carpet for the Communion table 

*' Item one Pewter fflaggon one Pewter Bason 

'* Item one Pewter Charger 

*' Item one Greene Pulpit Cloath one Deske Cloath & a Cushion of the same 

^* Item one fine Linnen Cloath & two Napkins for the Comunion table 

** Item one large Surplice of Holland & a black hood 

** Item a black buriall Cloath 


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Remayne i Itm in y® steple %ve bells wherof the on ib 

at y*' day ) called a gabryell bell which ffyve bells do weye 

together by estymacon xxxtj hundred that is to 

seye the grettest bell do weye xij*' the fourt bell 

^ x*^ the iij**« bell viij'^ the ij bell v« the lyttell bell 

vid3 y* gabryell bell one hundred 

*' Item Eighteen Latten or Tiim Sconses 

** Item two great Chaires 

«< Item a book of Homilies one large bible two Common prayer bookes Erasmus 

upon the New testam^ Vol the first & Bishop Jewelles woikes 
<• Itm Six Bcils with their frames & one Small bell not hung." 

Since the first few pages of this paper were printed off I have ascertained 
from Harrison's MS., quoted at p. 67, that the certificate printed at p. 48, 
note 2, belongs to the parish of St. Audre (Etheldred) and not to that of 
St. Andre (Andrew). 


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iassett's '$anBt, '^oc\i\oxT^t, 




On ground to the right of the junction of Ike old roads 
leading from Bishop's bridge and Pockthorpe gates towaribl 
the coast; now included within the site oT the prcaieHt* 
Barracks, stood the Grange, the Lathys Yard, and other 
premises formerly belonging to the Monks of the Cathedral. 
On the dissolution of the monastery, these premises were 
granted to the Dean and Chapter as part of the Manor of 
Pockthorpe, and were soon after leased by them for a long 
series of years. Among the early lessees the name of Blen- 
erhasset, or Blevhasset, and, for shortness, Hassett, occurs ; 
and his residence as it appeared in 1791, according to a 
drawing then taken with a camera by the elder Ninham, 
is represented in the etching here given. 

The house seems at this time to have been uninhabited and 
falling to ruin. The local traditions relating to the ghosts 
and apparitions at the time of its last occupation,^ are men- 
tioned in the privately printed volumes of the "House of 
Goumay ; " and, as a haimted house has been ever a convenient 
hiding-place for those who needed one, — ^Woodstock, with 
its apparitions and unearthly terrors, as described in the 

I By Edward Haflsett ? 


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pleasant pages of Sir Walter Scott, will occur to every one, — 
these traditions may probably have had their origin in the 
use to which smugglers, before the introduction of gas or 
the city police, may have put the ruined edifice, or been 
invented to secure to them a greater freedom from inter- 
ruption when «igaged in their lawless calling ; for the old 
house was very conveniently situated as a receptacle for 
smuggled goods, which in those days of prohibition tariffi 
were brought with comparative facility to this part of 
Mousehold, outside the city gates, by the trackways leading 
in from the coast. Mr. Gumey gives a wood-engraving of 
the house from a point of view difierent to that of the 
etching, and many particulars of the family of Hassett: — 
that they weiBe^ junior line from those at Frenze, in Nor- 
folk ; that William Blennerhasset obtained his lease in 1547 ; 
that the houw wa^ taken down about the year 1792; that 
it was haunted; that his informant, an aged Pocktorian, 
gave him the particulars of some of the apparitions ; that a 
dead body was seen to roll across a room ; that there was a 
closet which never had been opened ; and that the doors of 
two rooms had been plastered up, and in attempting to open 
them, two persons had been struck blind. His account also 
gives the legend, common as well to Barsham Hall, in Suffolk, 
" that old Hasset had been seen in his coach and four driven 
over Bishop's -gate and the tops of the houses, by a coachman 
and horses without heads, and when the whip was cracked, 
flashes of fire came from it and illuminated the whole city." 
— Home of Gournei/, p. 1001 et seq. 

In addition to these particulars, I propose to give some, 
relating to the property and its early history ; which, if not 
less authentic than the ghost stories of the old Pocktorian, I 
cannot hope will be quite so interesting. 

How early the Grange was built on this spot, or what part 
of it was contained in Hasset's house, it is now very diflScult 
to learn ; but there is evidence of the existence of the Monks' 


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Grange as early as 1306. Bishop Herbert (1096—1119) 
took the whole manor of Thorp into his own hands, and gave 
the Monks for their part of Thorp, Pockthorpe and certain 
lands, which now, tays the narrative written about 1306, 
" belong to the Monks' Grange." 

"Herbertus vo Episcopus memorat? opil^ misericordie 
sedulus insistens ad suceptonem leprosorf qii""dam domu ex"" 
civitate Norwyc^ in solo ecctie s^^ in honore beate marie 
magdalene fondav^ ^ ad eorf sustentafonem quasdam ?ras 
% possessiones ^dce EccHe dedit. Ceterf quia dcus Epus 
monastio suo honeorosius esse noluit quod utiq^ necessario 
fieret si iux*^ Norwycu nich haberet vbi in adventu suo 
declinare posset : ManHum de Thorp ob causam ^cam in manu 
sua retinuiL Set eisdem ^p^pte ma de Thorp : Pockthorp % 
quasdam fras que nunc apectant ad O^ngias monachoC donav* 
verum quia monachis videbat' q'' de dco maSio parum eis 
contulerat eisdem satfacere volens maSSium de Gnatintoii cu 
faldagijs eis dedit % alia que in carta sbsc'pta continent'." — 
Beg. 1. Hccles, Cath. Norw. fol. 21.* 

In a */Compotus Magistri Cellarii," dated 1535, Pock- 
thorpe is not named, but the Monks' Grange is. From this 
account, part of which is translated in the note below,^ we 

' ** Now the memorable Bp. Herbert, being diligent in the works of mercy, 
founded without the city of Norwich, on the land of his church, a certain house, 
in honor of B. Mary Magdalen, for the reception of lepers; and for their support 
he gave certain lands and possessions of the aforesaid church. But because the 
said Bishop was unwilling to be too burdensome to his monastery as to what 
might be necessary if he had not (a place) near Norwich, where he might sojourn 
at his eoming, for the aforesaid cause, he retained the manor of Thorp in his 
own possession. Bnt to the same for their part of Thorp, he gave Pockthorp, 
and certain lands which now belong to the Monks* Grange. But because it 
seemed to the monks that he had conferred on them too little of the aforesaid 
manor, wishing to satisfy them, he gaye to them the manor of Gnatington, with 
the faldage, and other things which are contained in the underwritten charter." 

^ The account of Lord William Castleton, Prior of Norwich, of the oflEice of 
the Master of the Gellaries, from the feast of St. Michael the Archangel a.d. 1535 
and in the 27^^ year of the reign of E. Henry YIII. to the feast of St. Michael 
[vol. VII.] G 


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gather that the Lathes* Fold-course, the Lathes Close, and 
the Lathes Yard were in the monks' own occupation. 

Li the charter of 1 Edw. VI. (1547) "Pro dotatione Ec- 
clesie," Pockthorpe Manor, otherwise called the Monks' 
Grange, occurs. 

Li the "Parliament Survey," taken in 1649, under the 
Act for abolishing Bishops and Deans and Chapters, and for 
the sale of their lands, we find among the demesne lands of 
the Manor of Pockthorpe, this : " A faire howse built on a 
peece of inclosed ground heretofore called y* Lathes-yard 
lying in Pokethorpe street near y* Gates of the city of 

then next following, the 28^i> year of the reign of the same King, and of the 
aforesaid Lord W™ Castleton Prior of Norwich the ^% (inter aliaj 

Eeceipts from Of the Bents of assise there 37* 3<i. Of the Profits of one Court 
the Monks' and lete held there this year beyond that given 2* 6<^. Of the rent 
Grange of one Indosure lying near %bryggat( 6* 8<* and of the rent 
of another Inclosnre adjacent to the grange there, nothing hero 
in money because it was reserved this year for the support of our 
ewes and lambs there. Of the digging of sand there, nothing 
this year because without a Seirmer. Of two men for leave to 
place the Tenters upon our ground there this year 16<^. Of 
Thomas Randolf for the rent of land between the Barregatys and 
fpybriggates together with the rent of a lime kiln near there and 
of the bam within the grange aforesaid 508. And for certain 
of our lands lying for the pasture of our sheep there this year 
33« 4d. Sum of the Beceipts £6—11—1 

Payments for Imprimis paid our Precentor for the rent of a tenement for- 
the Honks' merly Walter ffitiunces 6<*. And to the same for the land called 
Grange. Catton Hyll 2" 6^. In expenses at the Court there 1" 8^. In 
the fee of our bailiff there and for the keeping of our part of 
Thorpe Wood 20*. And allowed to our same Bailiff for rents 
irrecoverable there lOJ'^. Sum of the payments 25/6 J 

And so there remains clear 105/6J. 
Among the expenses of the flock of sheep belonging to the Master of the 
Cellaries — 

In pasture for our sheep at the monks* grange . 33* 4<^ 

In the wages of our shepherd at the lathes . .53* 4<* 

^ Lathys, from Lathe, leet. 


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Norwich called Pockthorpe gates conteyning many faire 
necessary roomes w*^ divers out buildings & a yard, orchard, 
& garden & about 2 acres of pasture ground inclosed w^^ a 
stone wall lying next y* said howse all w*=^ wee estimate to 
bee worth p ann " 

*'A small Close of arable land adjoining to y* aforesaid 
orchard in y" north pte of the s** howse conteyninge by esti- 
mation one acre w^^ wee vallue to bee worth xx® p annum." 

"A close of arable land abbutting vpon Pokethorp lane on 
y* west, y* street on y* South, the Shooting ground on y* North, 
& y* afores*^ great mansionhouse on y® East, conteyning by 
estimacon 5 acres w*^^ at xx'* y acre amounts to v^ per anS." 

As late as the 16th of Charles II., 1665, one of the abuttals 
in a lease of property in Pockthorpe is tlius worded : " The 
Crrange now called the Lathes-yard, now used for a garden." 
And in 1718, when a survey was taken of this property for 
Dean Prideaux, it is described as "Messuages, lands, and 
tenements belonging to the Mansion house, built upon a piece 
of ground called the Lathes yard,^* 

Here we have evidence that the Monks' Grange, the Lathes 
Yard, and the Mansion, &c., were one and the same property ; 
and we get an accurate notion of the extent of the curtilage 
which, with the mansion, was so long leased to the Hassets. 

After the dissolution in 1538, the Dean and Chapter 
did not follow the example of the Prior and Convent of 
farming their own lands, but granted them to tenants ; 
their first lease of the Lathe Yard, dated 10 January, 
31 Henry VIII. (1540), being to one Harrj'son and his 
assigns, styled " Hugh Harryson, yeoman ; " the description 
including " all that ther lathe yarde in Pockthorpe afore- 
named," " and with all the liowses and edyfiengs being 
edified and buylded at the daye of makinge of the same 
writing indented w4n and upon the saide lathe yard." 
The term was for forty years, of which, says another lease 
of 4th Edward VI., "twenty-nine years be yet to come." 


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Which term of twenty-nine years " William Blenerhaysett 
late hadde of the bargayne and sale of George Catton, of 
Norwich, fysicon, and Margaret his wife, late wife of the 
said Hugh Harryson, and administrators of the goods and 
chattels of the said Hugh." 

At the end of the ledger in which this lease is entered, 
there are some short notes, which shew that there was 
"exceptyd owte of the leas one Berne bylded uppon y* 
sayd lathe yard called y® Amners ^ berne" 

We find that Blenerhasset surrendered Harryson's lease 
and obtained a fresh one to himself for eighty years, 4th 
Edward VI. (1551) in which the Dean and Chapter demised 
the Cellarer's meadow, " the fould cource called the Lathes 
cource, oon close ther called the Lathes close." "The 
chappie yard called St. Wyllm's in the wood,* and all 
that ther Lathe yard in Pockthorpe aforenamed^ w* all the 
pasturyng and fedyng of the same yard, and all the howses 
and edifyings beying edifyed and buylded at the day of 
the date of the sayd deed (April 8, 1551), w*in and upon 
the seyd Lathe yard," for the term of eighty years. 

This lease is recited in a later deed, with a covenant to 
repair, " also oon other insett house w' all the edyfyengs of 
the same beying wHn the saide Lathe yard, and oon bame," 

9 There was a manor called "Amners tub quercum/' Amnen under the Oak, 
or the Almoner's Manor ; and in other early leases mention is made of the 
" Almery oke." The place seems to haye been in the Close, for the Almonry 
vas on the south side of the Ethelbert gateway. The bam was on the Pock- 
thorpe side of the river. 

^ The Cellarer's or St. Leonard's Meadow was demised by the Prior and 
Convent, in 27th Henry YIII., to Dame iTane Calthorpe of Norwich, widow, 
for eighty years. The Lathes Course, the Lathes Close, and St. William's 
Chapel Yard, were leased for sixty years, in the 30th Henry VIII., to the said 
Dame Jane and Thomas Calthorpe her son. The terms of years of these two 
leases were held at the date of the above indenture (1551} by William Blen- 
erhasset ** as assigne to the said dame Jane by vertue of a certen ded of gyfte 
and graunte therof to him lately made by the said dame Jane." 


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probably the bam excepted out of Ilarryson's lease, '* stand- 
ing upon the west syde of the same Lathe yard." 

We learn that the whole Lathe Yard was enclosed by 
a wall^ the south and east sides of which yet remain and 
form part of the boundary wall of the barracks. 

In another ledger is a copy of a lease to "William Blefi- 
haysset, of Norwich, Gent., dated the last day of February, 
9th Elizabeth, (1567), of the same premises with others for 
a fresh term of ninety-nine years, to commence at the end 
or determination by surrender or forfeiture of the other lease. 

By indenture dated 3rd March, 9th Elizabeth, (1567), we 
find that the Dean and Chapter demised the Manor of 
Pockthorpe to Sir Thomas Woodhouse''^ and Henry Wood- 
house of Waxtonesham for ninety-nine years, and on the 
30th April, 12th James I. (1615) it was leased to Sir Edward 
BleShasset, of Homing, Knt. The recitals of the lease shew 
that the interest, title, and term of years yet to come of 
Woodhouse's lease of and to the premises was conveyed to 
one Thomas Hopkins, of Norwich, gent. ; and that by in- 
denture dated 9th June, 27th of Elizabeth, the Dean and 
Chapter demised the same premises, namely the Manor of 
Pockthorpe, to the said Thomas Hopkins for the term of 
eighty years, and that the interest, title, and term of years 
yet to come, together with the indenture of lease, was law- 
fully conveyed to the said Sir Edward Bleflhasset, who 
having surrendered the same, received a fresh one for the 
remainder of the term yet to come of the original lease to 

In 1649 the manor, which in the meantime must have 
reverted to the Dean and Chapter, was sold by virtue of an 
ordinance of Parliament, with other capitular property, to 

^ This is explained by the fact that the mansion-house, with the demesne 
lands and manor, had been and were at this time severed and under distinct 


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Gabriel Barbor,® who held his first general Court 16 April, 
1650. Upon the Restoration it again reverted to the Dean 
and Chapter, who have not since leased it out. 

From subsequent leases of other properties in Pockthorpe 
and the Manor Court-books, it appears that the Lathe Yard, 
&c., vras successively in the possession of the following 
members of the Blenerhassett family. 

William Blenerhassett, ob. 1598,' the original lessee. 

Sir Edward Blenerhassett, ob. 1618,^ his eldest sou. 

Ralph Blenerhassett, 2 ob. c. 1660, do. 

Edward Blenerhassett, ob. c. 1668, do. 

H 1 

Augustine Blenerhassett, ob. c. 1679, Edward ^ Blenerhassett, 
eldest son. ob. c. 1702.* 

From the preceding extracts, which might be multiplied 

8 Clause Roll 1649, Pars 13* n. 18. 

* St, Martinet at Paktce Register, Nonoich. 
Anno Dni, 1598. 

Willms Blcnerhayset Armiger scpultus fuit 16 die Deccmbris. 
» Blomefield, vol. iv. p. 370. 

* At a Court held for the Manor of Pockthorpe, Nov. 14th, 1661, it was 
presented by the Homage that Ralph Blever Hassctt, Esq., died since the last 
Court (Dec. 2, 1659) and that Edward Blever Hassett, Esq., is his son and 

3 In the Register of Baptisms of the parish of St. James, Norwich, are six 
entries of members of this family. Five extracts are printed in "The House 
of Goumay," and the other entry in 1650 of "Edward, son of M'. Edw** 
Blenner hassett baptized May 31"*," has been since copied. 

On a fly leaf of the same Register are three licenses to eat meats during Lent, 
dated 1631 — 2—6, granted by John Barnham, curate, and a churchwarden, to 
the dau*r of Ralph B. and to Ralph B. and his dau'r Rebekah. These arc also 
printed in Mr. Gumey's book, page 1006-7. 

* On Oct. 23, 1702, at a Manor Court the Homage presented that Edwai-d 
Blenerhassct died since the last Court. At a Court held Oct. 18, 1704, the 
third proclamation was made, and no one coming to claim the copyhold, it was 
seized into the Lord's hands, and at the same Court was granted to Nicholas 
Helwis, Esq., who was admitted to it. A map of the estate was made in 1718 
for Doctor Prideaux, Dean of Norwich, and N. Helwis; and in 1745 wc find 
in the Court-books the description, '* lands late of Edward Hassct, gent." 


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to weariness, it appears that the Blevlhasscts were lessees 
under the Dean and Chapter of Norwich of the Monks' 
Grange and its curtilages, otherwise the Lathe-yard, from 
1551 to about 1702, when Edward Hassett died ; and from 
that time Mr. Helwis seems to have been the lessee, and 
thenceforth the lease was held by other parties until about 
1792, when the destruction of the premises became neces- 
sary for the purpose of building the present barracks. 

In Kirkpatrick's large view of Norwich, published by 
his brother, there is a back view of the Lathes, and from 
the survey taken in May, 1718, for Dean Prideaux and 
Nicholas Helwis, Esq., of Morton, we learn the extent 
of the enclosures ; ten acres, one rood, and three perches 
were excepted from the last lease of the Pockthorpe estate 
for the site of the Barracks, and this quantity exactly 
agrees with the Lathes-yard, Lathes Close, house, lands, 
orchards, and gardens. 

To these details I subjoin some extracts from the wiU of 
William Blenerhasset, Esq., the first lessee of the Grange, 
who died in 1598, by which this property is devised ; but the 
will appears to me to be of more interest in other particu- 
lars which it contains, illustrative of the style and manners 
of the period, and of the character of the testator, who 
would seem to have been a very worthy gentleman. 

Will of WiUiam Bleaiiayset. 

5"^ Dec^ 1598. William BleShayset of the Cittie of 
Norw*^^ Esquier beinge sicke in bodye but of good and 
pfect remembrance god J gyve hym thankes. 

my bodye to be buried in the Churche of S^ Martins at 
Pallace gate in Norw*'^ by the ladie Calthrops Toombe there 
on the north syde thereof \Tito w*=^' Churche J gyve fortye 


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shillinges yerly to be payde oute of my howse in the prishe 
called Roomeliall and the Tenement^ adio}iiinge toward the 
p^chinge of the word of god there duringe one and twentie 
yeres next following after my decease, vpon this Condicon 
that the mynister there be a precher such as my sonne in 
lawe Raphe ffumes shall like of otherwise not, Jtem J gyre 
and bequeathe ynto the poore of the same pishe fortie 
shilling^ to be disposed by my executors, Jtem J will and 
my mynde is that there shal be disposed in blackf and other 
necessarye chardges for and aboute my funeratt by my execut 
Twentie powndf and not above in suche manor and to suehe 
psons as my executors shall thinke good Jtem J gyve ^ 
bequeathe vnto the poore people of S* Jeames T; S* Powles 
pishes to either of them fortie shillinges to be disposed by 
my executors Jtem J will and my mynde is that my howse 
called the lathes and all my landes and Tenement^ in 
Pockthorp w^^ J houlde by cteyne leases from the Deane 
and Chapter of Christf Churche in Norwich except those that 
J have heretofore disposed by deed of gifte indented to 
Eebecka flumes her now husbond and Children shall goe 
and be disposed in manor and forme foUowinge that is to 
saye that my eldest sonne Edward Blefihayset* and Susane 
his wife their executors and assignes shall from and after 
the terme of one whole year fullie to be compleate and 
ended next after my decease have them for and duringe the 
whole terme of yeares the to come and vnexpired in the said 
leases, so as they the saide Edward and Susan their executors 
or assignes doe paye or cause to be payde vnto Eaphe 
Bleuhaysett their sonne Twentie powndes yerly after their 
or eny of their entry into the same, for and towardf his 
bringinge vpp at schoole or other wise in any good callinge 
and alsoe doe paie vnto everie one of the other sonnes of the 
saide Edward and Susan and to Edward the sone of my 

* St, Martin's at Palace Register^ Norwich, 
Susanna Yzor Edwardi Blenerhayset gcn'osi sepulta fuit 24 die DeccmbriB. 


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Sonne Thomas BleShayset tenn poundf yerlye and everie 
yere for and toward their bringinge vp vntil euye one of 
them shall come vnto his age of one and twentie yeares at 
the mansion howse where J now dwell in Pockthorp called 
the lathes Jtem J will and my mynd is that my saide sonne 
Edward BleShayset and Susan his wife their executors ox 
Assignes shall yerly and every yeare paye oute of the saide 
lease lands in Pockthorp fewer powndes for and toward^ the 
prechinge of the worde of god in S* Jeames Churche and 
S' Powles Churche in Norw°^ for and duringe the space of 
one and twentie yeres next to come after my decease to 
such one as my saide sonne ffumes shall thinke meete for 
that purpose. Jtem J will and gyve my Chayne of goulde 
to my sonne Edward and Susan his wife so as they put in 
good band to my Executors to pay or cause to be paide oute 
thereof twentie poundes to Susane their daughter and other 
twentie powndes to Margret daughter of my sonne Jeremye 
and tenn powndes a pece to twoe daughters of my sonne 
Thomas Margaret 1 Marye at euye of their ages of eighteen 
yeares and J gyve to Susane daughter of my sonne Edward 
tenn powndes in plate such as hir mother will chouse to be 
paide by my executors, Jtem J giue to Susane wife of my 
saide sonne Edward my best bed Tester of Satteyn % vellet 
imbrodered w^^ Dolphins and Lyons and my best silver and 
gilte salte w^^ the Cover vnto yt Jtem J doe giue and forgiue 
vnto my sonne Edward all such bandes and writingf as are 
betwyn hym and me for eny manor of cause together w^** all 
that my orchard called scholehows yarde lyeinge and beinge 
in the saide prishe of S^ Martyn for and duringe the terme 
of yeares therein yet to come and not expired, so as he be 
not troblesome to my Executors or either of them in the 
pformance of this my last Will and Testament or eny pte 
thereof or to eny other that maye might or shoulde have 
eny benifitt by any of the saide bandf and writinges and 
yf my saide sonne Edwarde his execut or assignes shall 


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vniustlye sue or troblc or cause to be vniustlye sued or 
trebled my Executors or either of them or eny others as 
aforesaide then J will that my executors take the adyantage 
of the said bandf ^ writing? T: scholehowse yarde T. shall sell 
the saide schoolehouse yard towardes the pformance and 
fulfillinge of this my saide last will and Testament. Jtem J 
giue and bequeathe vnto Thomas Myhillf my Clarke fyre 
poundes to buy hym a nagge w*^ all and to Annes Holmes 
and Margaret Monyman my mayde sarvantf to eyther of 
them fyve powndes. 

Executors to have the " Lathes howse '* and take all the 
rents and fermes of all his Lands, &c. in Pockthorpe for one 
year after his decease. 

And J desyer and praye the right worshiptt Nathaniel!' 
Bacon esquier my alwayeq good and loveing frinde to 
stande in steade of a Sup*visor and ayde for the pformance of 
this my last will as eny occation shall serve, and for a 
remembrance thereof J gyve and bequeathe vnto hym my 
pinked bowle of silver and gilt w^^ the Cover havinge a 
rownde ringle vpon the toppe thereof, And J gyve vnto 
Henry Hobart my godsone sonne of Henrye Hobart esquier 
my standinge pott of silver and gilte w"* the Cover fastned 
to yt, also J gyve and bequeathe to my saide sonne Edward 
all such leassf T: interressf as J haue of in or to Sellery 
mshe in Hominge and J giue and bequeath vnto my sonne 
Thomas and my sonne Jeremye BleShayset all my lease 
leassf and enteresses in Horsford as is now in their seuall 
occupacon to houlde to them their executors and assignes in 
seualtie as they now doe Jtem J gyve and bequeathe vnto 
my saide sonne Thomas all those pcells of groimde of 
Horsford pke w^^ are now in my owne occupa^n or in any 
my fearmes there, except att that now in the tenure and 
occupacon of Edmund Game w^^ J gyve and bequeathe vnto 
John Busshop my grandsone vntill he come to his age of 
fewer and twentie yeares for and towardf his bringing vpp at 


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schoole, and then the remaynder thereof to my said sonne 
Thomas his executors or assignes Jtem J give and bequeathe 
vnto ffrances BleShayset my sonne Danyellf daughter 
Twentie powndes to be paide to the saide Henrye Hobart 
esquier at her age of one and twentie yeares and to be so 
disposed vppon hir by hym as it maye not come into the 
handes of the saide Daniett hir fiBither. Jtem J gyve and 
bequeathe vnto my saide sonne Edward my great goulde 
ringe ingraven w^** the woolfe and my best syett gowne 
garded w^** vellet and my beste tuft taffata Coate, Jtem J 
give and bequeathe vnto Baphe ffumes my sonne in lawe my 
newe clothe gowne, Jtem J giue and bequeathe my best 
clothe gowne that is laced w*^ vellet lace vppon the sieves 
vnto Edward Breese my sonne in lawe Jtem J gyve vnto 
M' Ashe the duche ^cher for a remembrance tenne shiUingf 
in goulde and to Thomas Plumstead Clarke to M^ Henrye 
Hobart flfortye shillingf The residue of my plate howshoulde 
stuffe monye goodf and Cattallf J will and bequeathe vnto 
the saide Raphe flumes T, Edward Breese whom J doe 
hereby make and ordeyne my executors of this my last will 
and Testament, And in witnes hereof J have herevnto put my 
hande 1, scale the daye and ye""re first aboue written Theis 
beinge witnesses herevnto Thomas Lane George Byrche 
William Hearne Thomas Myhitt. 

Will'^^m BleShayset. 

The vij'^ of December 1598. 

J 'Will""m BleShayset esquier doe further make and publishe 
this to be and stande for pte of my last will first J giue to 
Thomas my sonne six hefiers in Horsford Parke and my 
great white mare and hir ffbale, and to Jeremy my sonne J 
gyve Twentie powndes for and in dischardge of one Obligaffin 
w'^^ is to be payde to M' Bently in trust to the vse of one 
Baldwyns children and J gyve vnto Jcremyc also the fewer 


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neat Cattail residue of those in Horsford parke, Jtem I doe 
gyve vnto ffiranees my daughter ffiiUer Twentie powndes to 
be paide w^**in a yeare next after my decease, and J gyve 
vnto Hanna and Elizabeth ffumes my sonne Baphe £fumes 
daughters to either of them twentie powndes, and I gyve vnto 
Henrye Ilobart esquier my eosen all my hanginge clothes of 
Arres conteyninge fyve peeef Jtem J gyve vnto my man 
Robert Allen fortye shillins Jtem J gyve vnto John Busshop 
my meare called the myllers meare, Jtem I gyve and will 
vnto the poore people of the Towne of Hominge to be 
disposed by my sonne Edward Bleflhayset fortye shillins to 
be distributed w^**in one yeare Jtem J gyve and will vnto 
suche good p^cher as shall preache the worde of god in 
Horsford to be disposed by my sonnes Thomas and Jeremye 
fortie shilling^ to be paide in fewer yeares tenn shillins a 
yere Jtem J gyve vnto Margaret my sonne Thomas his 
daughter six shillins eight pence Jtem J gyve vnto the 
prisoners in Norw*'** Castle fortye shiUingf to be distributed 
by the appoyntm* of my executors w^in a quarter of a yeare 
next after my decease Jtem J will and gyve all my armor 
w^ the furniture vnto my sonne Edward, and J gyve vnto 
Margret Hayset my sonne Jeremyes daughter one little hoo- 
ped goulde ringe and J gyve vnto S^ Johns Colledge in 
Cambridge to be bestowed in suche bookes as M' Alvye 
and my sonne ffiimes shall thinke most meete, three powndf 
thirtene shillins and fower pence, Jtem J gyve and will 
vnto my saide sonne Edward all my bookes of Statutf and 
service bookes. 

Teste me Thomas Myhillf . 

Proved at Norwich 22 Dec^ 1598.— Reg' Adams fo. 49. 


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PUn. S^ Peters Moncxoft. S^ Peter's per Mounteidale . 

AA . Sdte of '& & Wall cootaimng Acoustic Jars . 



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%tamtu "^aittx^. 



The principles of acoui^tic^, as applied to churches and- public 
buildings, are now but little understood ; their fitness or 
unfitness for the conveyance of- sound is accidental^ rather 
than the result of any system employed by our architects in 
their construction. It is well known that the Greeks and 
Romans employed means for repercussion, and increasing 
the volume of sound in their theatres ; and Vitruvius ^ de- 
scribes vessels of bronze, {'nx^'bL) in some cases of clay, which 
were placed \mder the seats and in 6ells constructed for this 
purpose, of which practice traces have been found in the 
ancient theatres of It€dy, and various parts of the Greek 

This statement of Vitruvius received but little credence, 
and his theory was regarded as puerile, imtil the disco- 
very of a series of acoustic vases was made in the church 
of St. Blaise, at Aries, in the year 1842 ; when the question 
was revived by M. Huard, Director of the Museum at Aries, 
in a communication to the Bulletin ArckSologique,^ and the 

1 Vitruvius, lib. v. c. 5. Smith's Dictionary of Roman Antiquities. Art. 
" Theatrum." 
3 Gentleman^a Magatine, vol. ccxy. p. 750 (1863). 
* Bulletin Areheologique, vol ii. p. 440. 


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existence of a like practice in mediaDval times was fully 
established. Since that time similar discoveries have been 
made in various parts of Great Britain. In Ireland, at the 
church of St. Mary, Youghal, co. Cork, a series of orifices, 
five in number, were observed at the western ends of the 
north and south walls of the choir, giving vent to an equal 
number of earthen jars lying on their sides, and placed 
immediately behind them.* At Fountain's Abbey, in 1854, 
earthen jars were found embedded in the base of the choir 
screen, and the attention of our Society was called to the 
subject by similar discoveries in the churches of St. Peter 
Mancroft and St. Peter per Mountergate, Norwich, of which 
record is made in our proceedings.^ 

Theories, most opposite and vague, have been suggested 
to account for the existence of these remains, and, upon 
the discovery at Fountain's Abbey, the subject was opened 
in the pages of Notes and Queries^ by a correspondent, 
who conjectures their purpose to have been to bum in- 
cense. Those at St. Peter Mancroft, having been found 
under the stalls of the choir, were intended, according to 
another correspondent, to receive the ashes of the hearts of 
canons attached to the church. Purposes of a secular 
character were also suggested, viz., that such jars were filled 
with some generous beverage, with which success was drunk 
to the commencing building; that they were intended for 
the feathered tribe ; in fact, for dove-cotes or colimibaries ; 
and, more curious still, that they formed part of a warming 
apparatus. As pots, or pipes of earth, were, and are even 
now, in Italy frequently employed, where strength and 
lightness are required, or placed beneath the pavement for 
ventilation, and in damp situations to obviate the humidity 
of the soil, these purposes were also suggested; but the 

* Traruactions of Kilkenny Arch{Bological Society ^ vol. iii. p. 303. 

« Norfolk Archaeology, vols. iv. 352 ; vi. 382. 

« Note* and Queries, vol. x. p. 386, seq. Nov. 11, 1864. 


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position and arrangement of the jars oppose such explana- 
tions. The other reasons advanced are so absurd that they 
cannot for one moment occupy serious attention. Another 
theory remained, and, as it now appears, the true one ; that 
such jars were inserted for acoustic purposes. This, however, 
received but little credence, from the doubtful effect of such 
an arrangement, and the absence of any historical testimony 
to such a practice in the middle ages. Thanks to the intel- 
ligence of our French brethren, and especially to M. Didron, 
the editor of Annaks Arch^obgiques, this testimony is now 
no longer wanting. 

The question first received the attention of French archae- 
ologians, upon the discovery at Aries, and was a second 
time brought under their notice in 1861 by a Swedish archi- 
tect, M. Mandelgren, and two Russian architects, MM. 
Stassoff and Gomostaeff, who made inquiry of the Parisian 
savants, whether "comets,*' or pots of baked earth, were 
found in the interior walls, or in vaxJts of French churches, 
as was frequently the case in the churches of Sweden and 
Denmark. M. Didron replied in the Journal which he 
directs,''^ citing the discovery in the church of St. Blaise, 
at Aries, as a French instance of the practice, and brought 
forward a passage from a manuscript of the fifteenth century, 
which has thrown so much light on this subject, that what- 
ever doubt may have justly been entertained as to the effect, 
there can now no longer be any as to the purpose of such 
jars, when found incorporated into the fabric of ecclesiastical 

This passage, of so much value, occurs in a Chronicle of 
the Celestins of Metz, and is quoted by M. Bouteillier in his 
notice of that order, and their establishment in the ancient 
Austrasia or Rhenish France. Under the date 1432, the 
chronicler writes as follows : " In the month of August in 

' AnnaUi ArMologigueSy vol. xxii. p. 294—97. 


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tliis year, on the vigil of the Assumption^ after brother Odo 
le Roy, the prior, had returned from the before^-mentioned 
general chapter, it was ordered that pots should be put into 
the choir of the church of this place, he stating that he had 
seen such in a church elsewhere ; thinking that they made 
the singing better, and resound more, they were put up 
there in one day by taking as many workmen as were 
necessary." ® The chronicler goes on, and pleasantly ridicules 
Prior Odo le Roy, who caused these appliances to be placed 
in the walls of his church for the feast of the Assumption, 
expressing his disbelief that they sang any the better for 
what was done. A later hand has written on the margin 
of the manuscript, " ecce risu digna,'* and thereby shows his 
scepticism and ridicule also. 

The learned Abb^ Cochet, in a communication to the 
Academy of Rouen,® has given the result of his observa- 
tions on the subject of acoustic pottery, and reports several 
occasions upon which he has met with vases of this character. 
At Montivilliers, jars with a simple neck moulding and 
a conical base were found at the four angles of the vault of 
the choir which was under the tower of the abbey church. 
Again at Fry, canton Argueil, four jars of ordinary domestic 
shape were found, having handles, and resembling those at 

B "En cest axmee dessus dit au mois daoust, le yigile de 1 assumption de 
Nostre Dame, aprdz ceu que fr6re Ode le Roy, priour de seans, fuit retoumez 
du chapitre gral de dessus dit, il fit et ordonnoit de mettre les pots au cuer de 
leglise de seans, portant qu'il avait yu altepart en aucune 6glise etpensant qu'il 
7 fesoit milleur chanter et que il ly resonneroit plusfort. Et y furent mis tuis 
en ung jour on pont tant douTriers quil suffisoit. Mais ie ne seay si on chante 
miez que on ne faisoit. Et cest une chose h. croire que lez murs en fiiret grande- 
ment crolley, et deshochiet et hecop de gens qui viennent scans sont bien 
meryeillez que y soie Mt. Et dizent aucune foix qui yaleoit mieux quil furet 
apresen dehors, portant que bon pensoyt il seroit \k mis pour en prendre et 
jouyr k plaisir aux foulx." — Notice sur le Convent de Cdlestine de Metz, par 
M. Ed. Bouteiller. Metz, 1862. 

9 " Precis Analytique des Trayaux de I'Acad^mie Imp6riale de Eouen." — 
1863-64. Rouetiy Boissel. 


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St. Peter per Mountergate, Norwich. The third and most 
interesting example, cited by the Abb^, is from St. Laurent 
en Canx, where the workmen engaged in pulling down the 
old church discovered a large earthen vessel placed in one 
of the angles of the choir and entirely enveloped in mortar. 
Its form is a cone closed at each end, having no opening, but 
a neck issuing from the shoulders 
and appearing on the face of the wall. 
The exterior is furrowed with hori- 
zontal lines of thirteenth-century 
character : from its form it appears 
well adapted for acoustic purposes 
and entirely imsuited for any other. 
With these examples, he furnishes 
an additional and singular historical 
proof of their purpose from a dia- 
tribe of the seventeenth century, 
entitled " V Apocalypse de Meliton,^^ 
written against the religious orders, 
ST. LAURENT EN CALX, aud attributcd to the Abb^ Saint 


Leger. " Of fifty choristers, that 
the public maintain in such a house," says the writer, " there 
are sometimes not more than six present at the office ; the 
choirs are so fitted with jars in the vaults and in the walls 
that six voices make as much noise as forty elsewhere."^ 

In our own county, and within the province of our Society, 
notwithstanding the number of church restorations, there 
have been brought under our notice but two discoveries of 
acoustic pottery. In both cases the pots or jars were found, 
not as in France in the upper walls, but beneath the floor 
of the choir, where they were placed to give sonority to 

1 *<De cinquante choriBten que le public ontreticnt dedans telle maison, 
quelquefois ils ne seront pas six 4 I'office ; lea choeurs sout accomodez avec dcs 
pots dans la yoCite, ct dans les murailles, de sorte que six voix y feront autant 
de bruit que quarante ailleurs." — L Apocalypse de MelUon, p. 34, edit. 1665. 

[vol. VII.] H 


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that part of the building. The first of these discoyeries 
was made in the church of St. Peter Mancroft, Norwich, 
during the restorations of 1850 ; where beneath the wooden 
floor and joists of the old pews, and immediately under that 
part of the church formerly occupied by the choir stalls, 
were found two trenches, running eastward as far as the 
stalls probably extended, being returned towards the west 
where the screen stood, and discontinued for the space of four 
feet at the entrance of the choir : in fact, Ij^ng like two 

letters, I | placed face to face. The arrangement can be 

better understood by reference to the accompanying plate, 
fig. 1. Each trench measured thirty inches wide, about three 
feet deep, paved at the bottom with yellow glazed tiles about 
eight inches square^ and lined or bounded on either side by 
a low rubble wall one foot in thickness, into which wall 
were built numerous red earthen jars, having their mouths 
directed towards each other, within the trench, and pre- 
senting the appearance of guns projecting from a ship's side. 
These jars were all of the same character. Of the two here 


engraved, one is preserved in the Norwich Museum, the other, 
with fragments of mortar attached, is in the possession of 
our Secretary, Mr. Fitch, who was present at the discovery, 
and has most obligingly, upon the spot, described the cir- 


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cumstances under which they were found. He assures us 
that the jars themselves were entirely free from ashes, or 
any substance which could warrant the supposition that they 
were of funereal character. 

Ten years later, during the restorations at St. Peter per 
Moimtergate in 1860, a second discovery of acoustic pottery 
was made in Norwich. In this church, the choir stalls, of 
which the panelling at the back remains, were confined to 
the chancel. Immediately imder the floor upon which they 
stood, on either side the choir, was found a trench three 
feet in depth, bounded by a single low brick wall, running 
parallel with, and at about four feet from, the north and 
south walls, and returned on the eastern side of the screen, 
(fig. 2) exactly in the same manner as at St. Peter Man- 
croft. About midway in this low wall, were inserted jars, 
less numerous than at Mancroft, (this church being much 
smaller) and diflering from those, having ears or handles, 
and being, like those found at Fry in France, of a domestic 

< 4.fn — ^ 

^ j4t In. > 


The two here given have been secured for the Norwich 
Museum : they are of a dark ash colour and partially glazed. 



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The others wei« all dispersed or destroyed, some being sold 
by auction among the old materials and fittings of the church, 
and very many broken in the attempt to remove them. The 
low wall was levelled, and no trace of this curious arrange- 
ment any longer exists.^ 

It is to be regretted that no case has yet occurred where 
these jars have been found intact, and in places where the 
original choir stalls exist, from which we might more per- 
fectly understand the principle. At St. Peter Mancroft, not 
a fragment of these stalls remained ; and at St. Peter per 
Moimtergate, of the curious miserere seats which were there 
in Blomefield's time,* some perpendicxJar panelling at the 
back was all that existed in 1860. Sufficient however re- 
mained, in the latter church, to form a probable conjecture of 
the system as there carried out, which by reference to the 
plate (fig. 3) may be thus explained. The choir seats being 
constructed over the trench which contained the jars, it was 
necessary to establish some communication between the outer 
air and the acoustic instruments within. This may have been 
effected by holes, or quatrefoils, pierced in the plinth of 
wood or stone at the base of the book-board, usually found 
in front of stalls of this character. Such holes may often be 
observed in this position, perhaps more frequently for venti- 
lation, but would also have served for a purpose of this kind. 
Whether such an arrangement would conduce to improve the 
chanting, may be questioned. There may be some who, like 
the Chronicler of Metz and his commentator, are inclined to 
ridicule this idea, but there is no doubt the idea existed; 
most certainly a note sung in proximity with one of these 

3 I must here acknoiw ledge my obligations to Mr. John L'Estrange, who 
kindly placed at my disposal a copy of a letter which he addressed to the 
Bey. J. Balwer, describiiig the consecration crosses found at St. Peter per 
Mountergate, and containing somo particulars respecting the position and 
arrangement of these jars. 

3 Blomefield's Norfolk, vol. iv., p. 968, 8vo. edition. 


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jars, is increased in volume crede experto. It is also asserted 
that cliiirclies, in which these jars have been found, were 
rendered more sonorous thereby. The church of St. Mary, 
Youghal, is said to have been peculiarly easy for the exercise 
of the voice. At ** Bloisseville es Plain," the cur^ assured 
the Abb^ Cochet that his church was singularly well adapted 
for singing and preaching, and at St. Pierre, Caen, on 
accoimt of its sonority, some such arrangement is suspected, 
as I am informed by M. Trebutien, the intelligent librarian 
and historian of that town, to whom I am much indebted 
for directing my attention to sources of information on this 

Supposing the system of Yitruvius and the great architects 
of the middle ages to be puerile, or found inefficacious, and 
therefore abandoned, we are surely less ingenious if, with 
increased knowledge on scientific subjects, we give little 
attention to, and make no provision for, a requirement so 
necessary in the construction of buildings for ecclesiastical or 
civil purposes. Now that interest has been excited, and the 
subject illustrated by archsDologists, it is hoped that the 
attention of architects and professors of acoustics may also 
be directed to a point of great importance and so much 


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#n some ^leaping Patjines of tje Jncient dauls. 


SIR J. P. BOILEAU, BART., F.R.S., V.P.8.A., 


The object of Archadology is to trace ont a picture of the 
social condition of ancient times by the monuments which 
they have left ; man and his works are therefore the right 
aim of this study. All ancient monuments (even the rudest 
and most common) are evidence of some facts, and these 
facts, when collected together, represent to us what may be 
called the moral statistics of ancient society. Considered in 
this light, archaeology is entitled to rank as a science : its use- 
fiilness is manifest, and it is a most delightful study from the 
variety of its inquiry. It enables us to live and converse with 
all the great men and great people of antiquity : we pene- 
trate into our own history through theirs — ^we derive a vivid 
pleasure from bringing our opinions, our tastes, and our cus- 
toms into comparison with theirs — and are taught to speculate 
on our own future by what we learn of their destinies. 

Such considerations have encouraged me to bring before 
the ArcheDological Society of our essentially agricultural 
county two extracts from celebrated authors of ancient Rome 
who have written upon rural afGurs, and the systems of cul- 
tivation in use in their time. It may please and instruct us 
to compare them with our own. 

The first is from Pliny's Natural History^ Book xviii,, 
chapter 30, sec. 71. He lived about a.d. 23. The second is 


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• . •• 


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from PalladiuSy De re Bttsticd, Book vii.. Tit. 2. He probably 
lived about a.d. 380. — (Vide extracts and translations.) 

It cannot be asserted that these descriptions of reaping 
machines show a precisely similar construction to that of our 
daysy as will be well seen by the drawing I exhibit, which is 
copied from M. Mongez' illustration in the Memoirs of the 
Institute of France (vol. iii. 1818) ; but I think all will be 
convinced that the ancient idea is the same in principle as 
the modem, and be surprised, perhaps, to find that what is 
usually considered a quite recent improvement in agriculture 
was known and practised so long since — ^in days which it 
is the province of archsDology to study — ^and that a fresh 
proof is thus afibrded how much we may learn by that 
study, and how we are enabled by it not only to compare 
the wants and inventions of man in ages long gone by with 
those of our own times, as a matter of deep and curious 
interest, but may also, by a right comprehension of the past, 
learn to appropriate much useful and applicable knowledge 
for ourselves. 

Speaking of reaping com, PHny says — " Messis ipsius ratio 
varia. Galliarum latiAmdiis valli prsDgrandes dentibus in 
margine infestis, duabus rotis per segitem impelluntur, ju- 
mento in contrarium juncto ; ita direptae in vallum cadunt 
spicsB." — ^Lib. xviii. cap. 30, a.d. 23. 


There are different modes of reaping. In the yast phiins of Ganl very Uirge 
wooden machines, anned with teeth on their edges, and mounted on two wheels, 
are foreed through the standing com hy an animal propelling them from hehind ; 
thus as the eeis are cut off they fiill into the machines. 

Palladius, in his Dd r^ Eusticdy sajrs — ^'Pars Galliarum 
planior hoc compendio utitur ad metendum, et prseter homi- 
num labores, unius bovis oper& spatium totius messis absumit. 
Fit itaque vehiculum quod duabos rotis brevibus fertur. 


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Hujus quadrata superficies tabulis munitur quae forinsecus 
reclives in summo reddant spatiae largiorse. Ab ejus fronte 
carpenti brevior est altitudo tabularum ; ibi denticuli plurimi 
ac rari ad spicarum menauram constituuntur in ordinem, ad 
superiorem partem recurvi. A tergo ver6 ejusdem vehiculi 
duo brevissimi temones figurantur, yelut amites bastemarum ; 
ibi bos capite in vehiculam verso jugo aptatur et vinculis, 
mansuctus san^, qui non modum compulsoris excedat. Hie 
ubi vehiculum per messes caepit impellere omnis spica in 
carpentum denticulis comprebensa cumulatur, abruptis ac 
relictis paleis ; altitudinem vel humilitatem plerumque bu- 
bulco moderante^ qui sequitur, et ita per paueos itus ac re- 
ditus brevi horarum spatio tota messis impletur. Hoc cam- 
pestribus locis vel aoqualibus, utile est^ et iis quibus necessaria 
palea non habitur." — ^Lib. vii. Tit. 2, circa 380. 

Translation by Mr. King, Trinity College^ Cambridge. 

The more level parts of Gaul use the following expeditious method for reaping, 
and, dispensing vith the labour of men, with a single ox complete the whole ex- 
tent of the entire harvest. For this purpose a yohicle is made, carried upon two 
low wheels. Its surface is square and bordered by planks, which, sloping 
outwards, make the inside wider at top than at bottom. On the fore-part of the 
carriage the planks are not so high as at the sides, and hero are planted in a row 
numerous small teeth, set at distances aecorditig to the size of the wheat ears, 
and all curving upwards (at the same elevation as Mongez*.) From the roar of 
the aforesaid vehicle a couple of small poles are arranged, just like the poles used 
in carrying litters (sedan poles), into which the ox is fastened, his head towards 
the carriage, by means of a yoke and straps. He must, however, be a quiet 
beast, so as not to go beyond the direction of his driver (the pace required). 
When the latter begins to drive the machine through the standing ooni, aU the 
ears that are seized by the teeth are carried in a heap into the vehicle, the straw 
being torn off and left standing ; the ox-driver following behind, regulating 
the elevation or depression of the machine occasionally, and thus in a few goings 
forward and retumings, in the the short space of a few hours the whole harvest 
is carried (or completed). This plan is suitable for plains and level ground, and 
where the straw is not considered a thing of importance. 


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igotfolk (^uilirs. 



The Gmlds or Confraternities of the middle ages exercised 
so important an influence on the social life of the period, that 
it is presumed any documents illustrating the history of those 
formerly existing in this county, cannot fail to be of interest 
to the members of the Norfolk and Norwich ArchaBological 
Society. Numerous as were these guilds, of the vast majority 
of them we know little more than their names, whilst of their 
rules and internal government, or of the date of their 
foundation, we know next to nothing.^ 

In the Public Record Office are preserved two large bundles 
(unarranged) of Guild Certificates,* taken in the reign of 
Richard II.« 

In the first bundle a large number, and in the second 
nearly two thirds of the whole, relate to Norfolk. Not more 
than a third of these documents are in good condition, another 

1 With the exception of some of the Ljnn Guilds, and the &moiis St. George's 
Guild or Company at Norwich. 

* Miscellaneous Chancery Rolls, Bundles 309 and 310. 

' ** To the timid and thrifty goyemment of Richard II., who feared that these 
institutions might he diverted to political purposes, and he dangerous nurse- 
ries of sedition, we are indehted for returns made into Chancery, in the twelfth 
year of his reign, of the original objects, endowment, and extent of guilds 
generally." — Memoirs illuttrative of the History and Antiquities of Norfolk, 
1851, p. 142, note b. 

[vol. VII.] I 


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third are perfect, but much faded, and difficult to read; 
whilst the remainder are either mutilated or wholly illegible.* 
The majority are in Latin, (the rules however being given in 
English) and the rest are in Norman-French. From the 
recitals in several of them, we glean that by a proclamation 
made by the Sheriiff of Norfolk in all market towns of the 
county, in or shortly before 12th Richard II., the masters 
or custodians of guilds and fraternities of all kinds were 
commanded to certify in writing to the King's Council in 
Chancery, fuUy, distinctly, and properly, by the Feast of 
the Purification then next following, the manner, form, and 
authority of the foundation, beginning, continuation, and re- 
gulations of such guilds and fraternities ; and of the manner 
and form of the ceremonies, congregation, communion, and 
assemblage of the brothers and sisters, and of the cause of 
their assembling. Also of the liberties, privileges, statutes, 
ordinances, practices, and customs of such guilds, if they 
had any. And, above all, of all lands, tenements, rents, and 
possessions, whether in mortmain or not, and of all goods 
and chattels belonging to them. They were also to specify 
in whose hands the said lands, goods, &c., then were, and 
the true annual and saleable value thereof. 

It seems from these certificates that some guilds were con- 
fined to certain trades, for instance, ^' Sadlers and Spuriers," 
*' Pelyters," " Barbers," &c. ; this, however, occurs in towns 
where the guild assumed more of the character of, or existed 
in connection with, a trade company. Nearly all had rules 
made by common consent of the members,^ to the observance 
of which they were bound by oath, and from these we gather 
that to prevent, as far as possible, the admission of ob- 
jectionable persons, no one was to be received into the guild 

^ All the Lynn certificates haTe a large piece eaten away firom the right aide 
by rata. 

^ Two small parchment books, clearly contemporary copies of the roles for- 
warded to save the trouble of copying, are still extant among the Eetums. 


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but by an alderman and twelve of the brethren, and in some 
instances an admission fee was exacted.^ 

They are generally stated to have been instituted in the 
worship or honour of God, the blessed Virgin, and of some 
Saint chosen as the special patron of the con&atemity, for 
the safety of the soids of the brothers and sisters of the guild, 
and of all the faithful, and in some cases for the benefit of the 
fabric of the church in which they were held. A regulation, 
common to nearly all, was the keeping and maintaining a 
light or lights, which were to bum daily at high mass, from 
the elevation till the priest had communicated. Some of the 
richer guilds maintained a chaplain, or even two. 

The guild festival was generally held on the patron saint's 
day, except where it fell inconveniently, as in Lent ; for in- 
stance, St. William's day is the 24th March, but the Guild-day 
was the Sunday after SS. Peter and Paul. 

Many of the guilds began their devotions on the eve of the 
Guild-day at the church where their guild was held, with 
torches burning, and dressed in the livery of the guild. On 
the day itself the members went in procession to the church 
and offered candles and a farthing or a half-penny each. 
Some guilds had peculiar ceremonies, e.g. in the procession of 
the Holy Trinity and St. William the Martyr Gmld, " a knave 
chyld innocent beren a candel yat day ye wygth of to pounds," 
"was led betwyxen to gode men tokenyngf of ye gloryous 

After service the members dined together, and in the 
afternoon the common bellman went through the city and 
asked for the prayers of all for the deceased brothers and 
sisters, whose names he rehearsed from the bede roll, and pro- 
claimed that a mass of requiem would be celebrated at prime 

< Twenty pence was the sum charged by the Guild of St. George at Norwich. 
It \b not unusual to find legacies to guilds on condition that the testator should 
be received into the fraternity and enjoy the privileges of other deceased 

I 2 


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next morning. At this mass each member made an offering, 
and, their religious duties being over, all went to an inn, or 
their guildhall, where they settled their guild accounts, and 
elected the officers for the ensuing year. According to one 
certificate, eight men of the alderman's choosing elected 
an alderman for the ensuing year — an election not unlike 
that of a rotten borough of later times. 

On the death of any member the survivors attended his 
burial. The torches which burned at funerals were supplied 
from the common stock, and four poor men carried the corpse. 
Those of the members who were " lettered " said placebo and 
dirige; and those who were not, twenty paternosters and 
avemarias for his soul. Absence from these services or the 
other meetings of the guild rendered the absentee liable to a 
fine of so many pounds of wax, unless he was on the King's 
service, seriously ill, or resident more than a certain distance 
off. If the departed brother died within a limited distance 
from the place at which the guild was kept, the alderman 
and seven of the brethren went, and, if legal, brought his 
body back with them, or saw that the proper funeral rites 
were performed where the body lay. If any member through 
**aventure of the world" fell into poverty or "mys-ese," the 
others subscribed a half-penny or farthing a-week each, and 
the (no longer) indigent brother or sister received from 12d, 
to 14rf. a week — the balance going to the common fund : but, 
adds one certificate, "if it be his folly he schal none have of 
ye elmes." 

Any disagreement between members of the guild, had to 
be submitted to the arbitrament of the alderman or some of 
the brethren ; and if they failed to settle it, the disputants 
were then allowed to seek their remedy at common law. 

The form of these certificates, and the various regulations 
and ordinances of the different guilds, will, however, be best 
learned from the following Norwich certificates, which are 
here printed as our first contribution to the history of Norfolk 


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Guilds ; and at no distant period it is proposed to give a tew 
of the county certificates and a list of the guilds existing in 
Norfolk in the reign of Richard II. It is also believed that 
sufficient material is in existence elsewhere, to considerably 
enlarge the list of guilds compiled by Taylor for his Index 
Monasttctis. Nine hundred and nine are there enumerated ; 
but, inasmuch as the dates at which they are found mentioned 
are not given, it is by no means clear that they all flourished 
at the same period ; for guilds, like empires, had their decline 
and fall. If to the particulars just mentioned we are enabled 
to add, as we confidently hope we shall be, extracts from such 
guild-books and accounts as are in existence, and to collect as 
it were into a focus the scattered rays of information con- 
cerning these institutions that are to be found in old wills 
and the inventories of church goods temp. Edward Vt., we 
trust it will not be thought that the labour of the search, 
or the space occupied in printing its results, will have been 
altogether wasted. 

No. 17. Norwich. 

In dei noie ame And in bono' of cure loued seinte Marye 
cristes moder of Hevene and alle halwyn ye ordenaunces off 
cteyn psones weryn begunnen in ye cite of Norwych in yer 
of g^'ce a thousande thre hundred and syxte 30 3er of regno 
of Kyng Edward ye thridde after ye conquest xxxiij and 

ppetue schal ben holden in ye honor of cure lady 

saynte Marye cristes moder at ye heye auter in ye ffrerl 
prechours'' of Norewych. 

Thus it is ordcyned yat alle ye bretheryn and sistyn of ye 
gilde als longe as xij psons of hem ly ven yei schullen ofieryn 
a candel 1 to torches of wax T; yis light yey hau hoten and 
a vowed to kepen and mejTiteynen and yese orre ordenances 

" Black Friars, or Dominicans*. 


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3rat ben under wreten up on her power and diligence in 
wyrschipe of crist T; his moder and ye to torches shullen ben 
of xl lib. weyghte and alle ye brethren and sisteren shullen 
offeryn yis candell and ye to torchis everi 3er ye Sunday 
after ye nativite of our lady and heren here messe at ye heye 
auter atte selue £re8 pchours and everi brother and sister 
offerin an ob wyth her candel and her to torches in hono'' of 
ye holigost. And ye to torchis eyeri day in ye 3er schuUen 
ben light and brennyng at ye heye messe at selue auter from 
ye levacon of cristis body sacrid intil yat ye prest have used. 

Thys ben ye names of ye men yat ben maystres 1 kepers 
of ye gyld. 

Johes Brooke webs? \ And yis men hau 
Henricus Wyld I in kepyng for ye 
Johes Hotere ) same light xl***. 

No. 18. Norwic. 

Excellentissimo principi 1; diio domino nf o Rico dei ^ti 
Begi Angi % ffiranc ac consilio suo in Oancellai^ sua sui hu- 
miles ligei custodes fratnitatis Sci Botulphi abbis in ecciia 
Sci Botulphi Norwic® omiodam subjectoem ac revenciam T; 
honorem virtute cjusdam pclamacois p vie com Norff apud 
Norwicu de mandate regis nup fee vre celsitudini nos pfati 
ligei vri jux^ formam pclamacois pdce ctificamus qd nra 
fratnitas pdca anno dni miUmo ccc™° octogesimo quarto faerat 
incepta ob honorem Sci Botulph Abbtis '\ luminis aug- 
mentu in ecclia pdca singlis dieb3 ad missam ibidem dicent 
continue sustinend sub ctis ordinacoib} factf quidem tenor 
sequit in in hec 9ba. 

^ St Botolph's church was demollBhed hefore 1548. Its site is shown on 
Blomefield's plan, and is at the present day, as it was in his time, occupied hy 
the White Hone Inn, Botolph Street. 


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In ndie See Trinitatis Patris % filij ^ spt sci ac sci Botulphi 
abbtis % omi scoj^ Amen. 

In ye beginnyng yt is ordeynede yat yis fra?nite shal 
be holden at ye chircbe of Seint Botulph forsayde on ye 
Sonday next foUowande ye Epipbany of oure lorde and yer 
offeren here candel devoutelicbe T; evy brother T; evy sister 
sball offeren a ferthyng at ye messe w* ye candel and ye 
brethren and sisteren yat bene absent shxil payen a pounde 
of wax to ye light. Ande also it is ordeyned yat alle ye 
brethren T; sisteren of yis fratnite shul comen on ye Monday 
next folowande to ye churche forsayde T: yer have a messe of 
requiem for alle cristen soides up ye peyn forseyde. 

And also it is ordeynede yat when a brother or sister 
deyeth alle ye bretheren % ye sisteren of yis fratnitee shull 
comen to ye dirige T; to messe. And euy brother % euy 
sister shal oflfre a ferthyng % yeven a ferthyng for love of 
godd a peny to a messe for ye soule of ye dede and he shal 
have of ye bretheren costes two torches T; two candels 

Ande also it is ordeynede yat what brother or sister of yis 
fratnitee falle in poveix euy brother T: sister shal yeven ye 
pouer brother or syster a ferthjTig in ye woke. 

Et quo ad bona % catalla fratnitat^ pdicr eidem celsitudini 
vre silit significamus qd nos pfati custodes hemus in custodia 
ad opus dee luminis sustenand xxvj" viij** argenti. In cuj^ 
reitestiom psentib} sigilla nra apposuim^.* 

19. Fra?nit Sci Jacobi apu Norwi2. 

M^ de ffra?nitate constitut % ordinat in honore sci Jacobi 
apti in ciuitatc Norwic p fres et sorores ipius fratnitatis Non 
habent terras tenementa redditus possessiones nee catalla 
ult* valore viginti sex solidf tenor v** confatu comi suis 

' No seals have ever been affixed. 


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ordinaconu sequit* oft h forma vbo^ Hec est ordinacio fca 
in? fres T; sorores frarnitatis sci Jacobi apli in NorwiS videit 
ita covent inr eosdem q^ catella dee frarnitatis in cui^ man^ 

deveSint fidelit custod ^ ilia pficient melis modo quo 

potinfc que quidih catalla sunt cu omib} lucris % pficiis inde 
pvenientib} reddat sursu in man^ aldermannu ad 2ta die qd 
erat assignar sine vltiori dilacoe sb pena dua]^ libr^ cere et 
q** dca fratnitas teneat^ quoit anno in die dmea px post fm 
sci Jacobi T; dca fratnitas teneat* tam diu q*m quatuor vivunt 
de dca fratnitate et quitt fi? 1 soror dabit eodiii die in 
elemosina unu q^ et si aliquis f r vl soror caderit in pauptate 
babebit de sua fratnitate quoit septiman xij**. 

Itm si contingat alique f nn vl soro^ inf* septe leucas 
distantes a civitate Norwic mori qd tiic dci fres et sorores 
facient ipm carfare et sepeliere in dca civitate siiptib} eo^ 
ppis % babeant in die sepulte sue duos torchis ardent unu ad 
capud T; aliud ad pedes ponderant sex libi? T; quiit fru T; 
soro^ dabit .... obolu p elemosina Non sunt alique alie 
ordinacoes const % ordina? in fra?nitate pdicte. 

33. Norwic. 

M^ de fra?nitat Sci Michis ordina? in civitate Norwi2 videit 
in capella Sci Michis' jux* domu See Leonard ex* portas 
Civitatis Norwic p divsos artificial) % opatores dee civitatis 
non babent terras possessiones reddi? n^ tenementa n*^ babent 
in catell valor quiq^ solidf S3 est ordinatS int eosdm q^ dci 
fres T; sorores in die see Michis erunt ^sen? in dca capella 
et ibm facient celebraf) un3 missa cu nota (P) cu omi 
solepnitate ^ tuc efferent ibm duas candelas ponderl octo libre 
% qui (libet frater) ^ soror offeret ad dcum missa vnu obolu 
% dabit quilt eo^ in elemosina imu q*. 

' Rett's Castle. 


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40. Norwic — Fra?nit See Ka?ine Norwici. 

Norwic. Excellentiflaimo principi T: diio dno nro 'Rico dei 
gra Regi Angi T: flBranc^ ac consilio suo in CancellaS sua Sui 
humiles ligei Custodes cujusdam fratnitatis See Karine virgis 
% m^ris in ecclia Seo^ Simonis T. Jude in Norwico omiodam 
subjectoem ac revenciam 'X honorem virtute cujusdam pcla- 
maoois p Vic Com Norff apud Norwicu de mandat Regis 
nup facte vre excellencie jux* formam pclamaoois pdce 
ctificamus qd nra frarnitas pdicta Anno diii millmo ccc"** 
septimo p quosdam pochianos dicte eccUe 1; alias deo devotos 
fuerat incepta ob honorem See Trinitatis btissimec^ virginis 
Marie ac See Karine virginis % m^ris % omu sco^ luminis% 
incrementu in ecclia pdict continuand sub iltia ordinacoib} 
coi consensu frfn T; soroi fratnitatis pdict edit T: fact qua* 
quidem ordinacoim tenor sequit' in hec verba. 

In ye begynnyng w* one assent it is ordeynede yat alle ye 
bretheren % sisteren of yis gilde shul comen togeder to ye 
poch chirch of Seynt Symond 1; Jude in Northwich on ye 
day of Seynt Karine for to gone w* pcession w* her candel 
ye which be bom befom hem and to heren ye messe of Seynt 
Karine in ye forsayde chirch Ande at yat messe eSy brother 
^ sister shal offeren an halpeny. 

Ande also it is ordeynede yat what brother or sister be 
absent at ye pcession forsayde or at messe or at ofiPeryng he 
shal payen to ye catel of ye gilde ij pounde of wax hot yei 
mowen bene excused resonableby. 

Ande also it is ordeynede yat when a brother or sister is 
dede evy brother 1 sister shul come to Dirige % to messe and 
at ye messe eviche shal offeren an halpeny and yeven an 
halpeny to Almesse And for a messe to be songen for ye soule 
of ye dede a peny And at ye dirige evy brother T; sister yat 
is letterede shul seyn for ye soule of ye dede placebo 1 dirige 
in ye place wher he shul comen togeder and evy brother % 
syster yat bene nought letterede shul seyn for ye soule of ye 
dede xx sythes ye parnoster w' ave maria ande of ye catel of 


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ye glide shal yer bene two candels of wax of xvj pounds 
weight aboute ye body of ye dede. 

And also it is ordeynede yat if eny brother or sister deye 
out of ye citee of Northwich w*inne viij mile yat six of ye 
bretheren yat hav ye Catel of ye gilde in keping shul wenden 
to yat brother or sister yat is dede 1 if it be lefulle he shul 
done carien ye (sic) Norwich and ellisle beryede yer Ande if 
ye body be beriede out of Norwich alle ye bretheren % sisteren 
shul bene wamede to comen to ye forsayde chirch of Seynt 
Symond T; Jude ande yer shal be done for ye soule of ye 
dede alle suice lights T: offeryngs as (if) ye body were yer 
psent Ande what brother or syster be absent at Placebo T; 
dirige or at messe he shal payen two pounds of wax to ye 
catel of ye said bot he be re^onableby excusede ande nevyeles 
he shal done for ye dede as it is seyde afom. 

Ande also it is ordeynede yat on ye morowe after ye Gilde 
day alle ye bretheren T; sisteren shul come to ye forsayde 
chirche 1 yer done syngen a messe of requiem for ye bre- 
theren ^ sisteren soules of yis gilde % for all cristen soules 
T; evich yer offer a ferthyng *lt who so be absent he shal payen 
a poimd of wax. 

Ande also it is ordeynede yat if eny brother or sister fall in 
povert thurgh aventure of ye world his state shal bene holpen 
of evy brother ^ sister of ye gilde w* a ferthyng in ye weke. 

Ande also it is ordeynede by comon assent yat if eny dis- 
corde be bytwen bretheren T; sisteren first yat discord shal 
be showed to other bretheren 1 sisteren of ye gilde T; by 
them acorde shal be made if it may be skilfully Ande if he 
mowen nought bene so accorded it shal be lefulle to him to 
gone to ye comon lawe w* outen eny meynteinning And 
who so do agein yis ordenaunce he shal payen two pounds of 
wax to ye light. 

And it is ordeynede by comon assent yat what brother of 
yis gilde be chosen in to office T: refuse it he shal payen iij 
pounds of wax to ye light of Seynt Ka^ine 


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And it is ordeyned by comon assent yat ye bretheren % 
sisteren of yis gilde in ye worshepe of Seynt Ka¥ine sbul have 
a lyveree of bodes in suyte 1 eten togeder on gilde day at 
her comon costes And whoso faile he shal payen ij pounds 
of wax to ye light. 

Also yt is ordeynede by comon assent yat no brother ne 
sister shal be resceyuede into yis gilde bot by ye alderman 
*lt xij bretheren of ye gilde. 

Et quo ad bona % catalla dee frarnitatis eidem excellencie 
Tte silit significamus qd nos pfati custodes hemus in custodia 
ad opus dee (fira?nitatis) xx' argenti. 


Norwic. — Excellentissimo principi 1 dno dno nro Rico dei 
gra Regf Angl 1 Franc? ac consilio suo in cancellar^ sua sui 
humiles ligei custodes cujusdam frarnitatis see Trinitatis in 
eccUa Cath. See Trinitatis Norwic^ omiodam subjectoem ac 
revenciam % honorem ^textu cujusdam pclamacois p YicP Com 
Norff apud Norwicu de mandate regis nup fee vre celsitudini 
jux"^ formam pclamaKis pdic? (certificamus) q^ nra fraSnitatis 
pdca Anno dni millmo ccc™** sexagesimo quarto fuerit ex 
donacoe incepta ob honorem unius % individue Trinitatis 

patris ^ filij ^ spt sci limiinis p in ecclia Cath. pdicta 

singiis dieb} denote continuand sub (certis) ordinacoib} Soi 
consensu confrlm 1; soro& pdicte frarnitatis factis qua^ qui- 
dem ordinacoem tenor sequit**" in hec 9ba. 

In ye begynnyng it is ordeynede by comon assent yat alle 
ye bretheren '\ sisteren of yis fratnite shul kepen 1; begynnen 
her devotion on ye even of ye feste of ye Trinitee at matyns 
comand w' solemnite to ye forsayde chirche w* torches bren- 
nande T; yer offeren euy brother T; sister ande on the morowen 
gone w* ye pcession w* a candel of fy ve lyghtes to bren afom 
our lady Ande also it is ordeynede yat evy yher yat on ye 


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mouday next after ye Trinite Sonday all ye forsayde bretheren 
% sisteren shal comen togeder to ye same place wher ye candel 
is offered % have a messe of Requiem for all Christen soules 
ande evy brother ^ sister shal offre a ferthyng and whoso be 
absent he shal payen a pounde of wax to ye light Ande also 
it is ordeyned by comon assents of yis fra?nite yat at ye day 
of the sepulture of ye bretheren T; sisteren evy brother % sister 
forsayde shal offeren an halpeny to almesse and evich brother 
'X sister shal payen a peny to a messe and evy brother T; sister 
shal payen of ye comon catel a peny to a Sauter for ye 
deden soule and he shall have of ye comon catel two candels 
poysaunt viij pound Ande also it is ordeynede by yis fra- 
tnitee yat yfe eny brother or sister falle in povert or in 
michief evy brother or sister shal payen an halpeny in ye 
weke to ye officers wh^of ye pouer broth^ or sister shal have 
xij** in ye weke ^ ye remaniant shall be done to ye light 
And also it is ordeynede yat if eny brother or sister be absent 
at any gaderyng or beryinge or wher he be somoned he shal 
payen a pounde of wax to ye light bot he be excuseyd [hole] 
onableby. Et quo ad bona 1 catatt dee fratnitatis eidem 
excellencie vre silit significamus qd no pdci custodes hemus 
in custodia ad opus T; sustentacoem frarnitatf pdci Ix" argenti. 

111. Norwich. 

And a brotherhode per ys ordened of barbres in ye Site of 
Norwych in y« worshep of God % ys moder T; Seynt John 
ye Babtis yat alle bretheren and sisteren of ye same gyld als 
longe as xij psones of hem ly ven yey schulen offerjTi a candel 
% to torches of wax % yis light yey hoten and a vowed to 
kepjTi T: myntenyn and thes oy) ordenances yat ben under 
wreton upon her power and diligence in worschepe of Crist 
T: ys modyr 1 Seynt John Baptis and ye to torches schul 
bieii of xj life weyght and alle ye bretherin 1 sisterin schullen 


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oflferyn yia candel 1 ye to torches everi 3;er a misomer day 
^ yey herin her messe at ye heye auter atte Chamnel * in 
cristis cherge and everi brother % sistir offeryn an ob wyth 
her candel and her to torches in honor of God % oure lady T; 
saynt John ye Babtis 

And ye to torches everi day in ye 'jer scullen ben light and 
brennyng at ye heye messe at solve auter from y* levacon 
of cristis body sacrid in til yat ye priest have nsud. 

This bien ye names of ye men yat ben maystris % kepirs 
of ye Gyld. 

Phus Barbur \ and yis men haue in 

Jacob Barbir > kepyng for ye same 

ThoiS Barbyr at ^chors ) light ij» in her box. 

116. Fratnir See Trinitatis ac Sci Wilti Innocent Martiris 
de Norwico. 
Norwic. Excellentissimo et noblissimo principi 1 dno nro 
dno Rico dei gracia Kegi Anglie ^ ffi:anc ac ipius sano oonsilio 
in sua cancellaria Sui ligei humiles ^ benignissimu magistri 
% custodes frarnitatis constant 1 ordinal in honore see 
Trinitatis beatie Marie ac beati Wifli innocentis T: martiris 
ac oinu scoj^ que quidem frarnitas est coia i eccH cath See 
Trinitatis Norwic die dmca px* post fin Pet T; Pauli omioda 
revencia cum omi subjectoe 1 honore cum nup de mandatis 
Regis p vice com Norflff palam T; publico in? aUa fuisset 
pclamatu q^ oms et singli magistri et custodes gilda^ fratni- 
tatu qua^cuq^ ctificent in cancellariam vram in scptis plenarie 
distincte *l ap*' cit"^ festum purificacois beatse marie ubicu^i} 
tunc f uit de modo forma ac auct^e fundacois incepcois ac 
co^tinuacois T; regiminis gilde et fratemitatis hu? existent^ 
nee non de li^tatib} pvilegijs statutis ordinacoib3 usib^ 
1 consuetudinib} gilda& ^ frarnitatii ea^din ac insup de 

* Noir the Grammar School. 


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omib'3; terns % tenementis redditib-j possessionib^; morti- 
ficatis % non mortificatis ac bonis catallis qxiib;cimq) ad 
pdcas gildas % fratnitates qualitcimq^ ptinentib') sive spec- 
tantibj in qua^cumq^ manib^ hui? terre 1 tenement redditus 
^ possessiones bona seu catalla ad opus hu? gildarf T, fra?- 
nitatu existant ac de vo pcio bona& % catella]s ^dica^ Nosq^ 
ligei vri auditas et intellecta pelamacoe pdicta p ipm vice 
com facta regie celsitudini yre jux^ forma pclamacois ^dict in 
oraib*} obedire volentes eidin celsitudini vre ctificam^ q** nra 
confratnitas andca ab anno dni miitio tricentesimo septua- 
gesimo sexto f uit incepta et fundata ac deinceps ad honorem 
dei g^oseq^ virginis marie matris sue ac beati Witli et omu 
scorf diuinuq^ cultus augmentacoe ac dee ecctie cath 1; sus- 
tentaffiis dua|^ capellana^ deo ibidm servient releuamen p 
confres 1, sorores ipius fratnitatis successive continuata sine 
pjudicio injuria seu calupnia cujuscuq^ nee est dca fra?nitas in 
aliquib} terris tenementis redditib} aut possessionib} immo- 
bilib} dotata 8*5 fuit 'I est quando 1 quotiens necesse f Sit p 
omb} eidm confrarnitatu . . . ventib^; subportandis decollecta 
coi nee dcos confres T, sorores fieri consueta ac de legatis in 
testamentis ^ ultis volutatib) alijsq^ pijs deuocionib} ad ... . 
relictis T; collatis devent sustentata % hue usq^ debita gubnata. 
Ad bos insup modu % forma fres % sorores dee confra?nitatis 
sunt convocandf convocat assembliadf seu assemblia? scdm 
quasdam ordina^es corsensu ipox confrin et soroj edi? atq^ 
factas quaj quidin ordinaconu tenor sequit* in hec vba. 

In ye name of ye fader and sone and holy gost thre psones 
6 god in rnite and in ye worchepe of our lauedy Seynte marie 
his dere moder And of seynt William ye holy innocent and 
digne marter And alle halewyn In ye yer of cure lorde ihu 
cryst a thousand thre hundred seventy and sexe Peltyers 
and oyere god men beguinne yis gylde and yis brotherhod 
of Seynt WiUyam y* holy Innocent and marter in Norwj'^ch 
And alle yes ordenaunces underwreten al ye bretheren and 
systeren schulyn helden and kepen upon here power. 


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At ye fyrste alle ye bretheren and systeren thus hau be 
boten yat yey every yer on ye Sunday nexst aftyr ye fest of 
seynt Pe? and Powel In worehepe of ye tnite and of our 
leuedy and seynt William and aUehalwen scbullen offeren 
to floured candelys afom seynt Willyams toube^ in ye mynstre 
of ye tnyte and eui of hem offeryn an halpeny at y° messe 
and heren at y® messe and qwo so be absent yanne he schal 
payen to seynt Williams lyth thre pound of wax and it schal 
ben reysed and gadered be ye alderman and his felas Also a 
knave chyld innocent beren a candel yat day ye wygth of to 
pounds led betwyxen to gode men tokenyngf of ye gloryous 
marter. Also it is ordeyned yat no man schal ben excusyd 
of absence at yat messe but it be for ye kyngges svise or for 
serous sekenesse or twenty myle dweUyngf for yis syte yat 
he ne schal payen ye peyne of thre pounds of wax. 

And qwo so schal ben escused for any oy schyl (it P) schal 
ben at ye aldermaiies wyl and at ye company. 

Also all ye bretheryn and systeryn hav hordeyned and 
graimted for any ordenaunce yat is mad or schal ben mad 
amonges hem yat yey schal save ye kingf hys ryth and non 
piudys don ageyn his lawe in yis ordenaunce. 

Also it is ordeyned yat everych broy) and syster of yis 

3 In 1278, John de CluBel, Bishop of London, dedicated the altar where the 
body of St, William was buried^ and Thomas de Gantelupe, Bishop of Hereford, 
dedicated the opposite altar by the choir door, — ^Blomofield, vol. ii. p. 486, fol. ed. 
On the plan of the church, St. William's altar is shown on the north side of the 
choir door. The offerings at St. William's in 1306 were insignificant, amounting 
only to ninepence. In 1396, twenty years after the foundation of this Guild, 
they amounted to £7. be, 2d.y being about one-eighth of the sum offered at the 
high altar, and more than double the offerings at any of the other altars or 
chapels. In 1401, £5. I0«. 9^^.; 1403, £4. 17jr. 6d,; 1404, £4. 7«. id.; 1405, 
£4. I2s. Od. ; 1406, £3. 0«. Q\d, The offerings were clearly on the decline, for 
in 1423, they were only 16«. 11^., and they fluctuated from 1426 to 1430 
between 6«. and 9«. The Guild of St. WiUiam must surely have ceased to eiist 
then. In 1465, the next date at which we have any notice of the amount of 
oblations at St. William's altar, only 9d, was received; in 1504, 20<f. ; and the 
maximum after this date was ie. Ad, in 1516. 


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gylde erly on morwe aftyr ye gj^lde day scbal heryn a masse 
of requiem for alle ye brotherf soules and systeren soules of 
yis glide And for alle cristens soules at Seynt Williams 
auter in ye mynstre of ye Trynyte in Norwych and oflferen a 
ferthyng And qwo so be wane scbal paye a pound of wax. 

And qwan ye messe is done be here aldermannes asent yey 
scbal alle togedere gon to an In and euy man yat bat any 
catelle of ye gilde leyn it don and ordeynen yer of bere 
lykyngf be comon assent and cbosen offycis for ye nexte yer 
And qwo falye scbal payen tbre pounds of wax. 

And viij men of ye aldermanes cbosyngf on y* gylde day 
scbulen cbosen an alderman and to felas And a sombns for 
ye nexte yer. 

Also it is ordeyned in ye worcbepe of ye tnte and of oure 
leuedy Seynt Marie and of Seynt William and of alle balwyn 
yat qwbat brotber or syster be goddis sonde falle in miscbef 
or mysese and bave nout to belpen bem self be scball bau 
almesse of eui broy'' and syst euy weke lestende bis myscbef 
a fertbyng of qwcb fertbynges be scbal bau xiiij^ and ye 
remenaunt gon to catell but if it be bis foly be scbal none 
bave of y* elmes. 

Also it is ordeyned be comon assent qwoso be cbosen in 
ofTys and refuse it be scbal paye to seynt William (qu. ligbt) 
tbre pound of wax and up payne of his oth. 

Also if eny brotber or sys? deye be schal bau of ye gylde 
foure torches and foure pore men cladde a bou . . . cors And 
euy brother and sis? ofiFeren at bis messe and heryn al ye 
messe and byden in enteryngf and at masse offeryn a fer- 
thyngf and an balpeny 3eue to abnes for ye soule And yeven 
to a messe a peny qwcb sbal be gaderyd be ye Alderman and 
hise felas to don for ye soule And for alle cristens. 

Also if any broy"^ or sist' deye sevene myles fr6 ye cite 

ye alderman and oyj sevene breiberyn at bis wende 

in fere ye cors and ordeynen and don for ye soule as for on 
of ye bretheren. 


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Also it is ordeyned be comon assent yat yese bretheren in 
worchipe of ye hole tnyte and Seynt William schid deyn 
togeder on yat day at here comon cost. 

And qwo so be somonned to semble or to congregation 
befom ye Alderman and ye bretheryn and come nout he 
schal pay a poimd of wax to ye lyt. 

Also it is ordeyned be comon assent yat no broy' ne sist in 
yis gilde schal be reseyved but be ye alderman and xij 

Also it is ordeyned be comon assent yat ye comon belleman 
schal gon thurgh ye cite on ye gilde day after non and 
recomandyn al ye brethei? soules and systeres of ye gilde be 
name and alle crystens soules and seyn y^ a messe of Eequie 
schal ben seyd erly on ye morwen be ^e day in memorie 
of ye soulys and alle cristene and somownyn all ye bretheryn 
an systeryn yat yey ben at ye messe at ye aur of Seynt 

Willia at yat of ^me up ye peyne of thre poimd of 


Non sun alio colstituooes cSstitut n° ordinat in frarnitate 

Sm* Catall dee fra?nitate iiij" iiij' 1 n!c plus v^ min^ 

[vol. VII.] 


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The examples of old church-furniture which are occasionally 
to be met with, still preserved in the parishes to which they 
belong, are always interesting as examples of ancient usage, 
and valuable for the excellence of their design. In the eastern 
counties, especially, where much wood-carving was used, 
examples are not unfrequent. I do not refer to the ancient 
screens or benching of churches, these being less liable to be 
disturbed, and therefore in less risk of perishing ; but to 
moveable articles, or such as are more likely to be replaced 
with others, as taste and customs changed. Thus there are 
a good many ancient pulpits, chests, font-covers, &c., still 
remaining, several of which have been already noticed in 
our publications, and others may deserve illustration at a 
future time. I would now call attention to a somewhat rare 
class of articles of church-furniture, the Lecterns ; and am 
able to produce sketches of some of those in our own county 
with which I am acquainted. There are probably others, 
unknown to me, and I shall be glad of the assistance of our 
members in making the list complete. 

The Lectern is a desk, or stand, for placing the larger 
books used in divine service upon, and was made either of 


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stone, (or marble) brass, or wood. They were used, previous 
to the Beformation, both for reading the Gospel and Epistle 
from, at the altar ; and also, lower in the choir, for the music 
books of the clergy who sang the antiphons, &c They were 
often enriched with embroidered hangings. An extract from 
the Ancient Rites of Durham, pp. 17, 18, quoted in the 
Glossary of Architecture, gives good evidence of their use : — 
" At the north end of the high altar there was a goodly fine 
letteron of brass, where they simg the Epistle and Gospel, 
with a great Pelican on the height of it, finely gilt, billing 
her blood out of her breast to feed her young ones, and her 

wings spread abroad, whereon lay the book also there 

was lower down in the quire another lattern of brass 

with an eagle on the height of it, and her wings spread 
abroad, whereon the monks laid their books when they sung 
their legends at matins, or other times of service." 

Lecterns were usually made with two sloping desks, but 
sometimes with only one. An example at Debtling, in Kent, 
has four sides : and others, of continental design, have as 
many as six. They appear to have been used from very early 
times in the church, and are found represented in manuscripts 
of ancient date. The earliest known existing example is the 
stone desk dug up at Evesham, in 1813, and engraved in the 
Archmologia^ xvii. pi. 23, 24, of the date of 1218; unless 
another remaining at Crowle church, Worcestershire, is of 
equal antiquity. The earliest I have met with in Norfolk is 
at East Ilarling, of Decorated character. It is of simple but 
good design, consisting of a lozenge-shaped shaft, with a plain 
cross-bar for the foot, and a circular moulded capital, sup- 
porting a double desk, the top of which is embattled, and the 
ends ornamented with cinquefoil cusping and diaper-work. 
One end is pierced with a plain circle, the other has a rose 
on a diapered ground. This Lectern was engraved from my 
sketch, in the Instrumenta JScciesiastica, published by the 
Cambridge Camden Society. The example in Ranworth 

K 2 


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church is well known to our members, and though of less 
merit in design than most others, is particularly interesting 
from the remains of painted musical notes which are to be seen 
upon it. The shaft and base are octagonal, and ornamented 
with a pattern in colours. The desk is of peculiar con- 
struction, as will be best seen from the plate in Mr. Dawson 
Turner's Illustratwm of Norfolk Topography. (Pref. p. xiv.) 
The upright back has four staves of music painted on it, with 
the versicle, " Gloria tibi, Domine, qui natus es de origine, 
cum Patre, Sancti spiritu, in sepi?na secula. Amen." On 
the front is painted an eagle, with a scroU in its mouth, — " In 
principio erat verbum." This Lectern is a very curious 
example, and deserves careful preservation. 

Another good specimen of a Lectern of the fifteenth cen- 
tury -remains in Scole church, near Diss, and has also been 
engraved in the Instrumenta JEcciesiastica, It consists of an 
octagonal stem without a capital, on a square base, having a 
spreading leaf carved at each angle, and supporting a plain 
desk. It is a simple and valuable model for imitation. 
A fourth exists in the church of St. Michael at Thorn, 
Norv^'ich, and has been engraved in the Norwich volume 
of the ArchsDological Institute. The stem is octagonal, 
with moulded base and capital of the same form ; the ridge 
of the desk has a cresting of foliage, and the end is pierced 
with a quatrefoil. 

In Redenhall church tliere are two very interesting ex- 
amples of Lecterns. One is a large and fine one of brass, 
the desk being in the form of a double-headed eagle. The 
shaft is elaborately moulded, and supported on lions. It is 
said that this Lectern was foimd in cleaning out a moat on 
the Gawdy Hall estate, in the parish. Its date is of the fif- 
teenth century. The other is a curious wooden one, probably 
not earlier than about 1500. The desk is supported on a 
circular banded shaft, and the base is square, having at each 
angle a toad or frog in a squatting attitude. 


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The finest, however, of the wooden Lecterns in Norfolk 
has never yet been published. It was inspected by those 
of our members who joined the Watton excursion meeting, 
in Shipdham church, and the Committee have since pro- 
cured an excellent drawing of it, executed by Mr. J. T. 
Lee, architect, an engraving of which is here given. The 
design of this Lectern is unusual and of great beauty. 
Indeed, it is remarkable how much variety of design is to 
be seen in these as well as in all other specimens of ancient 
work. While modem invention can seldom reach beyond 
some familiar type without offending the eye with bad taste 
or inappropriate style, the old examples are ever presenting 
fresh varieties of design, and yet each preserves a fitness of 
character and beauty which renders it pleasing and har- 
monious. The truth and reality of an artificer's business 
in those days seems to have been expressed in the work of 
his hands. The Shipdham Lectern is constructed with a 
triangular shaft composed of three buttresses rising to the 
full height of the shaft, aud the angles between the buttresses 
are ornamented with a line of small quatrefoils from the top 
to the bottom. The shaft rests on a base of three members, 
each terminated by a lion sejant. An embattled capital 
supports the desk, which is of the usual double form, and 
has its sides very richly carved with tracery of dissimilar 
design ; the ends are also filled in with quatrefoils and 
foliage. A cresting of leaves forms the ridge. The desk 
of this Lectern was restored about fourteen years ago, but 
the rest is all original. It is an admirable specimen of 
Gothic furniture; and as it is much prized in the church 
where it is preserved, it is to be hoped it wiU be safe from 
injury ; and together with the curious library in the parvise 
of the same church, will continue to afford gratification to 
those who may visit the place. 

I have described only such Norfolk Lecterns as are of 
wood. There are some very fine ones of brass also remaining 


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in the county, but which have been illustrated already in 
various publications. The brass Lectern is always in the 
shape of an eagle, or pelican. The following is a list of 
such Lecterns, of whatever material, with which I am 







Brass Eagle 

Dereham, East 



HarUng, East 



Lynn, St Margaret 



„ St Nicholas* Chapel 



Norwich, Cathedral 



„ St. Gregory 



„ St Michael at Thorn 



Ranworth • . 






1) • t 



Scole .. 



Shlpdham • . , , 



Wiggenhall St Mary 



Aldbury, Bucks . . 



Astbury, Cheshire . . 



Blythbiirgh, Suffolk 



Bridgewator, Somersetshire 



Bristol, St. Mary le Port 



„ St. Mary Reddiff 



Bury, Huntingdonshire 

Early Decorated 


Cambridge, Christ's College 



„ King's College 



Campden, Gloucestershire 



Cavendish, Suffolk.. 



Clare, Suffolk 



Coventry, Trinity Church 



Croft, Lincolnshire 



Crowle, "Worcestershire 




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Croydon, Surrey , . 



DebUing, Kent 



Eton College . . ^ 



Eveftham . . 



HawBtead, Suffolk . . 



Hendred, Berks . . 

Late Perpendicular 


Horkedey, Little, Essex 



Isleham, Cambridgeshire 



Islip, Oxfordshire . . 



Leighton Buzzard, Beds 


Wooden Eagle 

Lenham, Kent . . . . 


Leverington, Cambridgeshire . . 



Lingfield, Surrey . , 



Littlebury» Essex .. 



Lowestoft, Suffolk . . 



Monksilver, Somersetshire 


Wooden Eagle 

Newport, Essex 



Oxford, Magdalen College 



„ Merton College 



Ramsey, Hunts 



Salisbury, St. Martin 





„ St. Michael 



Southwell Minster 



St. Alban's, St. Stephen's 



Swanscombe, Kent 



Sutton, Long, Lincolnshire 



Wednesbury, Staffordshire 


Wells Cathedral . . 


Wingficld, Suffolk . . 



Yeovil, Somcrsctaliirc 




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Hflftia if a giswkrg of |lamaw dl^nins 



Hon. Treasukbr and Sbchietart. 

Earlt in the year 1846 some Roman Silver Coins were 
found in the parish of Beachamwell in this county. My hite 
friend, S. W. Stevenson, Esq., F.S.A., to whom they were 
submitted, and whose interest in numismatic pursuits and 
intimate acquaintance with the ancient classics and their 
history, peculiarly fitted him for the task, drew up a descrip- 
tive catalogue of them, which has been long hidden among 
my papers, but which the Society may think not unworthy 
of record in the pages of our ArchsDological Journal; for the 
study of ancient coins may worthily interest others, besides 
the antiquary. 

Many a student has been indebted to coins for his inter- 
pretation of an ancient writer, and the historian has found 
in them the most certain evidences of history. The reigns 
of Roman Emperors, Gibbon teUs us, might in some in- 
stances be almost written from their coins; and the artist 
has been indebted to them for the delineation of much that 
is beautiful in art; and not imfrequently for models of 
admirable execution. 


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Those whicli arc described in the following cat4ilogue wore 
found on Beachamwell Sheepwalk, near the Wellmoro plan- 
tation, by a lad sent to fetch a load of sand. In digging for 
the sand, he struck his spade against an earthen pot, from 
which fell fifty or more pieces of silver monej'. The pot, 
which was of Roman manufacture, was broken by the stroke. 
It had been covered — as was usually the case when such 
vessels were buried with treasure, and were not inverted — by 
a smaller jar, or dish, of much finer ware than the larger 
one : this escaped the blow of the spade. The engraving 
here given shows the form of the larger vessel, and on the 
bottom, the potter's name, SOSIMIM, clearly stamped. 

The spot where they were buried was about two feet from 
the surface ; and level with and near to it during the pre- 
ceding summer had been found an urn, but no vestiges of 


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charcoal, bone, or metal, which usually indicate a burial- 
ground. Not that this is conclusive that the place had never 
been used for the purpose of interment, as such relics might 
easily escape cursory observation ; and if the spot had been so 
appropriated, it was probably, according to the Roman practice 
of sepulture, near a highway; but I am not aware that 
any traces of such remains have been or can at this day be 

The positions in which from day to day these treasures are 
found in the county, show that the Romans had at one time 
complete possession of the hills and streams of the district. 
None of these discoveries have hitherto pointed to the 
existence of a city, or of any extensive villa, but rather to 
stations occupied for military purposes, and these are shown 
to have been numerous and well chosen, both for defence and 
for facility of communication with each other. 

Upon this subject, Pinkerton, in his Essay on Medals, re- 
marks, " It was no doubt a custom with that people, in every 
instance ardently desirous of fame, to bury parcels of coin as 
a monimicnt of their having as it were taken possession of 
the ground," leaving behind them these enduring memorials, 
and thus preserving an unquestionable record of facts. 

There is also another reason to account for the occasional 
discovery of parcels of coin, which is, that they were probably 
deposited by their possessors whenever they had more than 
they could carry about with them, a custom even to this 
day amongst some of the nations of the East. 

These hoards are sometimes dLscovercd undisturbed, but 
they are more frequently dispersed by modern excavations, 
and, scattered about, are found singly or in small numbers, 
at diflferent times, as chance or accident may bring them to 
the surface. 

The land on which the coins were foimd was the property 
of the Hon. C. Spencer Cowper, and to him, I believe, they 
were ultimately sent. 


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The only rare reverses amongst them are the "Tellus 
Stabilita'' and the "Hispania" of Hadrian, together with 
a type of Hercules of the same reign, and the *'Fortuna 
Obsequens " of Antoninus Pius. 

I have ventured to make the catalogue rather more de- 
scriptive than usual, but to this some of our younger members 
will probably not object. 


Beigned from a.d. 69 to a.d. 79. 

1. DIP. CAB8AB TE8PA8IANT8 AYO. Laureate head ofVespasian. 
Heverae : cos. yii. An eagle standing on an altar. (a.d. 76.) 

2. Same obTerse. 

Reverse : cos. iter. tk. pot. Female figure, seated, holding ears of com 
in her right hand, and a caduceus in the left. (a.d. 70.) 

3. Same obverse and apparently the same reverse. 

4. Same obyerse. 

Reverse : cos. iter. tr. pot. Mars, walking ; a spear in the right hand, 
and a trophy on his left shoulder, (a.d. 70.) 

6. [imp. ca£]s. vesp. avo. cbns. — Imperator Cttsar Vespasianus AuffftsitM 
Ccmor. Laureate head of the Emperor. The legend and portrait of 
the obyerse much effaced, and the impression of the reverse totally 

A.D. 81 to 96. 

6. CAB8AR Divi F. DOMITIAN V8 COS. VH. Laureate head. 

Reverse : princefs ivventvtis. — Prince of the Ronian Youth. A title of 
honour appropriated to the heii* apparent or presumptive of the im- 
perial throne, (a.d. 77 — 79.) Struck during the lifetime of Vespasian. 

Type — a lighted altar. 

7. IMP. CABS. DOMiT. AVO. GERM. P. M. TR. P. XIII. — Impcratw CtBsar 

Domitiunus Augustus Oermanieus Fontifex Maximue, I^ibtmitiee Fo' 
testatis xiii. — The Emperor Caesar Domitian, the August, the German, 
Sovereign Pontiff, enjoying the Tribunitian power for the thirteenth 
Reverse : imp. xxn. cos. xvi. cens. p. p. p. — Imperator xxii., Consul 
XVI., Censor Perpetuus, Pater Patria —EmyeroT for the twenty-second, 


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Consul for the Bixtecnth time, Perpetual Censor, Fathcrof his Country. 
Minerva, standing, with jayelin in right hand, and buckler in the left. 
(a.d. 94.) 


Reigned two years, viz., a.d. 96 to 98. 

8. IMP. NERVA. CAES. AVG. F. M. TK. P. COS. II. P. P. Laureate head of 

the Emperor. 
Heverae : foutvna avovst. Fortune, standing, with rudder in right hand, 
and comucopiee in the left. (a.d. 97.) 


From A.D. 98 to a.d. 117. 

9. IMP. CAES. MERVA TUAiAN. Avo. GBKM. Laureate head. 

Reverse : pont. max. tu. pot. cos. u. Peace, standing, with brunch and 
comucopiic. (a.d. 98.) 

10. IMP. TRAiANo. AVO. OBB. DAC. [p. M. TR. P.] Laureato head of Trajan. 

Fine portrait of him. 
Reverse: oos. v. p. p. 8. p. q. r. [optimo princ] Equity, standing, 
with balance and cornucopia;, (a.d. 104 — 110.) 

1 1. Same epigraph and head ; and probably same legend on the reverse. Figure 

holding cornucopia;, but in bad preservation. 

12. IMP. CAES. TRAiAN. HADRiANVs. AVO. Ilcad of thc Emperor, laureatc. 
Reverse: p. M. tr. p. cos. hi. Female figure, clothed in the stola, 

holding a branch in right hand, and the fi<uta pura in thc left. 


A.D. 117 to 138. 

13. IMP. CAESAR TRAiAX. HADRIANVS. AVO. Well-prescrvcd and good portrait 

^ of the Emperor. 
Reverse : p. m. tr. p. cos. hi. Figure of a female divinity, standing, 
with hasta pura and branch. 

14. HADRIANVS AVO. COS. III. P. P. Laureate head. 

Reverse : victoria avo. — Victory of the Emperor. Victory, seated, 
holding a garland ; patera in right hand, and palm branch in left. 

15. UADRIANV8 AVO. COS. III. P. P. Head laureate. 

Reverse : tellvs btabil. — Teiltts stahiliia — ** The earth made firm,'* or 
established. Tcllm was worshipped as a deity at Rome. A figure, in 


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a short rustic vestment, st-anding, holding in the right hand a plough- 
share, and in his left a rake ; at his feet are two com ears. 
[This legend and typo were intended to eulogise the government of 
Hadrian, not only for affording security to the hushandman from the 
ravages of war, but also for preserving peace and stability throughout 
the Roman world.] 

16. Same obverse. 

Jleverse : hispanxa. Female figure, seated on the ground, holding an 
olive branch in her right hand ; at her feet is a rabbit, one of the 
attributes of Spain when personified on Roman coins. 

17. HADRiANVs Avo. G08. III. P. P. Laurcatc head of the Emperor. 
Reverse : victobla avo. Victory, seated, a garland in the right, a palm 

branch in the left hand. 

18. Same obverse. 

Reverse : cx)8. in. Pallas, sitting on armour, holding the hasta in her 
right hand, and the parazonium in her left. 

19. iiADBiANVS avovstvs. Head laurel-crowned. 

Reverse : cos. in. Hercules, holding his club in the right hand, and a 
figure of Victory in his loft, and seated on a shield and a cuirass, near 
which is a helmet of the Hesperides. Fig. in Dr. £.ing*s Table LX., 
No. iv. 
[This reverse is not described by either Mionnet or Akerman, but is en- 
graved and noticed by Pedrusi in his Musie Farnese.l 

Antoninus Pius, 

Reigned from a.d. 138 to 161. 

20. ANT0NINV8 AVO. PIV8 P. P. IMP. II. Laureate head of the Emperor. 
Reverse : tk. pot. xx. cos. iiii. Female figure, seated, holding a comu- 

copise, or some other thing, in the right hand. 

21. A>'T0MiNV8 AVO. pivB. ..... TB. P. XVII. Head of the Emperor, with- 

out laureL 
Reverse : cos. iin. Female figure, (Fortune personified) with rudder and 
comucopiie. (a.d. 154.) 

22. ANTONiMvs AVO. PIVB P. P. TB. P. XXIII. Laureate head. 

Reverse : balvti avo. cob. iiii. The goddess Hygeia standing, holding 
in her right hand a patera, which she offers to a seipent rising from 
an altar. (a.i>. 160.) 

23. Divva ANTONiinrs. — The divine Antonine, Naked head of the Emperor. 
Reverse : ookbiicbatio. The roffus, or funeral pile. 

[Struck after his death in honour of his apotheosis.] 


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24. ANT0NINV8 Avo. PIV8. P. P. iicp. II. LauTOate head. 

Reverse : tr. pot. xx. (cos. nir.) The Goddess of Health, seated before 
an altar, holding out a patera to a serpent. (a.d. 157.) 

26. [antoninv]s avo. pivs. p. p. tb. p. XVII. Laureate head. 

Reverse: cos. iiii. Female figure holding a rudder in the right and 
comucopix' in the left hand. Well preserved. 

26. ANTONiNvs AVO. PivR P. P. TR. P. XXI. Lawcate head. 

Reverse : fortvwa opsbqvens (sic) cos. mi. Fortune, standing, with 
rudder in her right and comucopiic in her left hand. (a.d. 158.) 
[This is a reverse of some rarity, and the excellent preservation of the 
coin itself of course adds to its value. We here see, by a change from 
one consonant to another of similar sound, o/wequens written for ob- 
scquens. There were two temples at Rome dedicated to compliant 
or obedient fortune (Fortuna Obseqttenti). That the goddess was 
known under this name at Rome in Plautus's time is proved by a 
passage in that dramatic author, where a servant or slave, Lconida, 
being asked "by the name of what deity she wished to be called," 
answered, "by the name of For tuna^ and of Fortuna ohsequens too.*' 
(Eckhel.) The type and legend denotes, says Patin, that the goddess 
had shewn herself condescending fobsequentem) in all things to the 
Emperor Antoninus.] 

Faustina the Elder, 

Died A.D. 141. 

27. DIVA FAVSTiKA. Head of the Empress, wife of Antoninus Pius. 
Reverse : avovsta. Vesta, clothed in the stola and veiled, stands before a 

lighted altar, over which she extends a patera with the right hand ; in 
her left is the Palladium. 

28. The same obverse. 

Reverse : oonsechatio. A veiled female figure, holding in her right hand 
ears of com, and in her left a torch. 

29. The same obverse. 

Reverse : astbbnitas. A female figure, holding in her right hand a globe, 
and in her left the end of a veil which floats above her head. 

[The above three are consecration medals, which her husband after her 
death caused to be struck in honour of her memory and deification.] 

Marcus Aurelius, 

A.D. 161 to 180. 

30. M. ANTONINVS AUG. ARM. PARTH. MAX. — Marcus Antoninus Aitgusitis 

Armefiiaetis Farthicut Maximus. Laureate head of the Emperor. 


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Reverse : m. p. xx. imp. iiii. coa. hi. The type of Peace, with cornucopiflo 
and branch. Below the figure, pax. (a.d. 166.) 

[The legend of the reverse is a continuation of that on the obverse, and 
marks the year when the coin was struck, viz., that of the Emperor's 
twentieth investiture with the Trtbunitian power, his fourth assumption 
of the title of Imperaior, and his third Consulate.] 

31. IMP. M. AVKBL. ANTONiNVs Auo. Bare head of Aurclius. 

Reverse : prov. dbor. (Frovidentia: Deorum — to the Providence of the gotls) 
Tn. p. XVI. COS. III. A female, standing, with a globe in her right 
hand, and a comuoopioo in her left. (a.d. 162.) 

Faustina the Younger, 

Wife of Aurclius, a.d. 140 to 176. 

32. favstika AV0V6TA. Head of the Empress. 

Reverse : diana lvcif. (Diana Lucifera.) Female figure, clothed in the 
stolay holding a torch transversely with both hands. 
[Amongst the various names and forms under which this goddess was 
represented and designated by different nations of antiquity, was the 
epithet of Lwifera^ or one who brings light, typified by a torch -bearing 
female. If her brother, according to the well-known myth, (Apollo, 
or the Sun) was the God of Day, she, in her capacity of Lunar planet, 
enlightened mortals during the night. Faustina is here flattered as 
another Diana !] 

Lucius Verxjs, 

Reigned as colleague of M. Aurclius from a.d. 161 to 169. 

33. L. VSRV8 Avo. ARM. PARTH. MAX. Laureate head. 

Reverse : tr. p. tui. imp. v. cos. iii. Equity, in the stola, stands holding 
the balance and comucopife. (a.d. 168.) 
[A well-preserved coin, and, as usual with all those of Yerus, of good 

34. imp. l. verts avo. Naked head. 

Reverse ; prov. deor. tr. p. ni. cos. n. The type of Providence, with 
globe and cornucopia), (a.d. 163.) 

35. L. VERVB AVO. ABM. PARTH. MAX. Laureate head. 

Reverse : tr. p. v. imp. ni. cos. n. An Armenian captive seated on the 
ground, with his hands tied behind his back, and near him a quiver, a 
bow, and a shield, (a.d. 165.) 

[Struck in ill-deserved honour of Yerus for the conquest of Armenia and 
Farthia, achieved by his lieutenants and soldiers whilst ho was revel- 
ling at Antioch.] 


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CoMMODUS (Lucius Aurelius,) 

A.D. 180 to 192. 

36. coMMODO CAE8. AYo. FiL. GEKX. 8ABM. — To Comniodus Cffisor, 8on of the 

Emperor, (M. Aurelius) the Grerman, the Sarmatian. Toung head of 


Reverse : pibtas ato[v8ti]. Sacerdotal instruments, consisting of the pne- 

fericulum, the aspergillum, the lituus, the simpulum, &c. (a.d. 175.) 

[This is a coin of dedication to Commodus, struck whilst he was as yet 

only Caesar, before he received the title of Aiigmlm or even of Impe- 

rator. Eckhel assigns it to a.d. 175-176, yiz., three years before his 

father's death, and his own accession to the empire.] 

37. Denarius of the Antonia family, struck about 40 years before Christ. 

[The legend of the obverse of this denarius being more than half cffiiced, 
and both type and legend of the reverse entirely obliterated, it can 
oaly be conjectured from comparison with similar consular coins, that 
it was struck by one of the moneyers of Mark Antony, during his 
triumvirate with Octavian and Lepidus, the letters being iiivir. r. 
p. G. {Triumvir Rei PMic<B Cafistituetida,) and the representation of 
a vessel, being the Navis Fratoria, or Roman Admiral's galley. On 
the obverse of such medals we generally see the number of some 
Roman leo[io], accompanied by the type of a legionary eagle between 
two military ensigns.] 


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To the inexperienced topographer or genealogist, the im- 
mense bulk of our national records is the greatest hindrance 
to their use. Bewildered by the extent of the field before 
him, he knows not where to begin, and — crede experto — ^loses 
no little time before he learns how to apply his labour 
successfully. Of course, no printed directions can ever su- 
persede the necessity of gaining practical knowledge by 
personal experience ; but I venture to hope that the few 
following memoranda, honestly copied from my note book, 
into which they were jotted from time to time for my own 
use, may be of service to some yet younger archsDologist than 

The documents relating to Norfolk preserved in the Public 
Record OfElce may be broadly divided into three classes, viz., 
those, complete in themselves, which relate exclusively to 
Norfolk; those which form separate skins of rolls relating 
to the whole country ; and those which, like the last, relate 
to the whole country, but, unlike them, are not divided into 
shires, but contain entries relating to all coimties jumbled 
up together. 

[vol. VII.] L 


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I. Of the first class, I should think the earliest are the 
Ministers' Accounts of the Land^ of Roger Bigod, Earl of 
Norfolk, which are mostly the stewards' accounts of his dif- 
ferent lands, giving the receipts from rent, &c., and all 
manner of deductions, as wages, purchases of cattle, &c. 
They extend from the reign of Henry the Third to that of 
Edward the Second, consist of 613 rolls or packets containing 
one skin or more each, and relate (t.a.) to the following 
Norfolk localities — 






















There are many Court Rolls, or portions of court rolls, once 
belonging to the Augmentation OfiBce, the references to 
which will be found in an index on shelf 5 of division J of 
the New Search Room. Among them are some relating to 
the manors of 



Stoke Ferry 












Clay jux. Swafham 

Sandpette in Branktro 




Watlington cum Watcomb 



Wodhall in Helgeye 


Many of these {e,g. Kellyng and Sharyngton) are of a very 
early date, but there are no complete series. 

Of documents of which a series exists, the Feet of Fines are 
perhaps as early as any. A longer account of them than I 
could give here will be found in the Introduction to the Notes 
of them about to be published by this Society. 


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The Subsidy Bolls, which were records of the Exchequer, 
date, for Norfolk, from the 30th Edward I., for the end of 
whose reign there are six rolls (numbered "® to y.) 

There is no subsidy roll for Norfolk for the reign of 
Edward II., but for the 1st Edward III. there is a splendid 
roll (*"), which, though now imperfect, still contains seventy- 
two long skins, written on both sides in double columns, 
giving the names of, on a moderate estimate, 37,000 persons, 
with the simis at which they were rated, arranged under the 
villages and towns where they resided. 

This roll positively forms a Post-ofElce Directory of the 
period, and though so long is well worth searching. A still 
finer one exists for 6 Edward III. {-), extending over 
eighty-one membranes, and from this date the Subsidy Rolls 
are as plentiful as they are valuable. 

The Coram Rege (Crown Pleas), Quo Warranto y Assize, 
Coroners, and Oaol Delivery, Rolls,^ which are generally taken 
as one class, and to which the references run consecutively in 
order of date, form also another extremely valuable series. 

The Crown Pleas contain, besides inquiries relating to 
crown property, all manner of entries relating to criminal 
matters, as presentments of illegal rescues, sudden deaths, 
murders, duels, false money, &c., &c., and afford most curious 
pictures of the inner life of our coimty in bygone times. 

Here, for example, are found particulars of the great riot 
on Tombland between the monks and citizens, with the names 
of those hung for participation in it. 

The earliest for Norfolk are three rolls of Crown Pleas for 
34 Henry III., (1250) containing respectively 26, 35, and 1 
membranes. In all there would seem to be some 125 rolls, 
(containing an immense number of skins) exclusively relating 
to our county. 

The names of most of the other rolls of this class sufficiently 

^ All these rolls belong to the Crown side of the Queen's Bench. 

L 2 


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explain their contents. The Gbol Delivery Bolls, so called 
because the criminals were delivered over to the jurors to 
receive their fate from their hands, usually begin by stating 
the fact of the prisoner's capture, and then give the reasons 
for it, (something in the same way as in our present indict- 
ments,) and the record of the prisoner putting himself upon 
the country, and conclude with the verdict, and sentence if 
he were guilty. Among them are very many amusing and 
interesting entries, two instances of which will suffice. 

In the roll for 1 Edward II. is the trial of John de Trows 
and Alice his wife, who were arrested by William Gilbert 
and John Starling, constables of North Wold, for a suspicion 
they had against them, " p eo qd vixerunt in magnis Ht volup- 
tuosis expu ultra facultate bonoi suoi." But the clerk and 
the jury seemed to think this suspicion not sufficient, for the 
entry concludes ^' et qz causa captois iilla est, Et etiam jur^ 
sup hoc examinati dicut qd in iillo male qodunr Id pde Johes 
T; Alic eant quieti." 

In the 6th Edward II. John the son of Peter, of East 
Lexham, is charged with killing John Ballok. It seems the 
latter had stolen two pieces of bacon from Emma, the wife 
of William Rooks, in East Lexham, who had raised a hue and 
cry (hut^sium) after him, whereupon he fled and was pur- 
sued by Fitz Peter into the oi)en field (campo) of the same 
town, where he turned on his pursuer with a drawn sword 
and insidtod him ; upon which Fitz Peter hit him over the 
head with a hatchet, and, as the roll concisely puts it, the 
said John Ballok " statim obijt." Fitz Peter being acquitted 
for what we should call justifiable homicide. 

The very important evidence that the thousands of thou- 
sands of entries, similar to the above, give on the domestic 
life and habits of our ancestors, at a period when history is 
nearly silent about them, cannot be overvalued. 

Among the Miscellaneous Records of the Chancery are many 
relating to our county, e. g. — 


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2nd Rep. of Dep. \ Roll of names of those assigned to 

Keeper of Public [protect the sea and maritime parts of 

Records, p. 67. / (i. a.) Norfolk, and of the names of the 

knights of the shires (4 memb.) 

„ 61. Inquisitions de prisis taken at Lynne, 

&c., 3 Edward II. (3 memb.) 
„ 61. Names of those having a knight's fee 
who were not knights in 6 Edward II. 
„ 65. Certificates of number of ships in Nor- 
folk and Suffolk (4 memb.) 
3rd Rep., p. 189. Roll of names of knights who held in 
capite in Norfolk and Sufiblk in 45 
Edward III. 

Petition of the Bishop of Norwich to 
the King, and roll of the names of ec- 
clesiastics in his diocese who have not 
paid the subsidy in 46 Edward III. 
(2 memb.) 
„ 191. Certificates of guilds taken 12 Ric. II., 
two bundles containing 137 and 263 
membranes, very many of which relate 
to Norfolk. 

A paper on these very interesting 
records will be foimd at p. 105 of this 
192. Knights' fees of the Duke of Norfolk, 
1 Henry IV. (22 memb.) 
„ 193. Names of the creditors of John Duke 
of Norfolk in 10 Henry VI. (5 memb.) 
„ 202. A few proofs of age ; about half-a-dozen 
relating to Norfolk. 
Another species of Chancery Records are the Chancery 
Records in Filaciis, comprising royal and other letters, 
petitions, &c., which have been not unaptly termed the State 
Papers of early history. 


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Of these very valuable documents, excellent calendars will 
be found at pp. 140 et seq. of 4tli Rep. ; pp. 61 et seq. of 
6th Rep. ; pp. 88 et seq. of 6th Rep. ; and pp. 239 et seq. 
of 7th Rep. The following letters refer to Norfolk : — 

No. 5, Bumhamthorp ; 15, 85, Clenchwarton ; 122, 248, 
Robert Fitz Walter, a Crusader ; 395, Church of Sydeston ; 
506, 507, Elyngham; 657, St. Benet's at Holme; 736, 
Intwood ; 746, Yarmouth ; 1092, Dispute between Tanners 
and Shoemakers of Norwich ; 1174, 1180, 1240, Abbot of 
Creke ; 1487, 1570, Fulwood ; 1731, Folesham and Norton ; 
1745-6, Lynn; 1750, 1784, Wyrham and Crimplesham ; 
and 2292, complaint against men of Blakeney for despoiling 
a Fleming of his ship and goods. 

Among other miscellaneous documents connected with 
Norfolk are Lists of Popish JRecusants in Norwich, which are 
mentioned in the 5th Report, p. 122 ; Lists of forfeited Estates^ 
temp. George I. (p. 97 of same Report) ; a map of Mushold, 
temp. Elizabeth (p. 16 of 3rd Rep.) ; and a Survey of the 
lands of Thomas Duke of Norfolk, and Philip Earl of Arundel, 
in Norfolk, Suffolk, and the City of Norwich. 

In the Baga de Secretis, which is a collection of documents 
relating to the most important State Trials, are the papers 
concerning the Trial of the Earl of Surrey, Kett's Rebellion, 
the forcible entry of King's Lynn by Sir Robert Dudley, 
and the Trial of the Duke of Norfolk. 

Relating to Conventual and Collegiate Establishments,' 
there are three series of records, the first being the Acknow- 
ledgments of Royal Supremacy y taken in 1534. The acknow- 

' Among the Miscellanea is the Account of a Steward of an Abbey (Brancaster 
and elsewhere in Norfolk) vide p. 245 of 9th Beport. 

I have a note, I know not whence, that there are books of charters and oon- 
firmations of grants to Ecyeral religious houses in Norfolk in the Bishop of Ely's 

Among the Exchequer Records are several bundles of papers relating to 
Bromholme Abbey and Crabhouse Priory, and some Account Rolls, Accounts 
of Household Expenses, and a Compotus of the Abbot of Wj-mondham Abbey. 


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ledgments relating to the following Norfolk Monasteries, &c.y 
still exist. 

AtUeburgh Ingham 


Beeston Norwich, Cathedral Thetford 

Buckenhaxn ,, 

St. Giles and St Thomeston 


Mary Hosp. Wabum 

Hempton „ 

St. John Baptist Westacre 

Hicklinge „ 

Chapel in the Field Wymondham 

Holme Pentney 

The second are the 

Deeds of Surrender, of which there 

remain those relating to — 

Heryngby College 

Norwich, St. Mary in the Field CoDege 

Lynn, Augustine Friars 

Bushworth College 

„ Black Friars 


„ Grey Friars 

Thetford, Augustine Friars 

„ White Friars 

„ Black Friars 

„ St. John the Baptist Hospital „ Priory 

Norwich Cathedral 

Walsoken, Guild of St. Trinity 

„ St. Giles* Hospital 


But to the topographer perhaps the third class, viz., the 
Particulars for Grants, are more interesting than the other 
two. They are dated in the reigns of Henry the Eighth and 
Elizabeth, and consist of particulars of monastic estates sur- 
rendered at the dissolution of the monasteries, in many cases 
comprising descriptions of the sites of abbies and monasteries 

An excellent calendar of these, but unluckily arranged 
under the names of those persons who were the proposed 
purchasers of the property in question, and not under the 
localities themselves, will be found at pp. 148 et seq. of the 
9th Rep., and pp. 223 et seq. of the 10th Rep. 

Two classes of documents relating to the struggle between 
the King and the Commonwealth, are of especial use, one to 
the topographer, the other to the genealogist. 

The first is the Parliamentary Surveys taken between 1649 
and 1653, which relate to sales ordered in 1649 of the 
honors, manors, and lands belonging to King Charles I., his 


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Queen, and Prince, and of the fee-farm rents formerly 
payable to the Crown and the Duchies of Lancaster and 

The inventory of such as relate to Norfolk will be found 
at pp. 59 et seq., and p. 81 of 8th Rep. It takes up one 
hundred and seventy-five pages of the calendar, and is ar- 
ranged alphabetically in places. 

The second is the Royalist Composition Papers^ of which 
there are many volumes, containing statements of the estates, 
ages, families, &c., of royalists, and petitions for the release, 
&c., of their property. 

There are two series of excellent modem Indices Nominum 
to both. 

The certificates of sales and the inventories of Church 
Ooods taken in the reign of Edward the Sixth ^ are, I need 
hardly say, of the greatest importance to the local antiquary, 
for, apart from the interesting accounts which the inventories 
of 6 Edward VI. give of the Church fiimiture and orna- 
ments, the certificates taken in the first year of the same 
reign in nearly every case give details, often of the highest 
interest, of repairs or alterations done to the parish church 
with the money provided by the sale of Church plate. 

As the Church Goods of Norfolk have already formed the 
subject of four communications in this Society^s Original 
Papers, I need not here enlarge on them. 

Among other ecclesiastical documents are Indices of Institu- 
tions to benefices, extending from 1615 to 1816, all embracing 
Norfolk, which give the names of the patrons, and of the clergy 
presented, with the date of their institutions ; Extracts from 
the King's Books, to which there are three volumes of Indices 
(pp. 25 to 67 of vol. 3 relating to Norfolk) ; The Liber Deci- 
marum, which was compiled in 1719, and which contains at 
pp. 1 to 51 of vol. I. a list of benefices in Norfolk, showing 

3 Vide 7th Rep., pp. 322 ct acq., and 9tib Rep., p. 240. 


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"the true value of small livings not exceeding £50 per 
annum, as they were lately returned into Her Majesty's Court 
of Exchequer in order to their discharge from payment of 
first-fruits and' tenths," is arranged in deaneries, the left 
page of each foUo containing benefices which were charged, 
and the right page those which were discharged from first- 
fruits and tenths ; Books of Compositiom for Tithes, of which 
there are very good modem lists, giving in parallel columns 
the parishes in which and the names of the persons by whom 
compositions for tithes were made, and the date. Though 
not alphabetical, they are easy to search, and extend from 
1536 to 1659, and are very productive of information, 
genealogical and otherwise ; and TitJie Suits enrolled in the 
Exchequer of Pleas (vide 2nd Rep., p. 250. There are nine 
Norfolk Suits.) 

Relating to general history there is an immense number 
of docimients concerning Norfolk, bound up in the many 
thousand volumes of our Domestic State Papers. 

Calendars of these State Papers have been already pub- 
lished, embracing the years between 1509 and 1518, 1547 
and 1590, 1603 and 1635, 1660 and 1667 ; and many others 
are in active preparation. From these Calendars the Norfolk 
documents can easily be selected. 

Of the varied and valuable information to be obtained 
from them, a few extracts taken haphazard from my note 
book will give the best idea. 

Dom. S. P. Eliz., vol. 73, p. 15, is a letter from Sir 
Thomas Woodhouse and Henry Woodhouse, Esq., to Cecil, 
dated 3 May, 1571, reporting how they have stayed for the 
Queen's service every ship above thirty tons and every 
mariner then remaining in Norfolk and Suffolk, viz., 145 
ships, thirty-six whereof were in port, the rest on their 
voyage to Ireland and elsewhere, and 2268 mariners, whereof 
about 600 were at home. The names of the mariners 


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(twenty-two pp.) are given, arranged under the ports to 
which they belonged. 

Do. EKz***., vol. 76, p. 15, is a petition from the inhabitants 
of Yarmouth and the coast against the pirates. It states 
that the petitioners are *' greatly hindered and utterly spoiled 
by pirates that are of late greatly increased on the North 
Seas, whereby no merchants or fishermen trafficking or 
fishing in those seas or on our coasts shall escape their 
hands,'' not only to the utter undoing of them, their poor 
wives and children, but sometimes " throwen over the 
bourde," threatened to be hanged and nailed under hatches, 
&c. The petitioners pray for two small ships of war to be 
sent for their protection. 

Dom. S. P. Eliz., vol. 77, No. 58, is a copy of the " Nor- 
wiche Booke of Orders for the Straungers," dated 20 April, 
1571, containing fourteen quarto pages replete with interest 
concerning the " Duche and WaUowne nations," who " shall 
kepe none open shops," neither expose " their wares in open 
show to sell, but shall have a lattyce of a yerde depe before 
their windows ; " shall " only sell to their own countrymen," 
and shall " not buy sheep skins without licences," &c. 

Do. Eliz., vol. 78, No. 10, is a declaration and certificate 
of the strangers and aliens in the borough and liberty of 
Great Yarmouth, and No. 13 of the same volume is the like 
of Lynn. 

Do. Eliz., vol. 77, No. 55, is a Bill for the establishment 
of seven banks in the cities of London, York, Norwich, &c., 
which might lend on pledges at 6 per cent. 

Do. James I., vol. 7, p. 20, tells us how the plague was 
brought from Edinburgh to Yarmouth by a Scotch bark in 
1604. Page 32 in the same volume relates to a case of witch- 
craft in Norfolk, and in the next vol. (8) is the manumission 
of a Norfolk bondsman. 

Do. Charles I., vol. 96, No. 46, lets us into the particulars 
of one of the grievances which made our coimty adhere so 


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stanclily to the Commonwealth during the Civil War. It is a 
very curious letter from the Mayor of Norwich (dated 19 
March, 1627) protesting against the quartering of five com- 
panies of Irish soldiers in Norwich, on the poverty and 
distress of which city, and the discontented condition of the 
multitude of its poor people, and the general decay of its 
trade and manufacture, he pitifully enlarges, as also on the 
peril of the city, which he states consisted for the most part 
of reeded houses. 

He bitterly complains of the outrages and disorders of 
these soldiers and their officers, who choose the market days 
to march about the city, "utterly timfying the country 
people, and with uncivill language spoken thretten to assault 
me the maior, and encourage the soldiers to kill the sheriff;" 
also that they use stabbing knives, and will not be lodged at 
the best inns in Norwich. 

There are also many papers relating to the musters and 
trainbands, which throw great light on the preparations 
made in our county in the reign of Elizabeth to resist the 
Spanish Armada. Most of these I have extracted and am 
preparing for publication. 

Of the Inquisitions Post Mortem, well known to the merest 
tyro in genealogy, two series exist, viz., those of the Chancery 
and the Exchequer. 

Extremely incorrect calendars, nominally of all the inqui- 
sitions from Henry III. to Richard III., have been published 
in four volumes folio, but give only the names of the deceased, 
and not their heirs. 

Two volumes, however, entitled Calendarium Oenealogicum^ 
were published last year, embracing the reigns of Henry 
III. and Edward I., which give the heirs of the deceased ; 
and these will, I hope, be continued throughout the whole 

A Calendar of the Inquisitions Post Mortem for the reigns 


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Henry VII., Hennr VIII., Edward VI., and Elizabeth, 
will be found in the second Appendix to the 10th Report. 
To 8o much of this calendar as relates to Norfolk and Suffolk 
I have compiled an Index Nominum, which I hope to publish 
in the Bast Anglian. 

II. Of Domesday Book, the earliest specimen of my 
second class, which may be said to be made up of it, of the 
Liber Niger and Liber Ruber Scaccarii and of the Pipe Rolls, 
I need say nothing. 

The Liber Niger Scaccarii^ which was compiled about 
1166-7 on the occasion of the marriage of the king's daughter, 
contains in the Norfolk division of it the returns of 

The Bishop of Norwich WiUiBm de Albini Walter do Bee 

The Honor of St. Edmund William de Wonnegai Robert Fits Walter 

The Abbot of Holme William de Kolecherche and 

Hugh de Bigod Hubert de Rye Odo de Dammartin 

who were then the great owners of lands in capite in Norfolk, 
and who certified how many knights' fees they held of the 
king, and the names of the knights who held of them in 
sub-infeudation. It was printed in extenso by Heame in 
the first volume of his Miscellanea (London, 1771.) 

The lied Book of the Exchequer gives the names of tenants 
per baroniam, temp. Henry II., and large collections, chiefly 
made by Alexander de Swereford, from tlie Pipe Rolls of 
Scutages levied between 2 Henry II. and 13 John : it has 
never been printed. 

The Pipe Rolls are perhaps, all things considered, the 
most interesting series of records extant, being in effect the 
budgets and balance sheets of the ancient Chancellors of the 
Exchequer. They comprise yearly accounts of all the taxes 
collected in the different coimties of England, of fines, reliefs, 
escuages, &c., paid by the tenants in capite (whereby the 
descents of their estates can easily be traced), of sums paid to 
the king for having justice, &c., and on the other hand, all 


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maimer of deductions are made for monies paid for the king's 
use and by his order, for building castles and prisons, and in 
charity, &c. 

For each year there is a great brown roll, broad, long, and 
imwieldy, containing, as a general rule, as many skins us 
counties, though sometimes, when the year's matter more 
than fills both sides of the skin, there is what is called a 
residuum carried over to some other partly vacant skin. 

These rolls ^ are mostly in good preservation, and the 
writing is clear and regular, but the words are abbreviated 
in the most extraordinary way. The series from Richard I. 
is tolerably perfect. Several, viz., those for 31 Henry I., 
2, 3, and 4 Henry II., 1 Richard I., and 3 John, have been 

The following notes will give some idea of the topographical 
and other information to be gleaned from them. 

14 Hen. II. Et p munitioe castelU de Norwic x^ p bi? T^. 

15 „ Et in opat eccle de Hulmo x** p bi? 1^. 

17 „ Et p ccc 7 XX Baconib} aussis in ex)citu 

Hybnie xxyj" 7 xvj* 7 vj^. 
Et p facient pontibj 7 cleii^ 7 in alio apparatu 

Navii vj" 7 v* 7 v'*. 
Et p manumol 7 apparatu eaj^ xiv" iv^. 
Et p 1 Bovana 1 in et p 1 navicula ad oves 

adaq*ndas v» 7 iij**. 
32 „ Josce Barlibred JudaDus Tumet Jui} de 

Nordwic redd comp de mm marc p hnda 

Residentia ... in Anglia p 6 benevolentia 

Regis. In thro cc m. 
20 „ Philip de Hasting xx^^ ad tenend milites in 

cast de Norwic^ p pcept Com Willi qu 

Flandr fuer ad Bungheia et a Framingeh 

pbr Br. 

* There ore daplicates of these rolls, called <* Chancellor's Rolls," from 11 
Henry II. which hare heen sent to the British Museum. 


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III. On my third class of documents, which consists of 
the records of the three Common Law Courts and of the 
Court of Chancery, I must touch but very briefly. 

Those belonging to the Court of Common Pleas (formerly 
called the " Common Bench ") have a peculiar interest to the 
topographer from the fact of that court originally having 
an exclusive jurisdiction over real property. To this court 
belong the Feet of Fines, already mentioned, as do the 
" Be Banco Rolls,^* * which contain the pleadings and judg- 
ments in actions relating to lands, often giving long descents, 
heirships, &c. Since the 25th Elizabeth they have been 
divided into two separate classes — the Placita Communia 
and Placita Terrae. 

Unluckily, the entries as they came in were written down 
one after the other, without the slightest arrangement either 
in counties or names, and the bulk of the rolls is so 
immense that it is vain for anyone to hope to search them 
without sacrificing a lifetime. 

Some idea of the mass of the material may be had from 
the fact that there are 151 rolls, containing 102,566 mem- . 
branes or skins, of the Placita Communia alone for the single 
reign of Henry VIII. ; and references to skin 251 of the 
•De Banco Rolls of Hilary Term, 5 Edward III., and to skin 
600 of MichaeLnas Term, 22 and 23 Elizabeth, lie before 
me as I write. 

Selections, perhaps I should rather say specimens, of these 
rolls have been printed under the title " Abbreviatio Placit- 
orum," extending between the reigns of Bichard I. and 
Edward II. 

Before quitting the records of the Court of Common Pleas, 
I may mention that there are calendars or lists of Deeds 
enrolkd in that court from the 20th Henry VII. An Index 
to those relating to Norfolk, from 1504 to 1629, I printed in 
the East Anglian, vol. ii., p. 251. 

> On tlie older of these rolls many charters arc enrolled in extcnso. 


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Of the Rolls belonging to the ''Crown side" of the 
Queen's Bench I have already spoken. Those relating to 
ordinary actions belong to the ** Plea side/'* 

From the Judgment Rolls of the Exchequer of Pleas there 
are twenty MS. volumes of very valuable extracts extending 
from 1293 to 1820, to which there is a good Index. 

Belonging to the later equitable jurisdiction of this court 
there are immense numbers of bills, answers, requisitions, 
and depositions (vide 20th Rep. p. 24.) 

The Originalia Bolls of the Exchequer contain entries of 
all such grants from the Crown enrolled on the patent and 
other rolls as reserved any rent or service to the Crown. 
Abstracts of these rolls for the reigns of Henry III. to 
Edward III. are printed under the title, " Rotulorum Origi- 
nalium in Curia Scaccarii Abbreviatio." 

The Testa de Nevill, a record of this Court, does not form a 
series or part of a series, but consists of returns made in the 
reigns of Henry III. and Edward I., of knights' fees, &c., 
and has been printed at length. 

The Hundred JRolls, another record of the Exchequer, con- 
sisting of Inquisitions taken under a Commission dated 1274, 
may be broadly stated to be the results of Inquisitions into 
all rights of manor, warren, chase, fishery, toll, market, &c., 
claimed at the date of the Commission, which was issued to 
put an end to various extortions and tyrannies which had 
then sprung up. These rolls have been printed in extenso. 

A sequel to these Hundred Rolls were the Placita de Qtu> 

Warranto, temp. Edward I., II., and III., which were the 

trials ordered to test the justice of the claims mentioned in 

the Himdred Rolls. 

^ I may here mention that irom the early part of the reign of Henry YIII. 
there are what are called Doggett (q. d. Docket) Rolls belonging to each of the 
three Courts containing short entries of the Pleadings, Judgments, &c., which 
are infinitely easier to search than the bulky Judgment Bolls themselyes. These 
Doggett Rolls were afterwards turned into Books, the Doggett Books of the 
Exchequer, which are complete from 1st Elizabeth, being the earliest. 


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Space will hardly allow me to do more than mention the 
different records of the Chancery J 

The Close Soils, containing mandates, letters, and writs, 
sent in the King's name in the form of " closed " letters — 
whence their name; the Patent JRolls, letters patent of a 
more public character ; the Fine Rolls — ^upon which the writs 
of diem clausit, of seizin on heirs doing their fealty or homage 
for the lands of the deceased, of dower, and of license for 
widows to remarry, are generally enrolled — are of the greatest 
value, often giving information not to be found in the Inqui- 
sitions Post Mortem ; and the Charter Soils, enrolments of all 
manner of Royal grants, are among the most important of 
the Eolls. 

On the great value and interest of the documents relating 
to the Suits in Chandlery, which have been preserved from the 
fourteenth century to the present time, I will not trust myself 
to dilate, lest it should be thought that I, as a lawyer, were 
but indulging in a lawyer's generic love of an equity suit. 
I may, however, mention with feelings of regretftil admiration, 
that the bare calendar of them for the reign of Elizabeth 
only, takes up three folio volumes closely printed. 

Among other Indices relating to these suits are the " Bill 
Books," which are perfect from the reign of Elizabeth, in 
which the Christian and surnames of all p€u:ties and a short 
account of the Bill are given, each volume being divided 
into counties, and the Indexes to the " Bills and Answers," 
** Depositions," and " Decrees," all of which date from the 
same period. 

With these Chancery Suits, hoping that I have not 
wearied my readers, I must now end these notes, anomalous 
though it may seem to the non-legal reader, to connect an 
ending with proceedings traditionally infinite. 

"^ I have already referred to the " Miscellaneous Chancery Recorda," and the 
** Chancery Recorda in Filaciis." 


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'$ati\i €xtuh ^.Irkg. 



The engraving prefixed to this notice, and taken from a 
photograph by Sawyer, gives a view of the existing remains of 
the Church of this Abbey, which was one of the objects of a 
visit by our Society in the summer excursion of 1863. These 
consist only of the walls of the choir and some side chapels, — 
the tower, transepts, and nave having been long since de- 
molished. The style of the original building was Early Eng- 
lish, of the time of Edward I., but it may be seen from the 
view that some capitals and mouldings are of later date. The 
choir commxmicated on the north side by an arch, of which 
the mouldings are Early Decorated, with a side chapel or east 
aisle to the transept ; and this again with a larger, the 
Lady, chapel, by two Early English arches springing from 
a clustered pier and responds. This contains an Early 
English piscina, and a low wide arch, which probably 
spanned a benefactor's tomb. It had an east window of five 
lights with Decorated mouldings. The first-named aisle- 
chapel opened into the north transept by two Decorated 
arches resting on an octagon pier.^ In the inside, near the 
north respond, is the vestige of a winding staircase. The 

1 An engraving of this chapel, from a drawing by Cotman, ia given in the 
JBxeuraiotu through Norfolk, vol. i. p. 180, the pond in the foreground being 

[vol. VII.] M 


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east or end wall of the choir is not standing, and the length 
of the existing walls must have been considerably curtailed 
since 1738, when Messrs. Buck's view was published, wherein 
the blank arcades, now consisting of but four or five bays on 
each side, are represented with seven. The arch on the 
south side, seen in the engraving, leads into a small chapel 
or passage which communicated with the monastic buildings. 
The site of these is occupied by the modem farm-house, and 
the cloister square has become a garden. An ogee arch, 
now forming the entrance to the farm-house, was removed 
from this square. The south transept arches have been walled 
up, and the double lancet window and trefoil over it, seen in 
our engraving, are remnants of the demolished buildings 
inserted in that position at a subsequent period. 

If there be any original work as late in date as 1500 remain- 
ing, it may be attributed to the munificence of Sir William 
Calthorpe, Knt., of Bumham Thorpe, who by his wiU, dated 
on the last day of May, 1494, and proved on the 26th of 
November in the same year, gave a legacy to this church in 
the following words, which are borrowed from a complete 
copy of the will^ furnished, by our industrious member 
Mr. L'Estrange, to the JEast Anglian : ' " of all whiche 
Ixxiiij" vj* I wylle y* my seide sone Qnmay and Walter 
Aslak haue the disposic'on for makyng of the quer and of 
the psbitery at the Abbey of Oreyke, and yf any remayne of 
the same ther not spent then the ouplus to be spente in odyr 
Repatons vpon the chapell wythin the same place wher the 
aunceterys of me the seid Sir William lye buryed." 

The investigation of these hoary remains leads naturally 
to the contemplation of those fathers of old who there lived 
and worshipped, of their domestic history and mode of life. 

I have given a short account of the original foundation 
of the abbey and of the manner in which it came into the 

' Abstracted in Blomefield, vi., p. 617. 
s £ast Angliariy vol. ii. p. 211. 


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possession of Christ's College, in the preceding volume of our 
proceedings.* By the kindness of the Master and Fellows, 
I am now enabled to add a little more to the information 
relating to this house contained in Blomefield and in the 
Monasticon, Amongst other MSS. in their possession belong- 
ing to Creake Abbey, those which I am about to describe 
have some degree of interest to the local historian.^ One is 
a roll containing copies of the following charters. 

1. A BuU of Pope Gregory,* (the date omitted) ordaining 
the rule of St. Augustine to be observed by the regular 
canons established in that place ; confirming them in the 
enjoyment of their possessions, namely, the site of the 
monastery ; the towns of Receresthorpe and Ilveston in the 
diocese of Lincoln ; the houses, lands, and possessions which 
they had in the diocese of Norwich ; the messuage which 
they had in the city of London, of the gift of Bichard de 
St. John;^ and other possessions, with the meadows, vine- 
yards, lands, groves, woods, and pastures, in wood and in 
plain, in acre and in mill, in ways and in paths, &c. Several 
privileges and immunities, including that of sanctuary and 
sepulture, were also granted by this instrument. 

2. Letters patent of Walter de Calthorpe, alias Suffield, 
Bishop of Norwich, dated at Thornham, 12 Kal. Sept., in 
the 4th year of his pontificate, appropriating to the convent 
the church of St. Martin of Quarfles (Quarles). He was 
bishop from 1243 to 1257. 

* Norfolk Arehaology^ vol. vi., p. 314. 

^ It was in conBequence of the attention of the society being called to the 
state of these walls by the Yen. Hector of North Crcoke, referred to in our 
Proceedings, vol. vi. 386, that some of the committee visited the ruins, and this 
and other photographs were taken. And I have the pleasure of stating that a 
representation made by the committee, through myself, to the Master and Fellows 
of Christ's College, received immediate attention, and that steps were taken 
under the auspices of Mr. Fhipson by which the threatened danger has been 

• Gregory the Ninth was Pope 1227—1241. 
'' I find no other mention of this. 

L 2 


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3. A confirmation of that act by Symon, Prior of Norwich. 
Symon de Elmham was prior at that time. 

4. A Bull of Pope Alexander, authorising the appro- 
priation of the church of Gatele, the right of presentation to 
which had been granted to the abbat and canons by Sir 
Ralph de Gatele.® This is dated 11 Kal. April, in the third 
year of his pontificate, which commenced 12th Dec., 1254. 

5. A charter of Simon de Walton, Bishop of Norwich, 
confirming the appropriation of the church of Gatele, and 
ordaining the vicarage. Dated at Northelmham, on Sunday 
next after the Epiphany, a.d. 1259. 

6. Letters patent of Bishop William, confirming to the 
abbat and canons the church of St. Margaret of Habeton, 
and a mediety of the church of All Saints of Wreningham, 
the patronage of which had been granted to them during the 
vacancy of the see. The date is omitted, but William de 
Raleigh was appointed Bishop in 1239, previous to which 
the see had been kept vacant for two years. 

7. Letters patent of Ralph de Blumvill, Archdeacon of 
Norfolk, by virtue of the authority vested in him while the 
see was vacant, appropriating to the abbat and canons the 
moiety of the church of Wreningham, of which they had the 
right of patronage, and which Clement de Stalam, chaplain, 
sometime held and had resigned into the archdeacon's hands. 
This was executed a.p. 1237, on the day of St. Firmin, 
bishop and martyr, in the church of Attelburg. 

8. A Deed of Confirmation by John Archbishop of Can- 
terbury, dated at Lambythe, on the Ides of May a.d. 1281, 
the third of his pontificate, of the appropriations of the 
churches of St. Elene of Gatele, St. Martin of Quarles, St. 
Margarete of Habeton, and of the mediety of All Saints of 

On the back of this roll is written an extent of all the 
abbey lands, with the names of the tenants, and descriptions 
• Vide Monasticoitj edit. 1846, pro carta Radulphi de Gatel militis, p. 488. 


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of their holdings, rents, and services. There is no date to 
this, but from internal evidence it was earlier than any of 
the compotus after-mentioned. 

From this I extract and translate an entry relating to the 
area or precincts of the house and church. "And be it 
known that within the inclosed site of the court of the abbey 
are contained according to estimation about sixteen acres, 
and in the east crofts of the said abbey, viz., from the croft 
sometime of Bartholomew Palle to the division or eastern 
gate (ad dimsam seu portam orientalem) of the abbey, are 
contained about six acres, together with the place of the 
fairs and pasture, (nudinarum et pastures) and in the east 
croft, on the north part of the division or east gate, (divisce 
sen portcB orientalis) with the green area and croft of the 
hospital of St. Bartholomew, are contained about six acres, 
and in the west croft, on the south part of the west gate or 
marl-pits,' (portm occidentalis seu marleV^) are contained two 
acres, and on the north part about five acres." 

In this document Hugh son of Hugh de Medhowe is 
mentioned as a benefactor of tenements at Rotenbog, Sham- 
mar, Gatelond, Erdamcrundel, Smalehill, Hilbroghil, Dale- 
gate, &c. 

There are also three Cellarer's Rolls, containing accounts of 
the receipts and expenditure of that officer, in behalf of the 
community, from Michaelmas to Michaelmas, for the years 
4 and 5 Edward III., a.d. 1331-2 ; 19 and 20 Edward III., 
A.D. 1345-6; and 34 and 35 Edward III., a.d. 1360-1. 
The earliest of these has been already printed, with a trans- 
lation, in the last volume of our Proceedings, pp. 320 et seq. 

At the head of the compotus of 1346, is written the name 
of Robert de Dockyng, who afterwards became Abbat. Dur- 
ing the year to which the latest compotus relates, viz. in 
1360-1, when WiUiam de Ely, whose account it purports to 
be, was cellarer, the Abbat Thomas de Brandon died, and, 
• Mch-lers, Norman French for marl-pits. 


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was succeeded by John de Ashe, who was admitted on the 
21st of Nov., 1360. The expenses of the Abbat going to the 
Bishop for installation are charged. 

From the entries in these accounts, some light may be 
thrown upon the domestic economy of a small monastery ; 
the habits of its inmates, and, incidentally, on the condition 
of the people generally, as deduced from the price of pro- 
visions and wages of labour. 

The revenues of the house were between £130 and £140 a 
year, of which about £90 were derived from rents of houses 
and lands let to farm, tithes, payments in Ueu of feudal 
services, and such like. The residue was chiefly from the 
realisation of the produce of their own demesnes, including 
the quarterly fairs and the sale of com and live stock. To 
which is to be added what are termed fortnaeca recepta, or 
miscellaneous receipts, such as legacies, pittances, and money 
for goods sold out of the house. I have already commented 
on this item of revenue in 1332,^^ and I have now to remark 
that neither the account of 1346, nor that of 1361, mentions 
any livery or corrody which forms so large a fraction in 
1332. In that of 1361, 68. 8d, was paid by Lady Calthorp, 
on account of a legacy from her late Lord ; ^ 40s. for the 
soul of Thomas de Morle ; * and 208. for the soul of W, de 
PatishuU.^ The deceased Abbat's copes were converted into 
money : a canon named Sir Maurice bought his furred cope, 
capa plumaliSy^ and William Ely, his choir cope, capa chori, 
each for Ss. id. 

»o Vol. Ti. p. 324. 

1 Sir William Calthorp, died about 33 Edward III., Iils lady waa Isabella, 
daughter of John Lord Lovell of Titchmarsh. 

* Thomas de Morlee was coroner for the city of Norwich in 1343. 

' A supplemental account gives credit for IZs. 4rf. of a legacy of Sir William 
de Fattishoulle. 

* In the account of 1332, this word is indisputably, but I believe erroneously, 
written plnvialisy which led me to consider it an out-door cape ; perhaps the 
entry there relates to the purchase of this very cope. (p. 332, n. 2.) 


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The abbey lands in South Creak were held subject to an 
annual payment of 20«. a year to Dover Castle Ward ; and a 
payment of IQs, 8d. was also made into the Exchequer, which 
in the account of 1361 is stated as made to the Sheriff, for a 
capital messuage in South Creak, and for suit at the Court at 
Hegenoth, (Hawleigh,) qtuid' parte sectce in curia de Hage^ 
noth debitcB scaccario current' in Pipa. During the year 
1335-6, the house was engaged in some law proceedings about 
this property. The cellarer charges his expenses going with 
Sir Peter de Caltorp to confer with the friars minors about 
the business, — cum fratre minore pro negotio de Suthcreyk : 
another time conferring with Richard de la Rokelee,^ and on 
his return dining at Bircham (Brecham) ; and at divers times 
for drink there with the lacqueys (garcianibus) about the 
same business. He also charges for a journey to Norwich, 
to speak to the BrCctor of Fundenhall about the affairs of the 
house, and their proceedings against Thomas de Congham ; 
and on another occasion, when the King's Justices Itinerant 
were at Norwich, to confer with John Hoveton and Thomas 
Nel, for expediting the matter of Suthcreyk ; and again on 
occasion of sealing the instruments and completing the treaty, 
at an expense of Is. 5Jc?. for tive days, besides 6d. for wine, 
to John Hoveton and his fellows, and 2d. for wine for their 
counsel and ours. Amongst the gifts or rewards in money, 
is 6d, paid to a certain man of Creyk for his support, — quia 
statu pro nobis in agendis. There is also a gift of M. to the 
servant of Richard Rokeyll, for bringing a letter, and an 
expenditure of 10s, for jewels bought by the Abbat, and given 
to the wife of Richard, in jocalibus eniptis de Abbate et datis 
uxori de la RocheL All this looks very much like bribery, 
but as to the nature or merits of the suit for which the ser- 
vices of Richard de la Rokele were required, in what manner 
they could be rendered, or how far they were successful, we 
are left in the dark. 

« The family de la Rokele had the Manor of Gatele. 


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The items of expenditure accounted for in the two later 
accounts differ little from those in the compotus of 1332. I 
give some of them for comparison. 

The household stores for the year 1345-6 were twelve ox 
carcases {carcoys bourn) at 4t8. l^d. each, and one at bs.; eight 
carcases of mutton (carcoya mutilium) at 8^., and five at 
lOJc?. each. There were also half a last of red herring, 
bought at "Crowmere" for £1. 13«. 4rf., the drying of which 
cost Irf. ; six kempes^ of herring 28«. or 4s. 8d. each; one 
kempe 4«. 6d,y one barrel of "skonere" herring {allec^ skonerey 
6«. 6fl?. ; three thoussmd white herrings {allecium viridum) 
bought at Holkham, Vis. l^d.\ four lenges and three mulleta 
(mulvelH) 28. lOd., and six score and eight fish not specified, 
39«. Srf. Item in exitu bourn, 7d., pro pedibm et punches * 
undecim bourn, Ss. 6rf., in capitibus et filo} * dictorum bourn, 
8Qd. ; eight lbs. of crabs for salting {crabbes pro sahantis) 2d., 
four pounds of white salt, 19d., &c. 

In 1360-1 they laid in fifteen carcases of oxen at a cost of 
£4. l3s. 4^d., or 7s. 2|d. apiece, a considerable increase of 
price. Item in xj exitibua integris, xjs. xjc?., in pedibm et 
panches iiij bourn, ijs., in quindecim capitibus bourn cum le 
file}, iiijs. : 35. 9d. are charged for three sheep bought of 
William de Iteringham the sacristan, and lis. 3d. for 
nine bought of Sir Maurice, the custos ecclesice, from which 
it would seem that the brethren had the privilege of doing 
a little business on their own account. Moreover they laid 

« Kempes allecium. ** The aignification of kempe as applied to fish is very 
obscure." — Fromp. Parv. 270, n. 3. Mr. Way in thia note considerB the word 
to apply to size ; here it evidently implies capacity. 

^ Skonere. Skanor, Vox Danica — " Et si contigeret, quod abait, quod Aleda 
non capianter, nee in Skanor aalsantur, &c. Alec aometimes aignifiea a pickle 
or preparation made from small fiah. — Du Cange. 

8 In the account of 1332 "exititibn^y It is evident the brethren were partial 
to tripe and cow-heel. 

» Filoj, or filej. I must leave thia word unexplained. An old French word 
JU signified " maladie des boeufs,'* but that cannot be the meaning here. 


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in forty-nine large fish from Welles, at Ids, Ud, ; six 
kempes of red herring from Holkham, at 27«. 6d, ; nine- 
teen barrels of white herring, £4. 2s, 6d. ; four mulletSy 
2s. 8^d, ; fifteen hundred of red herrings, 15s. 7d. ; eighteen 
chickens at Id. each ; 6400 eggs at 32«. ; forty-six geese at 
9s. Hid., &c. 

They appear to have indulged in few luxuries. They 
spent in 1360 one shilling for wine and 3d. for apples, but 
that appears to have been on the extraordinary occasion 
of the abbat's funeral. They occasionally received presents, 
for I find in 1345-6 two pence and gloves given to one 
bringing capons and mallards to the abbat and canons from 
Congham; two knives, value l^d., given to two girls who 
brought apples to the abbat; several presents of fish are 
mentioned ; and on one occasion a salmon, for which the 
porter had 2d. 

All the wheat grown upon the land kept in hand was con- 
sumed in the house. We arrive at the quantity grown in 
1346 by that thrashed, viz., sixty- two quarters at Creak, and 
two quarters were taken to the granary from Gately. In the 
same year four bushels of wheat purchased cost 2s. In 1361 
the price was 6s. and &s. 2ld. the quarter. The consumption 
of malt in 1330-1 was twenty-nine quarters, the price being 
6s. 7d. and 7s. 8d. the quarter ; and in 1360-1 the quantity 
bought was twenty-six quarters, at from 4«. 4d. to 4s. Sd. the 
quarter. The compotus of 1345-6 gives no account of any 
malt purchased. Barley sold in that year at 2s. and 2s. Id. 
the quarter ; a bushel of undressed barley (ardei rougher^) for 
3d. In 1361 the barley was sold at 3s. 3d. and Ss. 6d. In 
1346 oats cost 38«. for twenty-two quarters, a little over 
Is. 8frf. per quarter; and in 1361 from,3«. 4td. to 4«. 4c?. 
the quarter. In 1346 rye sold two bushels for 6Jfl?. ; white 
peas for 2s. id. the quarter ; a quarter of oatmeal (avene ad 
farinam) was bought for 2s. 2d, ; three lbs. of hemp seed 
for Is. 4:d,y the latter, I suppose, for sowing; and for the 


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same purpose in 1361, four bushels of old tares {vef tarys) 
at 28. &d. 

With respect to live stock, the cellarer accounts in 1346, 
under the class of averiiy for twenty old and worn-out sheep 
(crones) sold for 17«. 4rf. ; four worn-out hoggets (hogastres) 
for 22rf., four old cows for 7«., an old horse for 7«., a calf for 
la. Id., two geese for 7d., a pig for 7^d., nine lambs in 
summer-time for la. 4d. ; a horse was sold at Fakenham fair 
for 18a. 4d., and a colt for 9a. 6d. In the same year the 
prices for stock (atauri) bought, were, for a horse bought at 
Waterden, 17«. 6Jd. ; another at Anmere, 24«. ; a pig, 
20d. ; twenty-one lambs, 198., five more at la. each, one at 
9d., and for five others Ss. 6d. ; for sixty geese, 8a. 9rf., for 
sixteen 2a. 5d,, and six more 8d. ; for pullets and capons, 
lljrf., and for twenty ducks, Is. 7d. 

In 1361 a horse sold for 60a., a mill horse for 3^. 6^d., a 
grey horse (equm griaeua) for 30a., and the deceased abbat's 
small palfrey was disposed of at Fakenham fair for 30a. 
The purchases in the same year \^ere but few, consisting 
of one horse bought for £1. 18«. Sd., another (equiia griaeua) 
£1. 16«. 8d., a third (equua eductua) 10a, l^d., while another 
cost only 6s. 8d. ; three hogget sheep were bought for 3a, 4J(/., 
and a little pig [porculua) for stock for 3a. 

In 1346 the wool fetched (twenty-six stone) 78«. and a 
farthing, or about 4s. Id. per stone ; a bull's hide, 2s. 4rf., 
hemp, 6d. per stone, and twelve lbs. of hemp seed 8s. 3^^/. 
In 1361 fifty-one stone of wool sold for £6. Is. bd., or only 
2s. bd. the stone ; and four stone of lambs' wool at 4s. 4d. 

These prices do not materially differ from those of 1331, 
nor do the wages of labour,' which are about Id. a day. In 

1 Wages had been fixed by Statute 26th Edward III., '* De Servientis et 
Laboribufi/' which enacts that carters and carriers were to be paid at the rate 
of lOe/. a bushel, and not by the journey or day. A common labourer in time of 
weeding or haymaking {en temps de sarcleer oufeinfairc) was to have only a Irf. 
a day, but for mowing grass 6d. per acre, or by the journey 6d. ; for reaping 


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1361 a tyler had 3d, for two days' work, his assistant half 
that. A carpenter had 9d. for four days and a half, his 
partner for seven days, lO^d, ; another carpenter for eleven 
days, 1«. 2d. Harvest work, on the average, was 11«. 6d, the 
acre and board. Thrashing was paid at Id, a day and board ; 
by task, at the rate of 2J<f. the quarter; and the good fathers 
did not muzzle the ox that trode out their com ; they allowed, 
besides the money, nine quarters and one bushel ad menaam, 
and seven bushels pro famulos. In 1346 twenty pence were 
paid for the thrashing of twenty quarters of dragot^, whatever 
that may be. In a note, however, «. v,, " Dragge, mengled 
come, (drage, or mestlyon) " in Prompt, Parv,, the learned 
editor refers to Rot. Pip., 1 Edward I., where " dragg '* is 
described as " a mixture of vetches and oats, beans and pease ;" 
and gives two quotations from Tusser, speaking of dredge as 
commonly grown in the Eastern Counties. 

The expenditure of the house seems always to have some- 
what exceeded its income ; the amount being in 1332, near 
£160 ; in 1346, about £147 ; and in 1361, £140. 7«. Od, ; 
the excess in the latter year being reduced to £13. 

I add a few glossarial words and phrases not found in the 
account of 1330-1, and of most of which I can give little 
or no explanation. 

In virgis, prickkes, swethes et hunchons, iij'. ix^. ob. 
In clavis, viz. domayl, schotnaye et splejitnayl circa domes, 

&c., per annum, ij". ix*. q. 
Domum rottaV — (A house on wheels P) 

wheat in the first week of August 2cf., and for the rest of harvest Zd, a day, 
without meat or drink, or any curtesy or allowance, and to find his own tools. 
Thrashing was to bo 2\d. per quartor for wheat or segle; for dorge, (dredge) 
beans, pease, and oats \\d. Artificers' wages per day were fixed as follows: a 
master carpenter Zd.^ others 2d. ; a master stone mason 4^., other masons Zd., 
and their servants \\d. \ a tyler Zd.,, his assistant {son garceon) \\d, ; wages of 
other workmen were to be fixed by the Justices. 


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Smith's work, 
J)\xo\iVi& flannas ferrantibus, per iiij dies, ij*. 
Pro ferrura stottorum et palefridum — (here a stott certainly 
means a horse.) 

Cost of ploughs and carts. 
Pro tribns cidtris magnis pro rebinatione * in estate, iiij*. ij^. 
Pro iij horscheppes, ij*. In saccles— small sacks. 
Bazario pro colariis et atilio ^ emendando — ^baize for mending 

collars and gear. 
In atilio per annum in nxmdine sci Michi, in holcis^ sutpons, 

et sterwithes, xx^. 
In cleys carocell', (or caractelV.) In cleys emptis in nundino. 
Curte carecte — cart shed. 
In factura clutes et weryren ex proprio ferro. 
In \mofirok pro carecta autumpnale, iiij*. 
Wyndyngbond pro carectis. 

Bake-house and Mill-house. 
In ij bynd tonhop, — ^ij bynd fathop, — ^In duobus byndes 
stophop, — una bynd barolhop, — ij bynd tunhop et piphop, 
— stoppes, — ^in uno tempse (a hair sieve.) 


In pectine equino et uno kepe pro uno capistro — a curry- 
comb and a fastening for a bridle. 

In Duretts pro equis, ob. 

In ferrura pedum vjAms postenetis.^ 

In vertmeW pro hostio coquine — (a handmill for the guest- 
house kitchen P) 

2 Rebinare^ terrain olter^ et repetitd aratlone proscissam terti& rorsum pro- 

3 Attilia, utenaUia, instrumenta ruatica — the gear or equipment of a plough 
or cart. 

^ Probably the same as in another place entf»red, <* in uno ryng ad capistnim." 
B Posfiette, a pipkin or saucepan, perhaps the same as elsewhere expressed 
" in fotyng unius olle enee." 


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In quatuor td de Gerthes, 

In duabns scutelV • et uno troye? 

In tnhMB persuris hyronis. 

In Ixyiij Talys pro falda. 
In duab} palys ferratis pro caula.^ 

In una acra et dimidio et xvij*"" rode falks • bruarie emptis, 


Solutum diversis messoribus, earectariis^ pichariis, tassatariis, 

vaccariis, vincariis, porcariis, bercariis, &c. — reapers, 

carters, pitchers, stackers, binders, cowherds, swineherds, 


In duobus ducenis cyrothecum efer,^ vj'. viij**. 
In tribus paribus der de eodem, x*^. 

In duobus ducenis Oel et dimidio ducensB de eodem, iij'. x^. 
j ducen de (for, iiij». yj**. 
In yj paribus cyrothecum furratis cum panno de eodem, 

ij». viij^. 

* Scutella, a kind of dish or platter, a trencher. 

"^ Trua, a kind of yesBel to receive homely thingSi a trough, or tray. 

' Caula, ex caveola, a sheep fold. 

' Mr. Raine interprets fallut to be '* a measure, or portion of land, leas appa- 
rently than a rood " ; but I think it means here bundles of bruery, or fiirse : else- 
where we have ** in tribus caractatis de bruare emptis." 

^ Der. This word occurs only in the account of 20 Edward III. The account 
of 1361 mentions gloves generally at 7d. and 7^4. the pair, and 2a. 2d. the dozen. 
In 1332 gloves were bought at 4if. a pair. Those called der in 1346 were at a 
lower price than this. Der therefore may be dere in the sense of soiled or injured, 
from the verb " to dere or hurte. :" fPrompL Farv. 119, n. 1) ; or what I think 
more probable it meant deer-skin gloves. What the other articles denominated 
Oel may be, I have no idea, unless the word be really Tel, teUiy a species of web 
or cloth. (Vol. vi. p. 337.) 


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But I have been tempted by these archaisms away firom 
Creake Abbey, to which I must return. 

It may be in the memory of those of our members who 
visited these picturesque ruins upon the occasion before ad- 
verted to, that in reading a short account of the foundation 
and dissolution of this monastery, I stated on the authority 
of the Monastican, that it was considered as dissolved in the 
22nd year of King Henry VII. because the last abbat died 
without a convent to elect another. Some doubt was thrown 
upon the accuracy of that statement, and it was even said 
that the deed of surrender under the seals of the abbat and 
canons was amongst the college archives. I have since satis- 
fied myself that there is no ground for auy such doubt, and 
that the supposititious existence of any such deed of surrender 
is a mistake. Still I am not in a situation to prove the fact 
by documentary evidence. Dugdale's information, as quoted 
in the Monasticon, is professed to be derived from " the copy 
of a bill in Chancery, exhibited on the part of Bishop Nix 
against Christ's CoUege." — M.S. in Archivis JEccL Cath, 
Norwic, The deputy registrar has most kindly taken the 
trouble to search the Chapter records for this copy bill without 
success. But there is another wholly independent authority 
for the statement, — Nichols, the historian of Leicestershire. 
In treating of the manor of listen,* or as we have had it in 
the rentals, Ilveston, he says, — " In 1509, by reason that the 
abbot survived the convent of Creke who had died of an 
infectious and epidemical disease, or some other cause, on his 
death the lordship of listen escheated to the king with the 
rest of their revenues and estates, and was never after re- 
stored, of which the inquisition, here briefly abridged, remains 
amongst the records in the Rolls. [M.S. Chetwynd ex. Rot., 
22 Hen. VII. No 284, Leic] 

" Juratores dicunt quod Egidius Skevington, nuper abbas 
monasterii beate Marie de Pratis juxta Creke, com. Norfolk, 

2 Vol. ii. p. 651. 


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seisittus fuit in dominio suo ut de feudo de manerio de Ilstone, 
CO. Leic. & de terns in Thumby & Bushby in eodcm com, ac 
de curi& lete in dicto manerio & villis & liberft warrenA & 
aliifl libertatibus diet' manerio & villis spectantibus, ut in jure 
monasterii predict', tent' de rege in capite in pur4 eleemosinft 
Et ulterius juratores dicunt quod dictus Egidius Skevington 
nuper abbas sic seisitus existens obiit 12 Decemb. anno 22 
regni Hen. VII. absque aliquo conventu commonachorum 
aut alicujus canonici in dicto monasterio existente; et sic 
successive inde totaliter dictum monasterium fuit dissolutum 
et determinatimi pretextu cujus predicta Abbathia et monas- 
terium & omnia maneria messuagia terre & tenementa cum 
pertinentiis dicte abbathie et monasterio spectantia domini 
regis nimc ut eschaeta revertent & revertere debent, habend' 
dicto regi & successoribus suis in perpetuimi." 

Now I am boimd to say that I have searched the Public 
Record Office for the inquisition referred to by Nichols, and 
searched in vain. The inquisition made after the death of 
Giles Skevington is not to be found. The grant made in the 
same year to the Lady Margaret does not refer to it ; and all 
the escheat rolls of the last years of Henry VII. are wanting. 
But be it observed, Mr. Nichols did not profess to derive his 
information from the roll itself, but from "the Chetwynd 
MSS." I have not had access to these manuscripts, which 
are in private hands, but there is no doubt of their authen- 
ticity; and they are referred to in Erdeswick's History of 
Staffordshire (Dr. Harwood's edit., 1844). A search amongst 
the records of the Court of Chancery will probably lead to 
the biU in Chancery, cited in Dugdale, and settle the 
question, but that I have not yet had time to make. I have 
thought the singularity of the narrative, and regard to the 
historical accuracy of Dugdale and Nichols, have justified 
me in devoting attention thus far to the subject. 

One other desideratum I am happily able to supply. 
The editors of the last edition of the Monasticon say that no 


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seal of this abbey or of any of its 

abbots has yet occurred to them. 

Through the kindness of Mr. Robert 

Ready, of the British Museum, I 

have obtained an impression of a 

seal, which, if not a forgery, did 

undoubtedly belong to this abbey; 

but unfortunately Mr. Ready is 

unable to remember from whence 

he originally took it. There is a 

sharpness in the impression which 

gives the idea that it was taken 

from a matrix, but the obscurity of this small abbey makes 

a forgery very improbable. It appears to represent the 

Annunciation of the B. V. M., and the legend is s' abatis 

ET coNVENTVs DE CREK AD CAVSAS. The excellent woodcut 

here given renders any further description unnecessary. 


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Crimes ^xuhts, WitdxriQ, 




To offer to this Society a paper on so remarkable a place 
as " Grimes Graves," is a task which I did not expect to be 
called upon to fulfil. I have long been anxious that the 
members should visit it, and I always hoped that it might 
be at a time when it would be convenient to Dr. Guest, the 
learned Master of Caius College, to be present, and to give 
us his opinion upon it. I am very sorry to say that Dr. 
Guest is detained by other engagements, and cannot be here 
to-day,^ but I hope at some future time he will come and 
examine a place which has a double interest to him, as being 
one of a class upon which he is perhaps better qualified than 
any one else to give an opinion^ and also as being situated 
in a parish connected with the college of which he is the 

All that I can do is to state what facts I have ascertained 
about it, and to suggest to others some points from which 
their better opportunities and experience may enable them 
to draw their own conclusions. Any contribution to our 
knowledge of a place which we must certainly regard as one 
of the most curious in the county, or even in the kingdom, 
will not be without use ; and this must be my apology for 
reading to you my notes upon it to-day. 

* This paper was read on the spot, 6th July, 1866. 
[vol. VII.] N 


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We are now at the eastern boundary of the parish of 
Weeting; and this spot consists of about twelve acres of 
ground, now in a wood, covered closely with a very large col- 
lection of pits, of different sizes and depth, the whole forming 
an irregular parallelogram, skirted on the north and east by 
banks. These banks are the boundaries of the {parishes of 
Weeting, Lynford, and Santon, the field in which the pits oxe 
being a comer of Weeting, jutting out from the rest : — ^the 
banks extend far beyond this wood, and it is common in this 
neighbourhood to find such earthen divisions between parishes 
and between WBrrens. Outside the wood, on the south-east, 
is a large gravel-pit, where there seems to have been a 
mound, and perhaps two others, surrounding a spring which 
rises in the pit. At the northern end of the eastern side 
is also a large mound, looking towards Thetford, five or six 
miles distant. We all remember Mr. Harrod's valuable 
Paper, in the third volume of our publications, on the 
*'Weyboume Pits," and there can be no doubt that the 
present spot is a similar collection of British dwellings. I 
need not repeat his remarks ; but these pits are, in many 
cases, much larger than those at Weyboume and the neigh- 
bourhood.* I will only say, by way of reminder to some 
who may be present, that antiquaries are generally agreed 
that such pits were dwelling-places of the early inhabi- 
tants of this country : they collected together in this way 
for mutual protection. Each pit would have its conical or 
beehive-shaped covering of trees, wattles, or thatch, with 
an entrance at the side, and a hole at the top to let out the 
smoke of the fire, which burnt on the hearth at the bottom 
of the pit. The sections cut through the pits will shew that 
they have been paved with flints in a bowl-shape. Some of 
them are as much as forty feet across, and about twelve feet in 

^ The illmtratioiifl of tlie Weybome pits are here repeated from voL iii , and 
will convey a good idea of those at Weeting, the general appearance and section 
being very much the samie. 


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depth. Those at the sides of the place are smaller than the 
more central ones. Some are double pits, being connected 
by a short trench, and, in places, the trench seems quite con- 
tinuous. The wood in which they are was planted about 
fifty years ago, and at that time they were partially filled up 
by throwing the earth from the top into the pits ; and the ac- 
cumulation of debris is about eighteen inches in depth. It is 
very clear from their careful construction, paving, and fire- 
places, that they were intended for permanent habitation, and 
not merely for the temporary shelter of an army on the march. 
The place is, in fact, a British town — ^a fortified settlement of 
the Iceni ; probably of a date anterior to the arrival of the 
Romans. We know from Caesar that the ancient Britons 
lived in such a manner, and very similar habitations are used 
to this day in uncivilized countries, and even, I believe, in 
some of the islands on the coast of Ireland. Besides the 
examples I have mentioned at Weyboume, which number 
about 1000, Mr. Harrod mentions as many as 2000 more at 
Aylmerton Heath, called the " Shrieking Pits,'* from a super- 
stition of voices heard there ; others called " hills and holes," 
at Beeston, Edgefield, Marsham, Household Heath, and 
Eaton, all in Norfolk. There are many other examples in 
Yorkshire, Derbyshire, and Wiltshire, the latter described by 
Sir Richard Colt Hoare, in his "Ancient Wiltshire." In 
none of these, as far as I can learn, have any implements ever 
been found, although excavations for the purpose have been 
carefully made.^ 

In Feb. 1852 I obtained permission to examine some of 
the pits in " Grimes Graves ;" — a trench was dug through 
several of them, and in each case, about three feet below the 
lowest point at the bottom, we came upon a small oval wall 
of flints, evidently a fire-place, containing numerous bones of 

3 A flint, apparently worked for a celt, was picked^np in the wood of Grimes 
Graves by Mr. Prigg, of Bury, on the day of the visit of the Suffolk Archaeological 
Society from Thetford, Sept. 28tfa, 1866. 

X 2 


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oxen, but no implements. By the kind permission of Mr. 
Angerstein, excavations have again been made this week 
for our inspection-day, and with the same result, although 
in the pits now opened the fire-places are not so distinctly 

Many interesting questions arise as we try to re-people the 
scene before us with its original inhabitants. How was it 
possible for them to protect themselves from the weather ? 
How were so wide pits roofed across? Had they regular 
mud-built domes ? or were the poles or wattles set some way 
down the pit, so as nearly to be hidden from sight from the 
outside ? 

Why are so many of the larger pits in the centre, and the 
smaller ones at the sides P Did they dig fresh ones as the 
numbers of the inhabitants increased, or were they so made 
that, if driven to the centre by attacks of enemies, there 
might be room for all ? 

Why is there no bank apparently on the western side? 
Had the people possession of the country on that side, and 
sought only to protect themselves on the north and east ? 

Whence did they get water for daily use ? There is a 
spring in the large gravel-pit on the cast side, which is now 
never dry, and this may have been formerly much more 
copious. There also appears to be a way along the bank 
down to the river, about a mile off. Are the mounds near 
the spring original, and did they s^rve to protect it ? 

Where did they bury their dead ? An extensive cemetery 
ought to be discoverable near at hand. I am told since I 
have been here, that on the Suffolk side of the river, opposite 
this place, skeletons are found in great numbers. Is that 
likely to have been the cemetery ? 

Where did they throw away their refuse ? For only a few 
bones of animals are found in the pits. 

What was the purpose of the mound at the eastern side ? 
Was it a look-out or " speculatorium " ? 


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Once more, what is the meaning of the name, " Grimes 
Graves ? " This point I must endeavour to give an answer 
to. The Saxons must have found these works here, and called 
them " Grimes Graves." " Graves " of course means pits or 
trenches ; we only use the word now to mean a pit /or bunal, 
but it is properly a place dug out, and we retain the old mean- 
ing in the word " engrave," &c. In the Promptorium Par- 
vulorum we have " Cfravyn, or grubbyn yn pe erthe, fodio." 
I find also that Camden, or rather his editor Gibson, calls the 
ditches of an earthwork ( Vandlebury, Oogmagog Hilh) by the 
term " graffs," as a word then in use, " graflBs between the 
rampires." We all remember a verse in the Prayer-Book 
translation of the Psalms, " they have graven and digged up 
a pit ; " and the Geneva Bible has another text, " he that 
graveth an habitation for himself in a rock." " Greaves," as 
pits, occurs once in Layamon (Gent Mag,, July, 1866, p. 73). 
Graves, therefore, means the pits, or the " diggings." 

The word " Grim," or " Grimes," is much less certain in 
its interpretation. It occurs very frequently in connection 
with earthworks, and is found denoting them in Saxon char- 
ters. A " Grimsdyke," or " Grimsditch," runs from Great 
Berkhampstead, Herts, to Bradenham, Bucks ; there is another 
large one in Wiltshire, south of Salisbury ; another in the 
parish of Saffron Walden, Essex ; another near Chipping 
Norton, Oxfordshire; another near Ewelme, in the same 
county, — I do not mean merely a dyke, but one called Ghrims- 
dyke. The Eoman wall between the Firths of Forth and 
Clyde has the name of "Grsomes dyke." In the present 
case the pits are called Grimes Graves, and the Hundred 
Grimeshoe; but I am not aware that the Dyke, or Devil's 
Ditch, which runs along the western boundary of the parish 
by Wilton is ever 'termed Grimsdyke. Blomefield, whose 
opinion on such a point we shall not be bound to follow, says 
the name has its origin in Grime, whom he supposes to have 
been a person, a " leader or general, probably of the Danes in 


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this quarter, and if he was not the Preesitus Comitatus or Vice- 
comes, that is, the Shire-greere or Sheriff, he was undoubtedly 
the Centuriae Prepositus, that is, the Hundred-Greeve, and 
as such gave the name to it, which it retains at this day." 
He did not perceive that although the name might have been 
given by the Saxons, the earthworks were here long before 
their arrival. He speaks of Grimes Graves as " a very curious 
Danish encampment," containing "great numbers of large 
deep pits, joined in a regular manner, one near to another, 
in form of a quincunx, the largest seeming to be in the centre, 
where probably the general's or commander's tent was." 

Another derivation of Grimes has much more probability 
to support it; and has been accepted by antiquaries until 
quite recently. It is that of Stukeley, who derives Grime 
from the Anglo-Saxon grim^ a witch, so that Grimesdyke 
would be equivalent to " witches- work, for (he says) the 
vulgar generally think these extraordinary works made by 
help of the devil : " and Chimes Graves woidd be the devil's 
pits. It is not necessary to suppose, by this theorj'', that 
works such as these and the Grimesdikes were made by the 
Saxons, but that when they came hither and foimd great 
works of the kind, and knew not what people had constructed 
them, they attributed them to supernatural beings. This, we 
all know, is very commonly the case ; an object of wonder in 
nature or art is constantly called by the name of the devil or 
fairies, such as the Devil's Bridge, Devil's Punchbowl, &c., 
and where DeviFs Dyke occurs, no doubt this is the origin 
of the expression. But whether Grimesdyke is another form 
of the same word, is not so certain. Dr. Guest has put forth 
another derivation, and any opinion from such an authority 
may well be thought to settle the question. He says in his 
very valuable and learned paper on " The Early English Set- 
tlements in South Britain," printed in the SaUsbury volume 
of the ArchfiBological Institute, that **the Anglo-Saxon grim-e, 
a witch, forms its genitive in an, grim-an, while the phrase 


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which answers to Grimsditch is always grimes die. This form 
of the genitive requires a masculine or a neuter substantive, 
grim. I once thought (he says) this word might be of Eng- 
lish origin, but am now inclined to look upon it as connected 
with the grtima or groma of the Agrimensors. If this be so, 
Grimesdike may be equivalent to boundary-dike. Such an 
hypothesis agrees well with the circumstances under which 
the word grim occurs in Anglo-Saxon charters, and in our 
modem provincial dialects. I would suggest, therefore, 
(he adds) that the names gnm and grimesdike may have 
been given to certain works which were known to our ances- 
tors as having served the purposes of boundary lines." The 
Saxons, or whoever set out the boundaries of the parishes of 
Weeting, Lynford,.and Santon, have made use of the banks 
of Grimes Graves ; they may therefore have called these pits 
the boundary pits, or Grimes Graves. 

We must remember that the Hundred is also named 
"Grimes-hoe," and Blomefield tells us that the Himdred 
Court was " called " at the large mound on the east side of 
the pits. I ventured to suggest to Dr. Guest that this hill 
might have given the name to the Hundred, as we know that 
" hoe " means hill, and this would therefore be the Grimes 
hill, or "Grimes hoe," and the whole Hundred might there- 
fore be termed the Grimes-hoe Hundred. I am glad to say 
that Dr. Guest thinks this extremely probable. The moimd, 
of course, being British, was there before it was made the 
Himdred Hill by the Saxons ; but as they used it for that 
purpose, they may have called it by the same name as the 
pits. A trench was cut into it yesterday, but nothing found 
except a small stag's antler. It was probably not a tumulus, 
but a " look-out." 

I should be completely satisfied with this derivation of 
" Grimes," were it not for the frequent occurrence of the 
term "Devil's ditch," which answers so completely to the 
older derivation of grim. The word Grimes die occurs, as I 


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said, in Anglo-Saxon charters ; but I am not aware whether 
the term " Devil's dyke " is one of very ancient use ; perhaps 
it may be only a consequence of the supposed meaning of 
" Grime." Dr. Guest observes that grime, like " castle," and 
" street," and some other words, may have been in use among 
the Britons when our ancestors entered the island, and if so, 
he would be inclined to trace it to the Latin " grumus," a 

'^ The Ride " is a way leading through the wood from the 
south-west comer to the mount. This may have been an 
ancient way. 

It is probable that an engagement with enemies, perhaps 
Komans, took place in the immediate neighbourhood of this 
fortified settlement. There are several tumuli on the heaths 
within a mile or two round ; and to corroborate the age to 
which the earthworks belong, I found myself in 1853 an 
arrowhead of white flint thrown out of one of these tumuli 
at the mouth of a rabbit-hole. A hill on the north-western 
side, opposite the pits, is called " Whitecross Heath," and a 
hill or rising ground on the southern side, "the Bloody 
Knoll." Perhaps the name " Whitecross " has reference to 
some wayside cross of later date. 

It is thought desirable that our Society should possess and 
publish a plan and sections of this curious place, before the 
accumulation of earth from the trees with which it is planted, 
or the improvements of modern times, makes it more di£Scidt 
to investigate. 

In another part of this parish are some remains of the 
same age, which it may be weU to refer to now. On the 
opposite or western boundary, where the parish joins Wilton, 
is a "Foss-dyke," or " Devil's-ditch." It runs from the 
river, about two miles west of Brandon to Cranwich or Did- 
lington, where the river Stoke passes through a fen. Some- 
what further from Beachamwell to Narborough is another 
line of ditch, also called " Devil's Dyke," I once thought 


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these might be a continuous dyke, but I am convinced they 
are not so. Writers on these subjects have often attempted 
to connect such lines of defence, as if they must necessarily 
form a complete unbroken wall and ditch. But in many 
cases the object of those who erected them was only to protect 
themselves and their cattle where nature had left them un- 
protected. Their dykes and banks were made across open 
country, but stopped where a marsh or a dense wood would 
answer the same purpose. The Devil's Dyke here, therefore, 
seems only to have passed from one fen to another, and the 
northern one to have done the same. 

When the railway was being made, a large number of 
Roman tiles, earthenware, and human remains, was found 
on the Suffolk side of the river, opposite the termination of 
this dyke ; and quite recently, a jar of Roman " minimi " has 
been found near the same place. 


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itotias 0f t\it €^xxn\i at ^anbto0rt|^, 



Messrs. A. W. MORANT, F.S.A., and J. L'ESTRANGE. 

The Church of Randworth, in the Archdeaconry of Nor- 
wich and Deanery of Blofield, is dedicated to St. Helen.^ It 
consists of a chancel, 32 feet by 21 feet 6 inches, with a north 
door ; * a lofty nave, 63 feet 6 inches by 31 feet 3 inches, 
having a north porch, 12 feet by 10 feet 3 inches, with parvise 
over ; a soutli porch, 13 feet 6 inches by 10 feet, and a western 
tower, 12 feet by 10 feet ; the entire length from the western 
doors to the east wall being 116 feet. 

The present church appears to have been erected late in 
the decorated or early in the following period. A mixed 
style may be observed in the chancel, one of the windows on 
the north side having flowing tracery, whilst the two on 
the south side have four centred arches and perpendicular 
tracery. The six windows of the nave are four centred of 
three lights, each with cinquefoliated heads, but all the tracery 
is destroyed. 

The tower is square, of three stages, with angle buttresses, 

» Brosyard, 26. Wyghte, 66, &c, 

' The priest's house was on the north Bide. — Lib. Inst. x. 107. 


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and is finished with an embattled parapet, with flint and 
stone panels, haying shields. Figures, now lost, appear to 
have terminated the summits of the four angles. The belfry 
windows were of two lights, but the mullions are gone, and 
the four square windows in the stage below are of two de- 
signs. The staircase turret at the north-east corner is carried 
no further than the bell-chamber. The west window is of three 
lights, but the tracery is destroyed. There is a good bold 
plinth and water table, and the perpendicular west doorway 
has an effective moulding continued roimd both jambs and 
arch. The hood moidding terminates with two spirited 
female heads wimpled, c. 1320, apparently old work reset. 
The perpendicular doors remain, but the tracery has been cut 
off. The windows of the south porch are decorated, of two 
lights, with cinquefoliated heads, and have been glazed, and 
the roof is open timbered. Over the doorway is a niche, 
with a canopy and pedestal in a very perfect state, without a 

The north porch is used as a vestry, and the old entrance 
from the churchyard, a four-centred arch, is bricked up. At 
the left hand of the entrance to the church is a mutilated 
holy- water stoup. The windows of this porch are two-light 
perpendicular, the ceiling modern, and there is a chamber 
over it, of which the staircase and windows, the latter per- 
pendicular, are blocked up. It is, however, contemporary 
with the south porch, for the base of one of the buttresses of 
each has a similar panel, containing a lion sejant, boldly 
sculptured. The doorways in both porches are perpendicular 
and closely resemble each other, having, good bold hood 
mouldings with patene at intervals in the hollow, and well-cut 
corbel heads of a king and queen. Both retain their original 
doors, all the tracery howevep being lost. 

The gables of the nave, chancel, and south porch, retain the 
saddle stones and shafts of their crosses ; and during the 
summer of 1866, in emptying an old dry well in this parish, 


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a portion of a stone crucifix was found, which may have 
surmounted the gable of the north porch. All the gables 
moreover retain their coping, and have good springers. 

The interior state of the building is very deplorable. The 
chancel roof is entirely concealed by plaster ; the original 
roof of the nave has been removed,* and a common roughly- 
framed one, consisting of a collar-beam, two diagonal ties, a 
king-post, and strut substituted. This is covered with slates, 
which are not concealed from view inside, not being plastered 
between the spars, giving a remarkably bare and poverty- 
stricken appearance to the fabric. The east window of the 
chancel is partly bricked up, and a small window of wood 
inserted. There is a good decorated piscina with cinque- 
foliated head, sexfoiled bason with pierced boss, and the 
stout wooden shelf or credence remaining. It has an arched 
opening to the sedilia which are bricked up. There are no 
visible remains in the chancel of any aumbry, niches, &c. 
The altar-rails are of the last century, and, with the commu- 
nion table, are of a mean description. The priest's doorway 
on the north side retains its original perpendicular door, the 
upper part tolerably perfect. About four feet from the floor, 
on the south wall, is a curious winch, probably used for 

* The old roof was taken down and the lead with which it was covered was 
sold by Faculty from the Bishop of Norwich, dated 25th March, 1311, which 
recites the receipt of a petition from the Vicar, Churchwardens, and Inhabitants, 
shewing, ** STfjat the roof of the Parish Church of Ran worth aforesaid is 
covered with lead which is very old and thin and the church is much out 
of repair, particularly the roof, which is in a very dilapidated state. Ci)at 
the said petitioners arc desirous of stripping the lead from the roof of the said 
Church and of putting a new roof thereon, to be covered with the best West- 
morland Slates instead of Lead, and also of comi)letcly repairing the said Church, 
^ijat an estimate of the ezpence of such new roof to be covered with slates as 
aforesaid hath been made, which amounts^o the siun of three hundred and seventy- 
nine pounds and eleven shillings. dTijat the old lead and other materials of the 
present roof arc estimated to be worth the sum of two hundred and forty-one 
pounds and eleven shillings." — Lib. Fac. 9, fo. 11. This old roof is described 
by those who remember it as exceedingly rich in carving and gilding. 


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raising and lowering the light which always burned before 
the Blessed Sacrament. Against the back of the chancel 
screen are six perpendicular stalls: four only retain their 
Bubsellia. On the south side, No. 1 is lost ; No. 2, a gro- 
tesque man with spade in hand — supporters, a rose and a 
circle containing three flowing cinquefoils ; No. 3, a head — 
supporters, a true lover's knot and a circle containing two in- 
terlaced triangles. On the north side, No. 1, merely a bracket 
— supporters, a grotesque head and a rose ; No. 2, a head — 
supporters, a leaf and a rose; No. 3, lost. The elbow-pieces 
have various devices of foliage, heads, and animals, carved 
upon them. 

There is also in the chancel a good perpendicular oak lectern 
of unusual construction, the desks placed doa d doa but at 
unequal heights. On one side above the desk is painted this 
verse — 

Gloria tt6t Uotnine 
qui natus t% Ue uirfline 
cum patre ganrto jSpiritu 
in jsFpi^na jsecula* 9nien* 

And between the lines are Gregorian notes on a musical stave 
of four lines. On the other side, beneath the desk, is painted 
the eagle of St. John the Evangelist, with a scroll inscribed 
+ In principtO erat Uerium. The shaft is octagonal and 
has a moulded base.^ 

^ There is a lithograph of this lectern in the privately printed " Catalogue of 
Engravings, Etchings, and Original Drawings, and Deeds, in the library of 
Dawson Turner, Esq., 1841." In Notes and Queries, second series, vi. 141, 193, 
270, 332, some interesting correspondence relating to it will be found. With 
reference to the verse painted at the back of the lectern it is said, ** that 
during the Octave of Christmas, and on some other festivals, all the hymns at the 
different canonical hours were ended with this same verse. So that possibly it 
may have been conspicuously painted there for the convenience of the choir, saving 
them the trouble of turning each time to the actual hymn, of which it forms the 
proper conclusion." 


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The chancel arch is decorated, lofty, and rather plain ; 
it retains the mortices, probably of the framework of the 
rood. The screen is nearly perfect and is the principal 
object of interest in the church. Placed beneath the chancel 
arch, it is divided by mnllions into six arched compart- 
ments, three on either side of a central doorway, the arch 
of which is richly cusped, recusped, and crocketted on each 
side. A handsomely moulded transom at four feet from 
the ground divides this screen ; the upper portion being 
open, the lower panelled. Each of the three compartments 
on either side of the doorway is again divided vertically 
below the transom into two panels, alternately coloured green 
and red, with cinqefoiled heads ; on each is painted the figure 
of an apostle, with his name beneath, and the lower part is 
occupied with two carved quatrefoils, which raise the figure 
a few inches above the floor level and give it a better 
effect. The following is the order in which the apostles are 
placed, commencing at the north side — 


Sancte sgmon 


&ct $aulr 


&mtU tijoma 


&it 3o$es 


bartijolomee sancte 


Sih ^iittqipi 


£ancte iaco&e 


S>cz 3&cobt 


^ncte anliia 


Set SuUe 





S>tt i«at[jee 

On either side of this central screen, and about a foot in 
advance of the east wall of the nave, are two reredoses, about 
four feet from the floor, each divided into four panels, each 
panel containing a seated figure of a saint, and above it an 
angel, or other member of the heavenly hierarchy, holding a 
dossel cloth of diapered pattern. These figures have not 
their names inscribed beneath them, but have been appro- 
priated as follows : — 


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North Rbredos. South Rbrbbos. 

1. St. Etheldreda. 1. St. Mary of Salome with her two 

children, St. James the Great 
and St. John Evangelist 

2. St. John Baptist. 2. B. Y. Mary and Holy Child. 

3. Another painting of St. John. 3. St. Mary of Oleophas with her 

four sons, SS. James the Less, 
Judas Thaddeus, Simon Zelotes, 
and Joseph. 

4. St. Barhara. 4. St. Margaret.^ 

Above each panel are three canopied niches which evidently 
once contained figures. 

At the extreme end of the central screen and at right 
angles to it are two wings, projecting six feet, which connect 
the reredoses with the central screen and terminate in 
octagonal columns or standards about seven feet high with 
cusped and crocketted flying buttresses. Octagonal caps 
now finish these standards, but it would appear that another 
flying buttress sprung from the capital to the level of the 
under side of the loft, or they may possibly have been sur- 
mounted with figures. These wings were parcloses to the 
altars on either side of the chancel arch, the reredoses of 
which have just been described. 

The panels of these parcloses bear these figures — North 
Parclose, 1. A Bishop, conjectured by Dr. Husenbeth to be 
St. Felix ; 2. St. Stephen ; 3. St. George. South Parclose, 
1. An Archbishop, supposed by the learned doctor just men- 
tioned to be St. Thomas of Canterbury ; 2. St. Laurence ; 
3. St. Michael. The rood-loft extends completely across the 
nave, and the soffit was most elaborately groined. That 
portion immediately joining the central screen remains in 
a very perfect state; the remainder has been entirely de- 
stroyed and a plain plastered cove substituted, but indications 
of the lost groining remain at each end of the central 

* We owe to Mr. C. J. W. Winter the discoyery of the dragon, which iden- 
tifies this figure, preyiously supposed to represent St. Helen. 


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The wood-work is richly moulded, paints with various 
colours and diapers and enriched with gilding, and the hollows 
of the mouldings have at short intervals paterae, which are 
not carved from the solid but attached with pins. Nothing 
but the framework of the reredoses remains, aU the minute 
details of buttresses, pinnacles, crockets, and tracery mould- 
ings which adorned them are gone, not however without 
having left ample indications of their existence. The litho- 
graphs of this screen about to be published by our Society 
will render any minute description of the figures and their 
emblems superfluous.* To obtain, however, a satisfiwjtory idea 
of the whole composition, nothing less than an examination 
of the screen itself will be sufficient; and the marvellous 
richness of the tracery work, painting, and diapering, muti- 
lated though it be, will amply repay a visit to the church. 

A few points, however, require notice. The obliteration 
of the faces of the saints and of the emblems by which 
they are distinguished,^ may be to a certain extent under- 
stood, but the reason for daubing over the hands and feet 
of some of the figures is not so intelligible. We would 
also draw attention to a couple of perforations in the panels 
of the screen, on the north side, corresponding with other 
holes in the backs of the stalls, through which the high 
altar might be seen by a person kneeling in the nave. 
The necessity for these is not obvious, and it seems singular 
that so handsome a screen should have been thus disfigured.'' 
Nor would we leave unnoticed some small iron staples appa- 

* In Colling's " Gothic Ornaments,'* vol. ii, (London : Bell, I80O) are illiia- 
trationa of the painting of the screen, -with the diapers, gilding, &c., in chromo- 
lithography ; also large-scale details of the architectural features of the central 
portion of the screen. 

® The cross head of the archhishop's crozier and of St. Margaret's staff 
appear to have excited the wrath of the Reformers equally with the dragon and 
devil of St. George and St. Michael. 

7 Similar openings may he noticed in other chancel screens. On the south 
side of the Colton screen is one quatrefoilcd. 


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rently to carry rods for curtains to be drawn before the 
paintings in Lent. 

It is difficult to account satisfactorily for there being two 
paintings of St. John the Baptist on the north reredos. One is 
painted and gilded like the rest of the figures on the screen, the 
other is only in blaclv and white, but superior to the former in 
drawing and more artistic in style. It would seem that this 
was the manner in which the whole of the panels were 
originally sketched at the erection of the screen,® and that they 
were not coloured and gilded as we now see them until some 
time subsequently.^ The only conjecture then that we can 
offer is, that at this date a tabernacle, image, or other ap- 
purtenance of an altar, stood in front of the panel, with the 
original St. John upon it. The figure was thereby obscured, 
and so much of the angel, which supported the dossel, as was 
then visible above the top of this tabernacle, or whatever it 
might have been, was painted out, and the surface diapered ; 
but the lower part of the angel and St. John, concealed by 
the erection in front, were suffered to remain in their original 
condition. Still it seems to have been considered desirable 
to have a painting of St. John,^^ and accordingly the next 

8 The nuncupatiye will of Thomas Grym, of Randeworth, dated and proved 
in 1419, contains these bequests : "Item legavit summo altari ejusdem ecclcsie 
ij marcts Item emendacioni eju«dem ecciesie iiij marcoo Item ad fabricam 
eaneelti dicte ecciesie v marctc." This bequest of five marks may be either to 
the fabric oi the screen or the chancel. The architectural character of the 
former accords well with the date, but our readers must decide for themselves. 
Although we have made diligent search, and our collections relating to this 
parish, beginning in 1446, are more than usually perfect, we have met with no 
other bequest relating to the screen. 

» For this idea we are again indebted to Mr. Winter, whose acquaintance with 
this branch of mediaeval art is exact and extensive. It is confirmed by the 
emblem of St. John the Evangelist. The foot and stem of the chalice are still 
gilt, but in cleaning off the obliterating paint the gilding has been removed fi-om 
the bowl, showing the original black-and-white painting. The faces of the 
apostles also have been cleaned down to the original painting. 

1^ It will be seen in a subsequent page that there was a guild under his 
invocation in this church. 

[vol. VIl.] U 


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figure, apparently from the face originally that of a female, 
was converted into that of the Baptist. Upon the removal of 
altars, &c., the original St.- John was uncovered, and hence 
at the present day we have two paintings of the same saint 
side by side. 

The doorway of the rood-loft staircase in the nave, under 
the north-east window, is bricked up, the staircase remains 
perfect, and the doorway on to the loft is still open. The 
loft retains the joists of the floor, but the floor-boards are all 
gone. From the top of the loft may be seen on the east 
wall of the nave two consecration crosses, which, owing to 
the erection of the reredoses, have been preserved from 
whitewash ; they are red crosses flory within a circle.^ On 
either side of the chancel arch, immediately beneath the 
consecration crosses, are the remains of two altars (the altar 
stones being removed,) and upon these the reredoses are 
placed. There are the remains of a niche over the north 
altar, behind the reredos, and a bracket over the south 

The octagonal pulpit standing against the north wall of 
the nave, between the second and third windows counting 
from the west, is of oak, with panels of linen pattern, 
probably of sixteenth century date. The sounding board 
is modern. 

In the north-east windows of the chancel and the nave 
some painted quarries of two diflerent designs and a few 
small and unimi)ortant fragments of stained glass remain. 

Nearly all the old Perpendicular benches and their poppy- 
heads remain ; towards the east end they are boxed up in 
pews, and backs have been added to the others. 

The font, very plain and probably mutilated, is octagonal, 

* Two others remain at the west end of the nave, one on each side of the 
tower arch, but whitewashed over. In 1814, a figure of St. Christopher im- 
mediately over the south door, and much other fri'sco painting, remained. — 
Xni'folk TopnyraphvrH MatnMl, p. 148, n. 1. 


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placed upon two high steps. The staples for fastening the 
cover yet remain at the side of the bason, which is leaded, 
and measures 1 ft. 9 in. diameter and 1 ft. 1 in. deep. The 
original cover in the Perpendicular style, said to be the 
gift of Thomas Archer and Agnes his wife in 1503, is illus- 
trated in vol. V. p. 269. In the inventory of 1753 "a fine 
font and cover" are mentioned, and it probably remained 
until 1811. 

The tower arch is lofty and narrow, not more than eight 
and a half feet between the piers. A bell seller of no great 
antiquity has the royal arms temp. Geo. III. placed upon it. 

The tower contains five bells, the frames and gear of which 
are much out of repair. Two of the bells are cracked, and 
the tenor, supported on two beams, cannot be sounded. The 
inscriptions upon the bells are : — 


On the waist W and the arms of Holdich. 

2. A^NO D0MI:J^I 1615 W. B. 


4' 1+1 ©ona EepenUe ^ia □ Eojjo jRttajjlialena 

On the crown, three times repeated, is the foundry mark 
or arms of Brasyer of Norwich. 

5. ©mnis ,Sonu0 ILaulift ©ominutn anno }mi 1616.* 


The first, second, and fifth bells are aU by one founder, 
William Brend of Norwich. John Darbie's head quarters 
were at Ipswich. 

Near the east end of the nave, against the south wall, is 
the only early mural monument. It is in the style of the 

» Thomas Button, notatur, for refusing to pay the some of iiij* iiij** taxed by 
the greater parte of the parishoners towards the shootinge of the great bell 
there.— Xf ft. Visitat. Arch, Xonc, 1616. 

o 2 


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Renaissance ; and within the pediment is a shield with the 
arms of Holdich, azure on a chevron or, three magpies 
proper, in chief a crescent for difference, but the monument 
having been whitewashed, the tinctures are obliterated. It 
has this incised inscription filled up in black mastic — 

fiere bntier Igetf) ISurteD tfie boDie of 
Efiontas !^ollitd)e one of t\}t &onnt8 of 
lElobert f^olHtcije of iSantnortte (Sfdquter 
tofjo iiei tlje - - ftage of augugt 1579.^ 

On the chancel walls are three modem monuments, with 
these inscriptions : — 


To the Memory of 


Lord of the Manoii, 

And many yean a considerable 

And respected Inhabitant 

of this Parish. 

He was a Loyal Subject 

and a Strenuous Supporter of 

the King and Constitution 

who departed this Life 

April the 27*N 1804, 

Aged 66 Years. 

* Also of 

His eldest Son, 

who died on the 7^^ of JanJ. 1844 

Aged 76 Years. 


To the Mcmor)* of 

MARY the yrifo of 


And Daughter of EDW*. HEATH 

Late of Panxworth 

who departed this Life 

Feby the 9^^ 1802 

Aged 32 Years. 

*Also of MARY the Second Wife of 


widow of Henry Hawxe and daughter 

of JoHX Allured 

Late of Flegg Burgh 

who departed this Life 

Augt the 7^*' 1833, 

Aged 63 Years. 

Mattuias Kekrison, 

His eldest Son erected this Monument 

A just tribute of affection and gratitude 

to an Indulgent Parent. 

* Anno d'ni 1679. Thomas Holdych, gent, was buryed the 12*'> of August. — 
Parish Register. 

* These inscriptions have been added since the erection of the monument. 


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To the Memory of Mary, the wife 


Great Yarmouth^ 

and daughter of M'. JN». KERRISON of Panxtcorth, 

who died 12^ August 1803, 

Aged 32 Years 

Of whom it may tnily be said Here lies the lamented and rever'd 

remains of an affectionate Mother, and 

an amiable and virtuous wife. 

Also two of their Child°, who died in their Infancy. 


SACRED to the Memory of 

SARAH, the wife of M-'. ROBERT HEATH, & Daughter of 

JOHN KERRISON Esq, late of Panxworth 

She died the 2o'»' day of May, 1810, Aged 35 Years 

Also of four of their Children who are 

Buried in the Yard. 

Thus in the prime of life died much lamented A good Wife and an affectionate 
Mother whose happiness whilst on Earth may truly be suid to have been chiefly 
centred in an excessive love for her Children and in the practice of those duties 
which will cause her loss to be deeply regretted and her Memory long rever'd. 

But few monumental brasses remain, nor are there many 
matrices, the whole church having been repaved. From a 
slab in the chancel a chalice and inscription have been 
reaved, and in the nave near the east end are matrices of 
an inscription with two shields, an inscription and shield, a 
demi-figure and inscription with evangelistic emblems at 
the angles of the slab, and at the west end, two inscriptions. 
A few of the old glazed paving tiles are left, but they are 
quite plain. In the nave the following inscriptions on brass 
may be read. 

©rate g ata lElojjeri fflhrgnjj^ q^ oitjt blt^'liie 
iecemb a° W ift^'CCCClxxx^^tiij*' cuf lit '^ii^xtiS ir^ 

* The copy of his will is yet preserved in Reg. Fuller, fo. bo (Cur. ^Vrchidiac. 
Norw.) It is dated on the day of St. Thomas the A)>08tlc» 1484, and was proved 


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©rate j aiaftj JEtofterti Bbnnc et ISeatricis * * "oxh 
gue lilt oiljt ♦ ♦ ♦ q»r aiaij ppicie? ie^ ame 

The blanks shewn are as in the original. His will is dated 
21st January, " anno dni scdiS computaranem ecctie angli- 
canc," 1521 ; proved 5th February following.^ He was then 
in extremis and directed his body to be buried in the parish 
church of Banworthe, under the marble stone of Beatrice, 
formerly his wife. It appears that his second wife's name 
was Katharine, and we should suppose, although it would 

on the 29th March, 1485. We translate the following passages :— My hody to 
he buried in the parish church of Randewurth aforesaid, to the high altar of 
which I bequeath for my defects (of ty thing) xx«. Item, I will that the light of 
blessed Mary shall be found of my goods for the space of seven years after my 
decease, in the same manner that I found it during my life. Item, I bequeath 
to the emendation of the same church five marks of my goods towiirds buying a 
pair of tunicles for the best vestment. Item, I bequeath xU. of my goods to- 
wards buying a pair of candlesticks to stand before the altar of St. Ellen, in the 
chancel of Randewurth aforesaid. Item, I will have an able and secular priest 
to celebrate for my soul, and for the souls of my friends and parents, in the 
parish church of Randewurth aforesaid, for the space of two years, if my goods 
are able to bear it. Item, I bequeath to the high altar of Panxforth, iij". iiij**. 
Item, I bequeath to the emendation of the said church, iij*. iiij*^. Item, I be- 
queath to the reparation of the bell tower of St. Laurence, of South "Walsham, 
vj". viij**. Item, I bequeath to the high altar of St. Laun-ncc, of the same place, 
ij". Item, I bequeath to the altar of blessed Mary, xij«*. Item, I bequeath to 
the reparation of the same church of blessed JIary, six bushels <if malt. Item, 
I bequeath to tlie repair of the church of St. Margaret, of Upton, six bushels of 
malt. Item, I bequeath to the reparation of the ehuixh of Fyshele, two bushels 
of malt. Item, I bequeath to the emendation of the church of St. Edmund, 
King and Martyr, of Acle, five bushels of malt. Item, I bequeath to each other 
church within the hundred of Walsham, four bushels of malt. Item, I bequeath 
to the Lord Abbot of St. Benedict, of Hulm, x*., to pray for my soul ; and I be- 
queath to each monk, being a priest, xij**. Item, I bequeath to each other 
monk, called le Novys, vj*^. Item, I bequeath to each gentleman servant in that 
house, vj«*. ; to each yeoman servant, iiij'*. ; to each groom servant there, ij**. ; 

and to each child in the same place, j<^ Item, I bequeath to each of 

the guilds of the Holy Trinity and St, Hc^cn, of Randewurth aforesaid, four 
bushels of barley. 

fi Reg^ Alblaster, fo. lo'I. 


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have involved a grammatical error, that the blank after 
Beatricis was left for her name. 

©rate j ala Eoi'ti ftgnjafe q^ oiijt iij^ Hie jRttesis 
3ulij ^^ \mi fBi^h^xx}^ cuf ale gpiciet^ ieus 

Robert Kynge's will is dated 25th April, 1519, and proved 
8th March, 1523. He directs his body to be buried in the 
churche of sainct Elyne, of Ran worth, and bequeaths to the 
high altar xij'^, and for breaking the ground yj". viij*^. ; he 
adds, ** I will haue disposid in brede when I am buried xx*. 
and ij Barels of here." 

©rate 5 aTa ^oVti iftiltoarH q^ oiijt xbiii Uie 
aiugustij ai° }ini jl^b^bij^ cuP ale gpicietS Hr^ 

This brass has been appropriated to Roger Giimey by the 
author of the Ecclesiologiat^ a Guide, and in the Norfolk Topo- 
grapher^B Manual the name is left blank. The inscription is 
nearly illegible, but we do not doubt the above to be correct. 
His will is dated August, 1507, and proved 5th October 
following, in the chapel of the Bishop's Palace. We make 
the following extracts : — 

my body to be beryed in the chirch of seynt Elyn 

of Ranworth Itm to the hey Aut in the same Chirch I 
bequeth iij* iiij*^ Itm to the lyte of owre lady in the same 
Chirch iij^^ of wax It to the lyte of seynt Elyrt ij** of wax 
It to the perk lyte ij'* of wax I? to the lyte of owre lady 
of pety j** of wax. It to the 13'te of seynt . . . (sic) and seynt 
John baptyst ij'^ of wax. It to the repacion of the seyd 
Chirch XX' It I bequeth to Iche of the iiij orderf of ffryres 
in Norwech iiijb} of whete led horn to them It I wytt haue 
an honest prj-st to prey for my sovle in the chirch of Ran- 
wortli And for ray ffryndcs sovles yat I am bound to pray 
for by the space of half a ycr and an other half yer yf yt may 
be borne Itm I beque to the hey Avtor of tlie same chirch 


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half An Acre of lond lyging by the land of the vyker on the 
West and yt buttyth vpon Minalgat toward the sovth vnder 
this eondicion yat the vyker And his svecessovrs shall sey 
placeb 1 dyryge T; mes At myii obyte day euy yer for my 
Sovle And att Cristen sovles I? I geue to Syssaly (my) 
wyff iiij acr^ '\ an half of lond, &c. 

It I wytt yat my goodf pay for the poyntyng of seynt 
ElySs tabemacul And to haue yt weit done Itm I geve to 
Iche of my god children liij bussf of barly It I bequeth 
to the raakyng of the Stepytt in Wodebastwyk iij* iiij**. 
Executors, Sissaly his wife and his " Maysteres Elzabett 
ffelmynghm." — Eegr. Grrantham, 14. Cur. Archid, Norf. 

In front of the entrance to the chancel lies a large slab, 
10 ft. 9 in. by 3 ft. 10 in., from which the inscription 
together with a shield and heart of brass have been torn, 
but three rectangular plates of metal yet remain, inscribed — 

1. ' q' relreptor tn^ uiuit 2. ue terra surrectur^ gu 
1t in nouisgimo Jie ^t in came mea 

, 3. faiUebo ^mvx 
saluatore meu 

Job, xix. 25, 26. 

These were in July, 1865, loose in the chest, and are 
palimpsests thus inscribed — 

1. * * u anjjlte'^t ffrancie 2. * * gtu it qj I seruicio rrg * * 

3. ♦ * e Dfrge Ciuis i^ortoici 

* * ris a» 5nt ift^b^x 

"^ Crrto waa on the heart. There are several varieties of heart-brasses re- 
maining in the county, and they appear to have become common about the 
middle of the fifteenth century. The bi-ass now under our notice belongs to the 
class most frequently met "w-ith, and being of a late date, c. 1540, is by no means 
a favourable example of this appropriate class of memorial. The word '* credo " 
inscribed upon the heart was meant to symbolize the deceased's lively faith in 
the Resurrection, and to represent him as saying with holy Job, ^' this my hope 
is laid up in my bosom." xix. 27. 


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1 and 2 are both portions of the same marginal inscription. 
Robert Felmingham, who died in 1506, directed that his 
body should be buried before the choir door if the vicar 
pleased, but unless this brass were not laid down until long 
after his death it cannot be his. From the situation and 
large size of the stone it evidently covered the remains of a 
person of some importance in the parish, perhaps one of the 
Holdich family. 

In the chancel on flat stones are these memorials ; — 


Here resteth y body of 


y* City of Norwich, Gen*, who 

died June y« 19, 1718, Age^ 66 y". 

Also y« body of MARY, y* 

beloved wife of y« Said W*'. 

BARNHAM, who died y' 17"' 

of Aug*S 1720, Aged 46 y". 

Above the ifiscription is this shield of two coats, a chev. 

erm. between three fleurs de lis, impaling a cross between 

four crescents.® 


Sacred | to y' Memory | of BRIDGET, the | Youngest daughter of | 
WILLIAM BARNHAM, | late of Beeston by Norwich, Gent., | who departed 
this life the 15"» day of | April in the year of our Lord | 1729, | uEtatis Suae | 


To the Memory of | John Kerrison, Esq., | Youngest Son of | John Kerrison, 
Esq., I Late of Panxworth, | Died October 31«t, 1845, | Aged 68 Years. | 
Elizabeth Kerrison, | His Wife, died July 16^*', 1847, | Aged 66 Years. | Mathias 
Kerrison, | His son, died September 6^\ 1824, | Aged 19 years. | Eleanora 
Kerrison, | His daughter, died JanJ 30^\ 1827, | aged 9 Years. | Edward 
Kerrison, | His second Son, Drowned at Sea | December 10^^^ 1833, Aged 30. 

* A mistake has somehow been made here, for the husband's coat is on the 
sinister side of the shield. The dexter coat is probably Flowerdew, William 
Bamham having married for his fourth wife Mary, daughter of William 
Flowerdew, of Norwich, Merchant. 


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Beneath this Stone are 

deposited the Remains of all the Children 

of Matthias Kerrison and 

Mary Kerrison his first wife. 

Charles Kurrison died . 9 May, 1793, 

Robert Kerrison ... 15 April, 1795 I All died 

John Kerrison . .28 March, 1798 ; in their 

Jane Kerrison 1799 \ Infancy. 

Sarah Kerrison . . .17 Sep^', 1801 ^ 

Mary Kerrison ... 9 Feby, 1813, Aged 24 Years. 

Roger Kerrison . .14 FebT, 1822, Aged 31 Years. 

Phoel)eSaiil . 16 Aug*, 1828, Aged 28 Years. 

Elizabeth Ileath . .28 Dec', 1832, Aged 35 Years. 

Also by Mary Kerrison his second Wife. 

Ann Kerrison . died 6 Jan?, 1810, an Infant. 

Matthias Kerrison 6 May, 1813, an Infant. 

Jane Kerrison . . .18 Dec*^, 1835, Aged 27 Years. 

Kerrison Kerrison . 26 June. 1837, Aged 27 Yean. 

Maria Kerrison, Daughter of 

Roger and Anna Maria Kerrison, 

Died 26 June, 1834, Aged 13 Years. 

From the wills of former inhabitants we learn that there 
once existed in tlie parish three Guilds, viz., of St. Helen, the 
Holy Trinity, and St. John the Baptist. Of the latter but 
two notiees occur, i.e., in 1456,'^ and 1478,^^ and bequests are 
more frequent to St. Helen's Guild than to that of the Holy 
Trinity. These bequests were sometimes of money, occa- 
sionally of wax, but more frequently- of grain. ^ 

Whether these Guilds were of sufficient substance to 
maintain a chaplain, or an altar in the parish church does not 
appear, but we learn that there was in 1479, in addition to 

9 Brosyard, fo. 25. 

»o Gelour, 191. 

^ Itm to the gilde of Seynt Helen y' xij''. — 7/7// of John Ryaynge^ 1523, 
Hands, 171. Item I bcqueth to the gilde of Seynt Helen a pownde of wax. — 
Will of Robert Tovt/, 1505. Gloys, 69. Itm lego gilde ste Trinitatf & See Ueleno 
de Kandeworthc p'dca cuilibt gilde iiij bj ordij.— 7/7// of Roger Irifn^y 1484. 
Fuller, 55. 


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the high altar,^ one dedicated to St. Mary.^ This was pro- 
bably in the nave on the south side of the chancel arch. Of 
images and lights burning before images, we have nunjerous 
notices, and first of the patron saint of the church, St. Ilelen. 
In 1479, Robert Iryng directed that her image should be 
painted anew at his cost.^ The bequest to the painting of 
her tabernacle in 1507 has been already noticed at p. 192 ; 
and in 1523 John Rysynge bequeathed "to Seynt Helen, 
in the chirche of Ranworthe on heyve w* bene." ^ 

Legacies to the light of the B. V. Mary are more numerous 
than to any other, and the will of Margaret Bloker, dated 
1483, directs that a tabernacle of Blessed Mary be made, also 
an image of St. Anne, and a pound of wax is given to the 
light of Blessed Mary and St. Anne her mother.* In 1507, 
the lights *' of owre lady " and " of owre lady of pety "^ are 
mentioned ; in 1478, the light of St. Erasmus ; ® in 1505, 

that of St. Nicholas ; ^ and in 1507, " the lyte of seynt 

and seynt John the Baptist." "^ 

To the light of the Holy Cross,io light before the Roodc,*^ 
perk light,^* or light of the Crosse on the perke,*' as it is 
variously termed, there are several bequests, and as late as 
1535, James Kinge bequeathed " to the perke of the seid 
cliurche of Raneworthe, so many candlestickf as may be 
bought w* a marce." * 

John Cobbe, in 1451, willed that if his goods would bear 
it, his executors should make anew a painted cloth to serve 
at the high altar,^ and Robert Iryng, in 1479, bequeathed ten 

* The altar of St. Ellen in the chancel mentioned in the following extract was 
probably identical with the high altar. ** Itm legu xl" de bonis mcis ad vnu* par 
candelabr' emend* stant* an* Altar' sec* Elene in cancell' de Kandcwurth p*dca.** 
— Tflil of noger Injng^ 1484. Fuller, fo. 56. 

3 Itm volo (^ quid pann* pendent' cora* altar* see marie in eadm' ecelia' erit 
pictat' de bonis meis p*prijs. — Will of Robert Iri/ttg, 1479. Awbrye, 13. 
* Awbrye, 13. « Randes, 171. « Caston, 287. 

7 Grantham, 14. » Gelour, 186. » Rixe, 330. i» Awbrje, 186. 
" Randcs, 70. « Grantham, 14. i:» Gloys, 69. » Bakon, 340 - Aleyn, 100. 


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marcs to buy a new vestment.' John Heylesdon Senior, in 
1470, bequeathed ten marcs, which John Heylesdon Jun. 
owed hira, to buy a new Ijegend,* and in 1478 William 
Cobbe bequeathed an Antiphoner, of the price of twelve 
marcs.^ James Kinge, husbandman, gave by his will in 1636, 
13". 4**., **for a banner for the said churche."* 

From the preceding notes and what we now see of the 
furniture of the church, there is every reason to suppose 
that its interior presented no ordinary degree of splendour, 
but a i)eriod of spoliation and neglect, of indifference and decay, 
succeeded. The inventory of the church goods, taken in 1652, 
shews how low they were reduced at that period. 

It is dated the last day of August, 6 Edward VI., and 
witnesseth that there remained in the custody of certain 
inhabitants the goods mider-written. 

In pmis j Chalis w'** a paten gilte cont in ^ .....^ ..^ 

weight xij owncf et di at iiij*. iiij*^. the on*; * 

Itm a paxxe of wode w* a crucyfixe of silv ) 

and gylt pc . . . . . / 

Itm iij Bells cont in weight by estymacon . 

xxxiij^^ C the first ix<^ y*' ij'*'' xj^ & y° iij^* ; xxiiij". xv*- 

xiij'^ at XV" the C ^ 

Itm iij bell clapps cont in weight by esty- j .^ ..^^ 

macon Ixxix'^ ) 

Itm ij longe candellstycks of laten cont in) ^ ...^ 

weight Ixviij" i • J • 

Itm a vesteme* of purpulle cloothe of Tussue 

poe . 

Itm a coope of Redde vellett w^ ij Tunacles) ....^^ 

braunched w*- golde pee . . . . i J • J • 

Itm a coope of whyte damaske pee . . xx*. 
Itm ij Tunacles of whyte sylke pee . . v*. 
Itm a crosse cloothe of sylke . . . iiij**. 

3 Awbrye, 13. * Jekkys, 254. * Gclour, 191. 

« Bakon, 340. 


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Itm a Crosse of Copp and gylt . . . vj**. 

Itm a Coope and a vestem^ of blakke woorsted pee . x*. 

"Whereof assigned, &c. In Wyttnes, &c. 

Itm ij spetys callyd guyld spetys valuyd at ij". viij*^. 

In the margin is this memorandum — 

" M^ that ther is cont in the olde inventoryes ij Challyef 
and the inha*untf hath not certefyed in this inventory 
but one." 

Margaret Holditche of Ranworth, Widow of Robert 
Holditche, Esq., by her will dated 13th June, 1559, be- 
queathed to the parish church, "A Coape w^ great Castellf 
of goold."— Original Wills, 1559. 

By means of the Archdeacons' Visitation Books we trace, 
step by step, the decay of the fabric which followed ; and 
we believe that a similar series of extracts has not yet 
appeared in type. 

1587. Ranworth. 

The Chauncell is to be paued in divers places thereof. 

Cita' Magr Jofsis Holdiche. 

1590. The leade of the church is in decaie. 

The churchyard walles are decaied. 

iThe glasse windowes of the chauncell are 
not glased. 
The chauncell to be whited. 
The chauncell to be paued. 
The place wheare the high altar stoode to be paued. 

1597. It rayneth downe and rotteth the bawkes of the 
plancher of the porch there. 

The glasse of the steple windowes decaied and broken so 
that the foules and vermyn come into the church and defile 
the same verie vncomelie and noysomely. 

The Church not sufficiently couered, for it raineth into the 
said church, and haue washed the wrighting on the walles. 
The sayd church to be comelie whited. 

1598. The Stockes stand in the south church porch. 


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The seats of the said porch are broken, both porches wanteth 

1604. The paucment of the chansell is decayed. The 
church yard ffence wanteth repacons. 

1609. The window of the steple is decayed for want 
of glasinge. 

1614. The Chauncell want whiteing, the steeple wyndowes 
want Glazeinge. 

Their churchyard walles want reparation. 

1616. Fenestre ecclie ibm franguntur negligentia et in- 
curia gard. 

1619. The tymber in the roofe of the church decaied. 
Presentant that the Barfree of the church roof is greatlie 

decaied, and the tenure therof rotted awaie, and it doth 
hang dangerouslie for falling T; hurting of men. 

1620. The south portch is decayed for want of thatching. 

1621. The church there is decaied in the roofe so y' it 
rayneth into the same in many places, cert'^ rep^. 

The pauement of the chauncell there is decaied. 

The Chauncell there want whiting, ^sentant that the 
church porch is decaied in roofe & thatche thereof, so yt it 
doth raine into the same very much. 

1622. The Chancel is decaied in the pauement, culpa 
Willmi Lewes firmarl, fructuu ibm. 

1630. The doves come into the church there and defile 
the same, to the annoyance of the prisTiners there. 

The book of Erasmus paraphrases is rent and tome, the 
same to be now bounde. 

The beere to carry the dead to buriall is decaied and not 

1631. The Churchyard walles are decaied. 
The beere, &c. 

1632. The north dore of the ChanceU decaied. 
The said ChanceU to be comely whited. 

There is a hole in the chauncell roofe on the north side. 


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1633. The leades of the North side of the churche are 
blowne vpp w^** the wynd. 

1634. The chauncell windowes want mending, with ye 
glasing thcrof, culpa Tho. Jclyons, firmarl . 

Ranworth. Mr. Benj. Young, vicar, non co. 

Nicholas Tofts ) ^ , t i 

L . -n n T ) gard. 1*» July, 
Antony Keynolds^ ) 

1686 vis. fuit dee Ecclia et compt ambo gard. et monit. ut 


to raile in the Comunion table. 
• to pane or planchei the Seats in the Church. 

to repaire the church yard wall T fence. 

to paue the South portch of the Church and to certifie 
under the Ministers hand at the next ge8 Court. 

the ffeete of y** sparrs of the Chancell decaied. 

the Chancell doore defective 

T wants paueing T; glaseing 

% whiteing : it belongs to old M'. Houghton. 

1697. The Chancell want glazeing 1 paveing The Church 
leads on the North side are defective, both the portches want 
thatching, T; the North porch want planchering. The Church 
bible want mending, and the Church want paveing, the 
Church yard wall want repairing. 

1709. To place a rail before the Com. table ; a Butres 
on the S". and another on the N°. side of the church want 
reping ; the Reg*" book impfect, nothing being entered since 

1719. Part of the Ch. w*^ whiteing, a decent Rayl before 
the Com. table w4ng.® To new paint the k'* arms and 10 
Com** , to paue the seates, be^ like a stye or stable only strewn 

^ On the inside of the cover is this memorandum : — " To send a letter to 
Anthony Reynolds, of Ranworth, ahout hreaking into the Church to fright him 
on bchalfe of Mr. Youngs to whomo he owe tythes." 

' The Inventory exhibited in 1729 mentions "Rails about the Communion 


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on w^'* straw, the paveni' of the church very much sunk, to 

be raised. 

1787. In the General book beginning with this year we 

Three windows on South side and three on North side to be 

unstopp'd and glazed. Buttress on north side next porch 

and muntons of windows to be repaired. Thatch of North 

porch bad. Pins for Ilatts to be removed. 

Ranworth Chancel. A very bad window put in at- east 

end. The two windows nearest the church to be repaired 


5 Apl. 1790. Repairs to be certified at the next £ast<?r 

Court, by order of the Archdeacon. 

Jno. MoRPiiEw, Depy. Reg'^. 

The two Windows nearest the Church are effectually re- 
paired and it is hop'd no further objection will be made to the 
East Window, it being in good Repair, and the' somewhat 
reduc'd has remain'd so for eight years without any complaint 
till the year 1788, when I wrote to M'. Archdeacon Young 
concerning it, and I beg that Letter may be referred to 

1 May, 1790. Tho. Blake. 

The Vicarage. 

To the early history of the living, aa given in BlomefiMy 
vol. xi. pp. 114, 115, we have nothing to add. Of the fol- 
lowing list of the vicars, Bloraefield gives only the first half 
dozen names or so. . 

William de Westwyk exchanged this vicarage for the 
rectory of Rakheyth Parva on 24 March, 1342, with John de 
Fulford, who had only held Rackheath from 1340. — Lib, Inst. 
iii., fo. 69.9 

' Vicesimo quarto die Marcij anno domini Milleaimo ccc™« xlij'*°, apud 
Thornegg, domnus Willelmus de Westwyk, presbiter, institutus fuit canonice 
per dictum dominum Nor^deensem Episcopum in ecclesia parochial! Sancte 
Trinitatis de Rakheytli porva, per liberam resignationem domni Johannis de 
Fulford vltimi Rectoris eiusdem ex causa permutationis per eundem domnum. 


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8 July, 1349. Roger de Fakenham, on tlie presentation of 
the Abbot and Convent of Langley. — Lib. iv., fo. 92. 

1 August, 1349. John Cobbe, collated by the Bishop, the 
Abbot and Convent of Langley refusing to present according 
to the Bishop's nomination. — Lib, iv., fo. 100. 

23 Sept'. 1391. Roger Asketil, presented by the Abbot 
on the nomination of the Bishop. — Lib, vi., fo. 160. 

Bartholomew, son of John ffullere, of Acle, exchanged for 
the vicarage of Neatished, on 26 July, 1415, with William 
Laceby, who was collated by the Bishop. — Lib, vii., fo. 92. 

6 August, 1430. John Cade, collated by the Bishop. — 
Lib. ix., fo. 41. 

16 December, 1449. Thomas Rodeland,^ do.—- Xt6. xi., 
fo. 23. 

There is a gap here which we cannot fill up. Brother 
Ralph Heylesdon and Sir John Brother, Chaplain, are men- 
tioned in wills about 1480, and one of them may have been 
the vicar. 

Johannem de dicta ecclesia cum prefato Willelmo de yxcaria eccleaue parochi- 
alis de Bandeaworth cujus perpetuus vicarius extiterat ccrtis et legitixnifl ez causia 
per dictum patrem ozaminatiB discusslB et appxx>batiB rite et legitime fiicte yacan- 
tem ad presentationem domini Radulphi de Astelee militis \en eiusdem ecclesie 
patroni. £t juravit obedientiam canonicam ot de soluendo primos fructus £pis- 
copis Norwicensibus debitos. 

Eifldem die mense anno domini -et loco dominuB Antonius Episcopua Nor- 
wicensia, contulit vicariam ecclesie parochialis de Randeworthe, per liberam 
resignationem domni Willelmi de Westwyk predicti ez causa permutationis 
prefate facte vacantem, et ad collationem suam pleno jure spectantem cum 
omnibus juribus et pcrtinencijs suis TniyersiB, dioto domno Johanni de Fulford, 
presbytero, intuitu charitatis et recepto ab eodem joramento, ut est moris, de 
nwidendo in eadem juzta formam Constitutionum in hac parte editarum ipsum 
vicarium perpetuum instituit canonice in eadem juravit edam obedientiam 
canonicam et pro primis fructibus, &c, 

* It lego vnu' trentale vicario dee ec'cie de Ranwortb tz dni' Tbome Rodelond, 
— JTillof John Oobbe, of LytylioeU in Ranworth, 1461. Reg*. Aleyn, fo. 100. 
Itm lego Thome Rutlond vicario p*petuo ecclie p'och de Randeworth p'dca yna 
Gcrtitudine' Integra' ad celebrand p* Aia mea. — Will of Robert Ott/r, of Ranworth. 
1458. Reg\ Brosyard, fo. 134. 

[vol. VII.] P 


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Thomas Sheifeld is the next vicar we have found men- 
tioned ; by his will, dated 20 Sept., 1 Hen. VIIL, he directs 
to be buried in the chancel. — Rc<f. Spiltimbre, fo. 205. 

William Larke. On the 30 Nov., 1512, the Bishop re- 
mitted Sir W". Larke, late Vicar of Ranworth with Pauns- 
ford, the first fruits, because he had not remained Vicar there 
for a year, and had not received anything. — Lib, xiv., fo. 108. 

William Sekker, in 1522, was a witness to the will of 
Roger Harman, of Randworth. — Iteg', Harman, fo. 1. 

John Bland, Canon, 21 June, 1526, on the resignation of 
W". Sekkar, nominated by the Bishop, and presented by the 
Abbot and Convent of Langley. — Lib. xvi., fo. 95. 

John Dychyngham, Premonstratensian Canon, 16 July, 
1528, collated by the Bishop on the death of Sir John Bland, 
the last Vicar.— i*. xiv., fo. 222. 

William Moore, 13 Oct., 1528. On the same day he had 
been instituted to the parish church of Panxforde, and on 
account of its poverty and nearness to Randworth the two 
livings were united. — Lib. xiv., fo. 225. 

Richard Mablye, 14 Dec, 1551. On the resignation of 
Sir W™. Moore, presented by King Edward VI. — Lib. xviii., 
fo. 22. He is mentioned as " Curate " in John Tenny's will, 
dated 1555. — Eeg^. Barnham. 

" f John Taylor, pyshe ^st," is mentioned in the will of 
Anne Theny, of Randworth, dated 14 Feb., 1558. — Reg'. 
Hitchcock, fo. 343. 

Thomas Wrighte, 7 April, 1582. On the death of Sir John 
Taylor, clerk, last incumbent. — Lib, xx., fo. 76. He was 
ordained priest by the Bishop of Peterborough, 24 Sept., 
1571. — Liber Consignationum, 1604. He was instituted to 
Panxworth on the 9th April, 1582.^ 

2 Ranworth cu' ) Con. Thoma' Wright, vie*, he dothe not vsuallie saye service 

Panxworth. jvppon wednesdaies and fridaies, he catechiseth but verie 

Beldome, and he doth goe to Norw<^' markett w*^ his Come and 

there sell the some opcnlie, and gocthc w^^ a cart and fetch 


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Matthew Nowell, A.B., 2 Fohruary, 1627, on the death of 
Thomas Wright, collated by the Bishop. — Lib, xxii., fo. 28. 
Ho was ordained priest by the Bishop of Norwich, 2l8t 
December, 1617. — Lib. Consig, 1636. It also appears from 
the same book that he was then A.M. The parish register 
records his burial on the 10th May, 1641. 

John Waterson. 

Francis Morley, A.M., 26 July, 1661, on the cession of 
John Waterson, clerk, last incumbent, presented by the 
Bishop of YXy.—Lib, xxv. fo. 14 and 20.^ 

16 May, 1682, Benjamin Young, elk., A.M., on the 
resingation of Francis Morley. On the same day Ban- 
worth was united to Wood Bastwick, which Mr. Young had 
held since 1679. — Liber xxvi. fo. 79. In the Consignation 
Book for 1686, he is described as Curate, and he is stated 
to hold this vicarage by sequestration ; he was ordained 
priest by Anthony, Bishop of Norwich, in 1679. 

Henry Nelson, A.M., 30 Nov., 1698, to Eandworth and 
Upton. He signed the Terrier in 1723. — Lib, xxviii., 
fo. 157. 

William Mackay, Vicar in 1725, as appears from the 
Terrier of that year. 

George Kenrick, 24 Nov., 1752, by the death of William 
Mackay. At the same time the said vicarage was united to 

hia tythe himselfo and dryye the carte himsclfc, and load the 
same himselfe. Comp^ et submisit sc, &c., et dns eu dimisit 
sub monitionc &c. — Lib. Visitat. Epi, Norw. 1593. 
Ranworth. Con. mm' Writt. Clicu. They have not monethly sermons. lie 
appeared and was admonished "to prouide two sermons every 
quart' of a year, et sic dimiss* est." Ho doeth not weare a tippet 
— dimisit pro oo quod nullu suscepit gradu in Acadeniia. — Lib, 
Visitat. 1606. 
3 From this date all the vicars have been presented by the Bishops of Ely. 
The appropriate rectory and the patronage of the vicarage were probably 
obtained from the Crown by the See of Ely in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, 
cither upon the exchange in Bishop Cox's episcopate in the 4th Eliz., or upon 
that in 1600, in Bishop Ileton's time.— See Benthain's Ely, vol. i. pp. 19, 46. 

p 2 


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the vicarage of Horning during his incumbency. — Lib, xxx., 
fo. 160. He was the author of "The Religious Man's Com- 
panion," set forth in two sermons preached in the parish 
church of Horning.^ 

John Gogill, on Aug. 5, 1762, the livings of Band worth 
and Brundall were united, and he was instituted to the 
former, vacant by the death of George Kenwrich. — Lib. xxxi., 
fo. 5. 

Charles Gogill, 26 February, 1771, on the resignation of 
John Gogill. — Lib. xxxi., fo.-63. 

On the resignation of John Dennison, Vicar of Upton, the 
vicarages of Randworth and Upton were consolidated on the 
26 February, 1790. The instrument of Consolidation is of 
some length, but the substance will be found in the following 
extracts : — 

"Wheheas it hath heen represented unto Us by the Petition of the Honourable 
and right Heverend ffather in God James by divine Permission Ix)rd Bishop of 
Ely true and undoubted Patron by virtue of his said Bishoprick of Ely of the 
Vicarage and Parish Church of Haoworth, and the Vicarage and Pariah Church 
of Upton respectively in the County of Norfolk and our Diocese of Xorwich, 
and of the Beverend Charles Gogill Clerk Vicar of the Vicarage and Pariah 
Church of Ranworth aforesaid That the said Vicarage and Parish Chureh of 
Upton is now Vacant by the resignation of the Reverend John Dennison Clerk, 
the last Incumbent thereof That the bounds of the said parishes of Ranworth 
and Upton are distant ft'om each other one Mile and a Quarter or thereabouts, 
and the Churches one Mile and an half or thereabouts That the said Parishes 
are small and have but few Inhabitants That the said Vicarage of Ranworth 
is vdued in the King's Books at four pounds discharged of first ffiniits and 
Tenths, and of the extended Yearly Value of Eighty pounds or thereabouts That 
the said Vicarage of Upton is valued in the King's Books at five Pounds 
discharged of first firuits and Tenths, and is of the extended yearly Value of ffifty 
Pounds or thereabouts That the Revenues of the said two Vicarages will make 
together but a Moderate Provision to encourage and enable a Minister to reside 
and cxerciso hospitality there, and that a PeTX>etual Union and Consolidation of 
the said two Vicarages will be beneficial to the succeeding Incumbents thereof 
and no way detrimental to the Parishioners and Inhabitants of either parish as 
it will encourage and enable worthy Men in time coming to undertake the 
Cure and to reside and exercise Hospitality among them Wheubfore the said 

* Norfolk Tour, p. 1288. Stacy, Norwich, 1829. 


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petitioners pi-ayed that we would be pleased by virtue of our Office Ordinary and 
Episcopal to unite incorporate and Consolidate the said Vicarage of Upton to 
and with the said Vicarage of Ranworth and to decree and declare that the 
same may for ever after remain and continue as one Benefice and be held 
and enjoyed by the said Charles Gogill and his Successors and be presented 
to upon all future vacancies as one Benefice by the name of the Vicarage and 
parish Church of Banworth with Upton annexed or in such other manner as 
to Us should seem meet. 

it then goes on to recite that, on the receipt of the said petition, the Bishop 
issued forth a commission, dated Ist Feb., 1790, to divers persons to enquire into 
the truth of the several fisicts set forth, and that three of the said commissioners 
had testified to the truth thereof. It further recites that the churchwaidena 
and inhabitants of Ranworth and Upton had been cited to appear before the 
Official Principal of the Consistorial Court, to shew cause why the said Vicarages 
should not be united, and that none of them appearing they were pronounced 
contumacious, and the said Vicarages were decreed to be united. Thitrefore the 
Bishop, weighing the premises, ratified all that had been done by his Official^ 
and united, annexed, and incorporated the said Vicarages, so that they might be 
held and enjoyed " and on all future vacancies thereof presented to as one 
Benefice by the name and description of the Vicarage and Parish Church of 
Ranworth with Upton annexed.*' — Lib. Fae. vi., 190. 

Francis Edward Say, M.A., 13 Dec., 1793, to the Vicarage 
of the parish church of Randworth, with the Vicarage and 
parish church of Upton annexed, vacant by the death of 
John Gogill. — Lib, xxxii., fo. 5. 

John Oldershaw, B.D., 2 March, 1795, lab, xxxii., fo. 14. 
Vicar of Ludham, Rector of Redenhall, and Archdeacon of 

John William Greaves, 20 ApL, 1843. Lib. xxxiiii., fo.'lO. 

There are twenty-six terriers preserved belonging to this 
parish. The earliest of these we print : it is undated, but as 
it mentions lands of Sir Edward Blenerhassett, Knt., who 
died in 1618,^ it might be supposed to have been made before 
that date. Matthew Nowell, who signs it as Vicar, was not 
however instituted until 1627. The other terriers are of the 
following dates, 1677, 1706, '09, '16, '23, '25, '29, '35, '40, 
'47, '63, '60, '63, '70, '77, '84, '91, '94, 1801, '06, '13, '20, 
'27, '34, and '45. 

* Blomefield, vol. iv., p. 370. 


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A True Terrier of such howscs & other Edifises together 
with all the Laiides belonginge to the Vicaradge of Ranworth 
w*^^ are in sume twelue Acres. 

Imprimis the Vicaridge howse Contajmeth one par- 
lor, one little Buttery one lower chamber one upper 
chamber & one kitchen. 

2 a. Item one Barne w'** a Stable therunto adioyninge 

an oarchyard w^^ a close at the East end of the Oarch- 
yard and contaynith by Estimation two acres. 

1 a. Item one Acre of land Arable lyinge betwixt the 

lord of Ranworth west & Robert Benslin east & 
abutteth upon Whiteway South & William Cobb 

1 rood Item one Roodc of land Arable betwixt Samson 
Mitchell West T: Willm Deame east, & Abutt upon 
Whiteway North, & on the Priory South. 

7 rood Item Scauen Roodf of land Arabic betwixt the lord 
of Ranworth west & William Cobb east, & abutteth 
upon Cromesgap North, & whytecrosse South. 

3 rood Item three Roodf of land Arable at Blackpitt be- 

twixt William Cobb cast T; west, T; abutteth upon the 
packway North T; William Cobb South. 
I rood Item one Rood in Godwins craft, betwixt the lo : of 
Ranworth west, & Ed : BleShassott knight east & 
abuttetli on Smalgate meare South & Ed : BleShassett 
K^ North. 

1 rood Item one Roode in the same craft betwixt Edward 

BleShassett K^ west T; the Lord of Ranworth east. 
3 rood Item three Roodf of land Arable in Lindome feild, 
betwixt the landf of Edw : Goodwins east & west, & 
abutteth on the sayd Edw : North & south. 

2 rood Item halfe an acre of land Arable in the same feild 

betwixt the Lo : of Ranworth west & William Deame 
East, & abutteth on Lindome heath North. 

3 roodf Item three Roodf of land Arable betwixt Samson 


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Mitchellf , North & South & abutteth on the Lord of 
Ranworth west & Otters yard east. 

2 acres Item two Acres of land Arable, betwixt Samson 

Mitchells west & Robert Benslin east, & abutteth on 
the Lord of Ranworth north & Samson Mitchell^ south. 

3 roode Item three Roodf of land Arable, betwixt Thomas 

nobert k* north, & Ed : BleShassett k* South & abut- 
teth on the comon caled Stackhuluer west. 

3 roode Item three Roodf of Marish grownd betwixt francis 
Dauke widow east 1 Richard Teeny west, & abutteth 
on old eye North. 

1 rood Item one Roode of Marish, betwixt the Lord of 
Ranworth west, and Edward blefihassett k* east & 
abutteth on old eye North and the bottoms South. 

Per me Matheum Nowell Vicariu ibidem. 
John Smith \ 

& \ gardians. 

Tho: Gillye ) 

The terrier of 1716 gives many particulars not to be found 
in the earlier ones. 

" Itm there has been formerly paid (as is Credibly Reported) 

by the Rectors of Panseworth to the Vicars of Ranworth 

the simi of fewer poimds p annum as a Pension due from 

the s** Recto'^" of Panseworth to the Vicars of Ranworth 

vpon account of the Jnhabitants of Panseworth Coming to 

Ranworth Church. The Customes are as followeth. Inp^'mis 

one penny half-penny for Cow and Calf Instead of Milk. 

And always half a penny p'^ for harth Silver.^ And allsoe 

Twopence p^ for Portes. And three pence for euery foale. 

Wool and Lamb in kind. Hay in kind. Turnips in kind. 

Hops in kind.'* 

• The following extract explains the meaning of harth silver : " Item for our 
woode which is felled in town it is tytheahle, but if it be sold to be burnt in the 
town, there is no tythe due, for our harth silyer doe acquit it." — Sheltm 
Customs, c. 1678. 


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A Terrier of the town houses, lands, &c., is also given. 

That of 1723 says, " All the Tythes within the parish of 
Ranworth, except Com, belong to the vicarage of Banworth. 
ffor Pasture Ground five pence p Acre, ffor Marsh Ground 
three pence p Acre, and if they mow it, the Tythe in kind." 

It appears that in 1729 " the Vicarage houae. Bam, and 
Stable " were " dilapidated and fallen down." ^ 

In 1788 the Governors of Queen Ann's Bounty purchased, 
with £400 ® appropriated by them for the perpetual augmen- 
tation of the Vicarage, of William Taylor, Esq., of Yarmouth, 
a marsh, in the parish of Tunstall, which with the Rand 
adjoining contains about 19 acres, and abuts on the river Bure 

The old glebe lands were "exchanged by Act of Parliament, 
The Award Dated Sep' 21*^*, 1798," for 

" V^ one piece of Land, including Ranworth 
Church Yard and adjoining the same, bounded by 
Land of John Patteson, Esq', and John Kerrison 
South and East, by the Road leading from Ran- 
worth Wet or Low Common to the Church of Ran- 
worth South, and by the Road leading from the 
Church to the Stone House Farm West, cent? 8 3 20 

"2^. One other piece of Land, laying about 60 
yards South West of the Church Yard at Ranworth, 
abuttff on the High way Leading from the Church 
to Stock Hulver North and West, and on Land 
of Mary Sibel East, upon Land of John Kerrison 
South, cont^f , 2 3 

Acres 11 2 20" 

These pieces of land are stated in the Tithe Commutation 
Survey to contain" reBpectrvely 7a. Ir. lip. and 2a. 3r. 8p. 

' In the Archdeacon's Viaitation Book for 1710 we find " a chamber in ti^e 
Yicaradge house want planchering, and the bam out of repair^/' 
8 See also Norfolk Tour, p. 1364, 


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Total 10a. Or. 19p. There were in 1845 no buildings, but 
the present incumbent in the autumn of that year erected 
the vicarage house. 

The following is a transcript of the earliest Inventory we 
have met with after that of 6th Edw. VI. 

An Inventory of the Goods, Books & omamentf belonging 
to the parish Church of Ranworth in the County of Norff. 
Sept. 23^. 1706. 

Impr. one pewter fflagon. 

It. one Silver Cup and plate and a pewter plate for the 
Communion. One purple Carpet one Table cloth and Napkin 
for y® comunion Table, one large Surplice, one Hood, one 
large Bible, One Common prayer Book, Two Cushions for 
the Pulpit and Desk flFont and Cover standing in y* antient 
place ffive Bells hanging in the Steeple, one Chest with three 
Locks, Ten Comandmtf Queens Arms, Degrees of Marriage, 
Book of Homilies and Book of Cannons, 

One Bier. 

Henry Nelson Vic. 

The mark of 
Phil X Johnson, Churchward. 

From the Inventory of 1845 we learn that the com- 
munion plate consists of "A small silver cup with inscription 
+ . THE . TOWNE • OF • RANWORTH • 1567 Small 
silver plate without inscription •!• Pewter plate, inscription 
I. H. S." 

The register is like most others, a transcript on parchment, 
made about 1597. It commences — 

A Regester of Ranworth T Panxforth of Christening^, 
Mariagis, and Buriallf, beginning at the feast of St. John 
A baptist, Anno diii 1559** vt ptx. 

Anno dni 1559. Inprimis John ffene was christened the 
2 daye of July. 


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The first entry of a marriage is — 

Anno dni 1559. Inprimis Peter Tovye T; Agnis fydell 
were maryed 13^** of July. 

Of a burial — 

Anno dni 1559. Inprimis M*^ Robert Holdych esquire, 
was buryed 21° Deccber, An? x\ 1558**. 

On the fly leaves are these memoranda — 

@ that Eobart Ilalocke thelder did make his open ^ 
publique submission 1; dcclaracion of his conformitie to his 
Ma'*®* Lawes T; statutes the 9^ of October, 1614, in the open 
Church of Ranworth as he was inioyned by Mr. Cliaunceler. 

This Book was new botmd by John Garwood Churchwarden 
Anno 1729. Soli Deo Gloria In Sa}cula Steculorum. 

Our Life's a Shadow, God's the Pole, 

The Index pointing, is our Soul 

Death is the Horizon where our Sun must set 

Which will thro' Christ A Resurrection get. 

Transivere Patres Simul hinc Transiviraus omncs In Caelo 
Patriam Qui bene transit habet. 

W°* Mackay 

Vicar of Ranworth. 

There is the usual blank in the register from about 1643 
to 16G1, and there are scarcely any entries possessing more 
than genealogical interest. 

We cannot conclude these cursory notices without express- 
ing our obligations to John Kitson, Esq., Secretary and 
Registrar to the Hon. and Right Rev. tlie Lord Bishop of 
Norwich ; Edward Steward, Esq., Registrar to the Venerable 
the Archdeacon of Norwicli ; and to the Rev. J. W. Greaves, 
Vicar of Randworth, for having allowed us to consult the 
various documents to which we have had occasion to refer. 

P.S. — Since the preceding pages have been printed off, we 
find that we have omitted at page 183 the following note. 


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It IS evident that the artist, in depicting the eons of St. 
Mary of Cleophas, intended to represent St. Simon Zelotes the 
Apostle, as we have stated, and not St. Simeon, or Simon, 
Bishop and Martyr. We have therefore described this group 
as " St. Mary of Cleophas with her foiir sons,'^ although, 
according to the best modem authorities, Simon, who was 
brother of James and Joseph and Jude, was not Simon 
Zelotes the Apostle, but Simon the Bishop of Jerusalem, 
who succeeded his brother St. James. This error of the 
artist was not the result of inadvertence, but was the received 
opinion of the age in which he lived, for on the screen at 
Houghton in the Dale, where, as we learn from Dr. Husen- 
bcth's Emblems of Saints, the same group appears, precisely 
the same mistake is made. And Peter de Natalibus, whose 
Catalog us Sanctorum was printed in the early part of the 
sixteenth century, says of SS. Simon and Jude, " Simon 
chananeus : T judas sine tadeus apti fratres germani fuerunt 
iacobi minoris T; Joseph iusti : filij marie cleophe q alpheo 
nupta fuit." Later writers also repeat the same error, but 
it is puzzling to find them, as well as Peter de Natalibus, 
agree in making St. Simon, Bishop of Jerusalem, brother 
of Joseph the Just. Those who may wish to investigate this 
somewhat perplexing subject, may consult Alphonso Villega's 
Lives of the Saints, as set forth by John Heigham, 1630 ; 
-fVlban Butler's Lives of the Fathers, 1757; Betham's Ge- 
nealogical Tables, 1795, tab. xxii. ; Brady's Clavis Calendaria, 
1815 ; Mrs. Jameson's Sacred and Legendary Art ; her Legends 
of the Madonna; and The History of Our Lord, by Mrs. 
Jameson and Lady Easllako. 


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C^e ^eal oi i\it geancru ai Umdts. 



The duties of a rural dean may be seen at considerable 
length in the Horce Decanicm Ruraies, an exhaustive treatise 
by the Rev. W. C. Dansey, and it is not necessary on the 
present occasion to refer to them farther than to observe, that 
in the exercise of their jurisdiction in the probate of wills, 
the granting of letters of administration, &c., an official seal 
was necessary. We are acquainted with but few Norfolk 
Deanery Seals, Blomefield only engraves that of Norwich 
and describes that of Fincham, but the matrices of two 
others are known to be still in existence. This of Breccles 
Deanery, of which, by the kindness of Mr. Alfred Barnard, 
we are enabled to give an etching, is of brass, and has a 
ridge at the back with a hole for the suspending chain. 
It is a pointed oval, and the device is a rudely executed 
male head' with a wreath or torsel twisted round it, and 
a long and pointed beard. The legend, between two beaded 
lines, is in black letter, StfltUum liecauat Ue fttfCClg?* 

It has been in the possession of my family more than fifty 
years, and was found, I believe, in the neighbourhood of 
SwaffTiam, The date of the seal is probably the early part 
of the fifteenth century, the black letter determines that it 
cannot be much earlier. There is also a similarity in the 
lettering of the legend on this seal and that of the Common 
Seal of the city of Norwich, the date of which is well known 
to be 1403. 

1 Mr. Dansey supposes it to be that of St. John the Baptist, to whom he 
conjectures Breccles church was dedicated, but Breccles Magna is dedicated to 
St. Margaret. The church at Little Breccles has been long dilapidated, and its 
dedication is not known. 


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miaxh ^ribcjjs. 


In a letter still preserved of the late Miss Anna Gurney 
to Mr. Woodward, dated 1824, on the subject of the Norwich 
estuary, it is remarked that '' she had no idea of the extent 
and importance of ancient Norwich until she read Mr. "Wood- 
ward's observations." She then mentions that with regard 
to what he said about the width of the river, she had heard 
of an anchor being found on this side of the town, i.e., the 
Keswick side. She then goes on to say that " Tare " means 
the " Ar," i.e., the river par eminence, and that the name is 
traced in Harford Bridge, which she also says settles the 
name of the Keswick branch as the Yare, and not the Wensum 
as some have supposed. Mr. Woodward in his map has 
adopted Miss Gumey's etymology, and calls the site of 
Harford Bridge " Yare-ford.'' 

The bridge existed in Queen Elizabeth's time, for here 
the mayor and corporation met Her Majesty, as at the city 
bounds, on her progress into the county. Blomefield gives 
tfi extenso many of the orations, but it seems they were 
somewhat curtailed by a shower of rain. I do not purpose 
to add now these rather lengthy effusions of congratulation, 
but woidd ask permission to read a few lines, not in print, 
shewing the tenure of the Manor of Earlham, which I 
met with in a volume of the Harleian MSS. in the British 


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"AVm. Downes, Loi-d of tlu^ Manouro of Erlliam neere 
Norwieli, when (iueeii Eliz. came to Norwich, at Ilarflct 
Bridg, there delivered thes verses w't a payr of gold spurs. 

" Resplendant Queen my Sovcraing Lady deere 
ray hart would yeald to thee what is my own 
but for because the case appears not cleer 
my name is Downes I hold of thee by right 
a manoure hcer whose name is Earlham hight 

" In seriantine ^ the tenure therof stand 
and by the grant a Basilisco due 
By petit seriantine likewise my land 
must yeald, my leig, a payr of spurs to you 
Therby in proofe my homage to declare 
so oft, as please you, hither to repayr. 

" Likewise to mo if old reports be true 
is service signd w'n I, to doe, am prest 
That is while time your maiestie is heer 
I am to be pfer'd before the rest 
Lieutenant to Blanchlowes castle old 
And high constable heere the place to hold. 

" In lieu therof there should redound to me 
the palfrey w'h thy maiestie doe beare 
my spurrs, Queen, I render unto thee 
and for the Crowa I pay 3 pounds a year 
lo, thus to thee his whole estate is known 
whos hart and land and goods are all thy own." 

Harl 980, f. 282. 

* Sergantine. 


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C^wrtl^ ai BtW^tl^oh^Mxtui §^axmani\i. 


A. W. MORANT, ESQ., F.S.A., F.G.S., &c. 

Having, formerly, been for some years local architect to 
the Church Restoration Committee at Great Yarmouth, and 
taking great interest in the work, not only professionally, 
but also as an antiquary, it affords me much pleasure to 
place before the Norfolk and Norwich Archaeological Society 
a short paper on the architectural history and principal 
points of interest of the noble Church of St. Nicholas, which, 
until 1715, was the only place of worship of the Established 
Church in that town. Of most unusual dimensions, it has 
lately been proved to cover more ground than any other 
parish church in England, measuring in length 230 feet by 
108 feet in breadth ; its internal superficial area being 23,085 
feet, whilst the areas of its rivals are as follows : — 


St. Michael, Coventry 22,080 

St. Botolph, Boston 20,270 

St. Nicholas, Newcastle-on-Tyne . . 20,110 

Holy Trinity, Hull 20,036 

St. Saviour, Southwark 18,200 

[vol. VII.] Q 


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At the re-opening servicesy about three years since, 4,000 
persons were accommodated on the floor. On looking at 
the ground plan of the church, and the elevation of the 
west front, which accompany this paper, one cannot fail to 
observe the great width of the aisles and the comparatiye 
narrowness of the nave : features so entirely at variance 
with the usual arrangement. But the cause of this is 
obvious : the original small nave and tower were preserved, 
and the increased accommodation required was obtained by 
greatly wideniag the aisles. The same peculiarity exists 
at the neighbouring church of St. Andrew, at Gorleston. 

Founded and built by Herbert, Bishop of Norwich (1096 
— 1119,^) in connection with the adjacent Benedictine priory 
(a cell to that of Norwich,) and of which only the refectory 
now remains, it probably at first consisted of nave, central 
tower, transepts, and chancel; and the Bev. John Gunn 
believes that, when excavations were made during the al- 
terations in 1847, he saw indications of two apsidal chapels 
opening from the eastern sides of the transepts as at Nor- 
wich Cathedral and Thetford Priory — ^buildings of Bishop 
Herbert's period. This church is said to have been com- 
pleted in 1119 ; but all that can be seen of this date is a 
portion of the central tower below the bell chamber, the 
lower part of the tower having been cut away and cased 
to form the piers of the tower arches in the Decorated 

The Norman portion of the tower is very rudely constructed 
of beach boulders, pieces of stone, and what look like large 
sun-dried bricks, but which are considered by the officers of 
the School of Mines, London, to be pieces of tufa or trass of 
the Rhine, from the vicinity of Andemach, probably brought 
to Yarmouth as ballast ; and there are small quoins of free- 
stone. In the stages above the level of the apex of the 
original roof of the nave, as will be seen on reference to 
' See Appendix I. 


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the western eleyation of the church which accompanies 
this paper, is an arcade of eight arches, with shafts, caps, 
and bases, the two arches in the centre surmounted by 
another arch with billet moulding; the space between this 
arch and the two beneath being partly filled with herring- 
bone-work. In the next stage, on each face, are two circidar- 
headed windows perfectly plain, alid above these are eleven 
small arched recesses, ranged in a row, cut out of the 
material supposed to be tufa ; each measures nineteen inches 
in height, ten inches in width, and has a rabbet one inch 
in width and depth round the edge of the opening; they 
do not appear to have pierced the whole thickness of the 
wall, and I am not able to offer any conjecture as to the use 
for which they were intended. 

About 1190 (transition into Early English) the present 
arcade was formed in the old walls of the nave, which was 
also lengthened one bay, and lean-to aisles about twelve feet 
in width added, the nave being twenty-three feet wide. 
The string-courses, which supported the plates of the roof, and 
the corbelled eaves-courses still remain to prove this assertion. 
The west gable end of the nave, the two arches of the chancel 
arcade adjoining the tower, and the large arch between the 
south transept and south chancel aisle are of this date. The 
upper stage of the tower was now added, and it is worthy of 
notice that the south and west sides were faced with ashlar, 
being seen from the town ; and the other two sides, not 
being so seen, were only built of rubble. There are three 
lofty windows in each side, with shafts at external angles 
of the jambs. The angles of the tower also have shafts. 

Early in the thirteenth century still further room was 
required, and the church was again considerably enlarged 
in the complete Early English style. The nave aisles were 
pulled down and rebuilt, and, instead of lean-to roofs, pitch 
roofs of most unusual span, viz., 39 feet wide, were erected. 
The west front of the aisles is of this date, and, according 

Q 2 


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to Mr. Seddon, the architect employed in the restoration, 
closely resembles that of Llandaff Cathedral. It appears 
that the south aisle was erected first, as its details are of 
earlier character than those of the north aisle. The chancel 
was soon after extended eastwards, and aisles added of the 
same width as those of the nave. The spacious south porch, 
the fine tower piers, and arches, and the arch between the 
north transept and the north chancel-aisle were then con- 
structed, and are of the style usually known as Geometrical 
Decorated, which prevailed in the latter part of the thirteenth 
and the early part of the fourteenth centuries. Up to this 
time the transepts had remained of their original dimensions, 
as is clearly shown by the windows in the gables of both 
nave and chancel-aisles. These were opened out during the 
recent alterations, and found never to have been glazed, but 
only provided with shutters. The transepts were lengthened 
in the Flowing Decorated style, and later in the fourteenth 
century were raised to the same height as the aisles. 

In 1330, the town being probably in a very flourishing state, 
it was determined to make a great addition to the church, 
and a new building was commenced at the west end, which 
is described by William of Worcester, in his Itinerartum, 
as being 107 feet long and 47 feet wide ; this was intended 
to be called the " Bachelors' Aisle." It was slowly carried 
out ; but in 1348, a fearfid plague having devastated the town, 
the work was discontinued and never reconmienced ; it was 
allowed to fall into ruin, and the stones were used for many 
purposes at various times, such as building the fortifications 
in Queen Elizabeth's reign, filling in the pier at the har- 
bour's mouth in 1650, and in building St. George's chapel 
in 1715. Little or nothing being known of the character 
of the intended building, the churchwardens allowed me in 
November 1860 to make excavations. Fortunately the foim- 
dations were tolerably perfect ; and they shewed that the 
new work was intended to be a fine west front, with two 


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towers, and a magnificent entrance forty feet in width. It 
was also designed to be very lofty and massive, the walls 
being eight feet in thickness, and the dimensions given by 
WiUiam of Worcester proved to be correct. Before filling in 
the trenches stone posts were put down at all the principal 
angles of the building, and by this means its ground plan can 
easily be traced. About the year 1400, considerable works 
were executed, probably to the roofs. The ceiling of the south 
aisle was panelled and ornamented with bosses and shields 
of arms.^ A wooden spire and four pinnacles covered 
with lead were also added ; the height of the spire is said 
to have been 186 feet. This was pulled down in 1803, the 
tower boarded over, and a telegraph erected upon it. The 
present spire was built in 1807, No work of any import- 
ance was executed after the commencement of the fifteenth 
century, except that the tracery of most of ihe windows 
was replaced during the Perpendicular period, a parvise 
built over the porch, two arches formed in the chancel 
walls communicating with the east end of the chancel aisles, 
and a stone reredos erected. 

After the dissolution of the monasteries the church was 
allowed to fall into comparative decay. In 1646 a stone- 
cutter was paid " for defacing some gravestones with crosses.*'* 
In 1649 the chancel and aisles were divided from the rest of 
the church by building up the arches communicating with 
the nave and transepts, and these remained so built up until 
1865. The chancel was appropriated to the Independents, 
who broke a door through the Crowmer monument in 
the wall of the north aisle of the chancel; they were, 
however, ejected at the Restoration. The liability to repair 
the chancel became a matter of dispute, and in 1784 the east 
end fell down, and the east wall was rebuilt, so as to shorten 

> For an account of which see a paper by T. W. King, Esq., York Herald, in 
Norfolk Arehaolo^y^ vol ii, page 149. 
' Churchwardens* Accounts. 


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the chancel about ten feet. In later times many mutilations 
were perpetrated, and a large sum of money, £14,000, was 
spent in building useless buttresses and hacking off nearly 
all the external mouldings of the buildings, destroying all 
the beauty and interest of the exterior, which was then 
coyered with plaster, the mouldings being roughly copied. 

Until 1845 the interior also had a most miserable appear- 
ance, some idea of which can be formed from the beautiful 
engravings of Le Keux, in Neale's Views of Churches, 1824, 
vol. i. For some years past works of restoration have been 
proceeding : the church has been reseated, the roof of the 
south aisle redecorated, and the south porch restored, under 
the direction of Mr. J. H, Hakewill. In 1862 Mr. J. P. 
Seddon was appointed architect, and he rebuilt the chancel 
proper, thoroughly restored the tower, erected a new parapet 
and pinnacles to it, and has prepared plans, which have been 
approved, for the complete restoration of the whole building. 

Within the church are yet several objects of interest, al- 
though it has been almost despoiled of its antiquities. The 
sepulchral monuments in particular have been most miserably 
treated, for we are told by Mr. C. J, Palmer, in his Htstorjf 
of Great Tarmouih, vol. ii. p. 124, that in 1651 the cor- 
poration ordered all the sepulchral brasses in the church 
to be torn from their stones and sent to London, there to 
be cast into weights for the use of the town ; and in 1560 
the churchwardens followed the example, and actually took 
gravestones out of the churchyard, and sent them to New- 
castle to be converted into grindstones. It is to be hoped 
that these are solitary instances of monuments having been 
sacrificed for profit, although it was a common practice at 
certain periods to deface and destroy them. 

In the chancel are remains of two wall paintings, one on 
the north side of early date representing some knights in 
chain armour, and the other, at the back of the sedilia in the 
south chancel aisle, the upper part of an angel. There were 


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formerly altars at the east end of each chancel aisle : the 
aumbries still remain. 

The reredos of the high altar was richly carved out of 
clunch, and painted and gilt ; and from numerous fragments 
found during the recent restorations, it is evident that it 
must have been exceedingly beautiful. Doorways, still re- 
maining on either side of the altar, led to a space behind : ^ 
whilst above were many niches in which had evidently been 

An altar stone, with its five crosses, was for a long time 
laid face uppermost on the floor of the north aisle of the 
chancel, but has lately been placed under the communion 

In the north aisle of the nave, under a handsome crocketed 
canopy, is a tomb, with a cross on the slab, commonly called 
the " Prior's Tomb." 

In the vestry, now parted off from the north transept, is a 
curious reading-desk, so constructed that whilst it revolves, 
its six shelves remain level. 

The old churchyard is very large, being about eight acres 
in extent ; it is said to contain about six thousand grave- 
stones, few of which however are above a century old. 
Copies of the greater part of the inscriptions were made 
by Mr. John F. Cooper, who was by turns lawyer's clerk, 
schoolmaster, and astrologer; in many instances he added 
anecdotes of the persons commemorated. The inscriptions 
fill several folio volumes, which are preserved in the Public 
Library at Yarmouth. The late Mr. Dawson Turner's Sepul- 
chral Reminiscences^ also contains a record of the greater 
number of the burials, both in the church and churchyard. 

In a populous town like Yarmouth, and in a church so 
capacious as this, it may readily be supposed we should find 

' In Tanner's extracts from the churchwardens* books, we find mentioned, 
*• the Vestre behynd the high Altar." 
* 8vo. Yarmouth, 1848. 


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a number of chapels, altars, and lights; accordingly, the 
laborious Swinden has enumerated the following as being 
mentioned in wills, &c. 

St. Mary de Amburgh St. Lewis 

(This was at the east end.) g^^ Slilrius 

St. Catherine St. Thomas the Martyr* 

St. Christopher St. George® 

St. Lawrence King Henry '' 

Holy Trinity St. Margaret 

St. Olave St. Edmund 

(In the north aisle.) gf;, Pamel 

Our Lady of the Porey's Jesus 
Chapel St. Michael. 

And we find in addition the chapel of St. John Baptist, 
which was built anew about 1484-5, as will be seen from 
the very interesting Compotus of Brother Dionisius Hyn- 

In 1529, James Londisdale bequeathed to St. Clare's 
Chapel, 3s. 4(/. ;® and John Barton the elder, in 1536, willed 
to be buried under "Seynt Clare's Chapel in the churche 
of SejTit Nicholas." ^ 

Each of the above chapels, it is presumed, had its altar, 
and the will of Eobert Nycolson, dated 1528, contains the 

B The churchwardens receiyed in 1495 the fees for hreaking the ground for 
graves in St. Thomas's chancel, and in Our Lady's chancel. These were pro- 
hably the north and south aisles east of the transept, in fact, the aisles to the 
chancel proper. 

• "A new east window made in St. George's isle." "The north window 
at the altar before St. George's image." From these notices, the east end of 
the north chancel aisle would seem to be signified. 

•» 1606. Pd to thcrmyte of K. Herry's chapel xvjs. 1507, to F' William for 
kcpyng K. Ilerrj^'s chapel xiij» iiij<*. — Chtirchtvardetts* AecouniSy Tanner's MS. 
8 Maryett, 9. » Ibid. 35. 


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View of East End as it appeared in 1862. 


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•• • 


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following. " It I wyll have an honest secular pryst to syng 
for my Sowle won hoU yer^. The won halffe yei? at the aut 
of Seynt Nycholas, the other at the aut of Seynt Cryspyn % 
Chryspynyan in Yermouth Chyrch." The altar of St. Peter 
is also mentioned, 12 Rich. II. See Appendix II., No. 54. 

I am not able to find any printed explanation of the 
meaning of "Our Lady of Ameburgh.'' Manship states 
that the chapel was built by Roger de Haddiscoe, prior of 
St. Olave's, about 1370, and in the wiU of Alice de Rokelond, 
dwelling in Heigham next Norwich, dated September 1377, 
is the following bequest. "K lego capelle He Marie de 
Ameburgh Jememuth unu anulu cu pef vocat saffer.^" 
Geofl&rey Codde, cheeseman, of Yarmouth, gave by his will, 
dated 1418, " 12*^ nouo opi scte Marie dicte ecciie.'* 

There was a famous church of Our Lady at Ardenbourg in 
Flanders, to which in 1340 Edward III. went on a pil- 
grimage immediately after the battle of Sluys. * At this 
battle, " commonly called the Battle of Swine, the townsmen 
of Yarmouth," says Manship, "did him most worthy service." 
I offer as a suggestion that this chapel in the church of St. 
Nicholas was founded to commemorate the one in Flanders, 
which was probably attended by many of the Yarmouth 
merchants on that occasion and when trading in Flanders. 

The Lights are thus described — 
Before the great crucifix. (Will of Jeffry With, 31 Edw. I.) 
St. Mary's Light.^ (WiU of Beatrice Mount, 1280.) 
Corpus Christi Light. (Agreement 26 Hen. VI.) 
For eight candles burning on the perch in the chancel of 

1 Heydon, 144. 

' Froissart, Johnes's Translation, edition 1805, i. 211. 

' In 1523 John Myght bequeathed sixpence to "our" ladya lyght in bason of 
our ladycs chancell" (Harroan, 12); and Robert Stevynson in 1529 gave a 
similar sum, "to the lyght of our' ladycs Chaunscll thcr' vj'*." 


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St. Thomas of Canterbury, within the church of St. 

Nicholas. (Will of Margaret de Beverle, 43 Edw. III.) 
Candle next before the crucifix hanging in the nave. (The 

same Margaret de Beverle, 1395.) 
St. Thomas's Light. (Will of Stephen de Stalham, 1362.) 

Further we find, in 1522, " the light of Jesus Messe " ; * 
and in 1523, ''ye lights of Jesus messe, seynt georgys messe, 
and seynt clares messe." * 

Guilds. Swinden enumerates no fewer than nineteen 
guilds in Yarmouth ; they probably were not all held in the 
Church of St. Nicholas, and may not all have been in exist- 
ence at once. The following list shows the names of such 
as have been preserved, with the dates at which they are 
mentioned in wills, &c. — 

The Brown Rood Guild. 

The Guild of St. Crispin and Crispiana. 1525. 

St. Christopher in St. Nicholas Church. 7 Bich. II. and 

St. Erasmus. 1479— . Dissolved 37 Hen. VIII. 
St. George in St. Nicholas Church. 1382—1436. 
Our Lord's Ascension. 1390. 
The Holy Cross. 1430. 
St. John. 1430. 

The Lesser Guild of the Holy Trinity of St. Nicholas Church. 
St. Margaret. 

St. Mary de le P^re. 1462—1515. 
St. Mary de West Town ultra pontem. 1479, Dissolved 

37 Hen. VIII. 
St. Mary in Emesburgh (or Arneburgh.) 
Our Lady of St. Nicholas Church. 
The Holy Ghost. 15 Edw. IV. Dissolved 37 Hen. VIIL 
St. Peter in St. Nicholas Church. 1388—1395. 

* Harman, 34. » ibid. 44. 


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The Greater Gmld of the Holy Trinity.* 

St. Nicholas. 1479. 

Further, we find St. Clare's Guild mentioned in 1529.'' 

These guilds, except the Merchants' Guild, were finally 
dissolved in the 37th Henry YIII., and the Commissioners 
authorised by Act of Parliament having, on the 1st of April 
in that year, viewed the chapels, chantries, &c., in Tar- 
mouth, and heard evidence, empowered the corporation to 
apply the issues and profits arising from the sale of their 
goods and chattels to the use of St. Nicholas's Church, or 
to' the haven and fortifications, as should be determined by 

These notices, compiled originally to be read at the church 
to which they relate, on the Society's excursion to Yarmouth 
last summer, could be considerably extended, but I have from 
pressing business engagements been obliged to confine them 
to nearly their original limits. Some most interesting docu- 
ments have however been placed at my disposal, and these 
will be found in an Appendix. 

It remains for me to record my obligations, and those of 
the Society, to the Very Rev. the Dean of Norwich, by whose 
liberal permission the documents from the Cathedral Treasury 
are now first made public; to W. T. Bensly, Esq., LL.D., 
who kindly transcribed from the originals the Compotus 
of Brother Dionisius Hyndolvestone, and the extracts from 
the other Rolls ; and to Walter Rye, Esq., for having 
obligingly supplied me with the Certificates of Guilds, or 
Brotherhoods, tempore Richard II. I am indebted to the 
kindness of Mr. G. Nail of Yarmouth for the use of the 
blocks showing the east end, &c., as it remained until recently, 
and also as proposed to be restored. 

* This was, says Swinden, the Merchants' Guild, granted and constituted 
by King John's charter. 
^ Maryett 16. 


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In concluflion, I sincerely trust that the churchwardens 
and restoration committee may obtain sufficient funds to 
enable them to continue and complete the restoration of so 
fine and interesting a church ; and as the amount required is 
very large, (£20,000) I venture to ask the assistance of the 
members of the society to aid so important an object. 



Foundation of Yarmouth Church, hy Herbert, Bishop of 
Norwich, — ^Reg'. 1. fo. 17 penes Dec. et Cap. Norw. 

Erat ante tunc temporis in arena Maris apd Jemamudam 
qda paruula Capella constructa in qua diuina no celcbrabant"" 
nisi tm tempore piscatonis Allecium eo qd non erant ibi nisi 
q'^tuor vel q^nq^ domuncule ad recepconem piscato^ pparate 
Sepedcus Epus a Rege Henrico vt in eadem arena Eccliam 
construere posset licenciam impet*^uit petita licencia T optenta 
Ecctiam ibidem edificauit constituens in ea Capellanum ad di- 
uina iugit^ celebranda T; sibi necessaria de suo pp^o adinuenit. 
Processu vo temporis illi de Portubi; ibidem accedentes 
pdictum Capellanii inde vi T; armis eieccrunt cogitantes de 
eade ccctia suam facere voluntatem. Qd audiens antedictus 
Epus sup iniuria sibi in hac pto p Portcnaos illata diio Regi 
tunc temporis in Normania existenti, litVas destinauit quo 
audito ^fatus Rex littas suas dno Ro£o Bigoto custodi 
Norfolcf in pmissis direxit vt ipe assumptis secum viris de 
Comitatu, eccHam de Jernemuta, memorato Epo restituet ^ 
Portenses ab eadem si ncce esset cum potencia remouet cui 
cu mandatum sibi a Rege directum exequi voluit Portenses 
vi armata restitunt, in quo quidem conflictu quib'jdam de 
Portensib^; gladio trucidatis, reliquis in fugam versis dcus 


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Epus ab eodem Ro^o Bigoto in possessionem ecciie sepedce 
est denuo restitutg qui expostf co ecciia3; Jememude antedcam 
% ecciiam sci Leonardi cum Capella sci Michis Monachis suis 
Norwycf dedit pit^ T: concessit. 

And there was at that time on the sea shore at Yarmouth, a certain small 
Chapel built, in which dL?ine service was only celebrated during the season of 
the herring fishery, for there were not there more than four or five small houses 
provided for the reception of the fishermen. The beforesaid Bishop (Herbert) 
besought King Henry (I) for a license that he might build a church on the same 
sands. The desired license being asked for and obtained, he built a church there, 
placing therein a Chaplain to celebrate divine service always, and found of his 
own goods the necessary things. But in the course of time, the men of the Ports 
happening to come there, put out from thence by force the aforesaid Chaplain, 
thinking to do with the same church as they pleased; which the aforesaid 
Bishop hearing, upon the injury done to him in this respect by the Portsmen, 
wrote to our lord the King, then being in Normandy : hearing which, the afore- 
said King directed his letters in this matter to I/)rd Roger Bigot, Sheriff of 
Norfolk, that he, taking with him the men of tbe County, should restore the 
Church of Yarmouth to the said Bishop, and remove the Portsmen from thence 
with force if necessary. When he wished to carry out the command given him 
by the King, the Portsmen resisted him by armed force, in which conflict indeed, 
certain of the Portsmen being slain, and the rest driven to flight, the said Bishop, 
by the same Roger Bigot, was put once again in possession of the aforesaid 
church ; who soon afterwards gave and granted the church of Yarmouth afore- 
said, and the church of St. Leonard with St. Michael's chapel likewise, to his 
Monks at Norwich. 


Norfolk Guild Certificates, 12 Rich. II. Bundle 308. 
Record Office, Rolls' Yard, London. 
No. 43. 

Hugo ffastolf T: alie divse psone ville Magne Jememuthe 
ex devocoe sua inveniunt unu cereu ad deferend ante Presbiam 
quotiens erit ad corpore xpi ad visitandu aliqua psona infirma 
infra villam pdcam et in ista forma dcm cereu invenerunt p 
quadraginta annos ultimo elapsos et hent in manibj tre 
centu soUdos. 


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No. 44. 

Societas Sci Johis Baptist? de Magn Jememuth non est 
gilda eo qd nullas hint constitucones ordinaciones aut pyisiones 
n® aliquod jurament? est in? illos pstitii set p illo^ coem cson- 
censum inyeSint p totum annu vnu cereu ardentem coram 
ymagine Sci Johis ^dci in eadm Jememuth. — Redditus aut 
possessiones non heiit n^ aliquod de cataft in coi. 

No. 45. 

Societas Sci Xpofori de magna Jememuth non est Gilda eo 
qd nidlas inr se hent constitucoes pyisiones aut ordinacoes nee 
aliquod juramentQ est int eos pstitu set annuatim in festo 
gloriosi martins ^dci conveniunt T: quilibet illoj exponit xV 
in subsidm sustencacoem uni9 altaris cum omamentis eidem 
altar^ ptinentib'; *\ unig capellani ad dcm altare de die in diem 
dimna celebrant et si quis die societatis isto anno ad sumptus 
^dcos solvit anno sequent si voluerit potest se ret'ere 1 a dca 
Bocietate recedere. — ^Bedditus ^ possessiones non hent in bonis 
heiit x" yidelt in pecunia numata ad expendend in pios usib-; 

No. 49. 

Societas Suto$ be marie de Arneburgh de Magna Jememuth 
non est gilda eo qd nullas hent constitucoes ordinacoes aut 
pyisiones nee aliquod iuramentu est in? eos pfatii set p illo^ 
coem concensum inueniet p totu annu unu cereu ardente 
coram ymagine be marie antedce in eadem Jememuth Red- 
ditus aut possessiones non hent nee aliquod de catall in coi. 

No. 51. 

Societas Corpis xpi de Magn Jememuth non est gilda eo 
qd non habent pyisiones ordinacones aut constitucones n^ 
aliquod juramentu est int illos prestitu set p illo^ consensum 
coiem inyenint 1: sustentat honeste lumen circa corpus xpi 
annuatim in die corpis xpi Redditus 1 possessiones non hent 
n^ aliquod catall in coi. 


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No. 54. 

Johes de Halle de Magna Jememuth 1; alii tres homines 
^ quatuor midieres conveniunt anuatim in eccKa Sci Nichi 
dee ville in festo Sci Petri in cathedra % ibidem in dca eccKa 
imam candelam cere in honore Sci Petri cotidie ardentem 
ad unam missam celebrat^ in ecclia ^dca ad altare Sci Petri 
^ istam deuocionem continuaverJ p decern annos elaps T: 
amplius T; habent in denariis datis ex devocone p sustentacone 
candele pdce iiij'* que sunt in man pdci Johis de Halle ^ Willi 
yve Nullam aliam ordinaconem hnt nee nichil aliud faciunt 
q^ sup'dcm est. 

No. 55. 

C^tificatio fca in Canc^ dni Eegis apud Westm^ xxx 
die Januai? a® xij® p psonas inferius script?. 

Me** qd Johes Elys Nich" Drayton Hugo atte ffen 1 alie 
divse psone Burgenses ville Magne Jememuth convenire 
solent in eccKa sci Nichi ville pdce in festo Sci Georgii Mar- 
tins annuatim ab anno Eegis nunc prime usq3 ad psens Et 
ibidem dee psones dare solebant ex eo^ pia devooSe cPtas 
sumas pecunie ad eos voluntatem ad sustentand unii ca- 
pellanu divina in Gapella Sci Georgii ibidem p aia^bq; dni 
iiri Regis ^ pgenito? suo? T: dca? psona? oim ^deliu^q^ 
defuncto? singulis dieb} celebrante et etia ad inveniend duos 
cereos % duas candelas ardentes in capella pdca tempore misse 
ibidem celebrand ^ ad alia omamenta p altari See Georgii 
necessaria in honorem % laude dei oipotentis inveniend % de 
dcis pecimia? sumis sic dati Eobtus atte Gappe Bobtus Holyn 
Thomas Marche % Eobtus Toppecroft hent in manib3; circa 
viginti libras salvo ^ secur^ custodiend quousq*:; p eo? aia^ 
salute po?int securius pvidere. 


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CoMPOTus Fratkis Dionisii Hyndolueston custodis 
CELLE Magne Jernemuth de receftis et expens^ euisde 
celle A festo sci Miciiis Archi anno regni Regf Rici tercij 
post coquestu secudo usq":; ad ide festu ex tuc px] seques 
Anno regni Regf Henrici Septimi post conquestu pmo. Et 
Dni Johis Bonewell priorf anno sexto. 

ReddC '^ ffiriS — ^De Reddu et firma cu firm trlii caiSa^ infra 
poratu de xxvij'. j**. oh, xxiiij*. j**. ob. T: no plus qz 
Johes Rus detinet p redditu'^gardini sui nup Jacobi 
Gase p tribj anis .iijs. pcelle patent in dorso. 

Sm'" p^ 

pvent9 ecctie — ^De dccimis psonalib} xx*^ xj". De obIa%ib3 
iiij**' p*ncipaliu festiuitatu eu alijs in quib} solent 
pochiani offerrj cu coUecta paschali xj^^ x*. v**. De 
oibj missis p defuctis p anu iiij^^ xij* j*^. De 
Reddu oblat^ p belle mannos in anniusarijs quo^a 
defucto? put patet p redditale viij*. ij**. ob. De 
obla^ib*:; sponsaliu p anu liiij*. vj''. De oblaffiib} 
purificacionu xxix". v**. It Ixvij crismalia^ de quib) 
XXX vendut' p y'. reliqua sut disposita ad suppellicia 

^ Chrisome, The Cbrvaome (chrismale) was the white cloth with which infants 
were invested immediately after their baptism, and before they were anointed 
with the chrism, or baptismal oil. When the mother was churched, or purified, 
she made an offering of the chrysome to the priest, and by a constitution of the 
English Church, made in 1236, it is directed, *' Let the chr^'soms be made use 
of for ornaments of the church only." Upon which Johnson (in Eng. Canons) 
remarks, that *' chrysoms might be used for the making or mending surplices, 
amits, albcs ; or the wrapping up the chalices, covering the crosses, &c." — 


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The account of Brother Dionyslus Hyndolveston, keeper of 
the Cell at Great Yarmouth, of the receipts and disbursements 
of the same Cell, from the feast of St. Michael the Archangel, 
in the second year of the reign of King Richard the Third 
after the conquest, to the same feast then next following in 
the first year of the reign of King Henry the Seventh since 
the conquest, and in the sixth year of Sir John Bonewell, 
Prior. (1484-5.) 

Rents and Farms. — From the rents and farm, with the farm of 
three chambers within the priory, of 27g. l^d.y 
24«. l^d,, and no more, because John Rus detains 
for the rent of his garden, late James Gase, for 
three years, Ss. The Parcels appear on the back. 

The sum appears. 

Revenue of ^ From personal tithes, £20. lis. From offerings 
the Church, j at the four principal feasts, with others on 
which the parishioners are accustomed to offer, with 
the Easter collection, £11. 10s. 5d. From all the 
masses for the dead for the year, £4. 125. Irf. From 
the return of offerings by the bell-men on the 
anniversaries of certain dead persons, as appears by 
the rental, 8«. 2Jc?. From offerings at marriages 
for the year, 54s. 6d. From offerings at churchings, 
29«. 5d, ; Also sixty-seven chrisms,^ of which thirty 
were sold for 5«. ; the rest are disposed of for 

Haines's Manual of Monumental Brasses, i. ccxz. In the will of John Dreire, 
vicar of Walton St. Mary, Suffolk, dated 1449, is the foUowing bequest : '* Item 
lego omnes vestes too' crysymmys dicta ecclesie pro supexpellic* inde faciend'." 
John Everard, alias Skynner, Chaplain of St. George's Colegate, Norwich, by 
his will dated 1420, gave to the same church "xizCrysme clothes ad faciend 
vnu' vel duo sup'pellic' ad deseryiend' in eadem ccclesia." 
[vol. VII.] R 


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T; in donis datf predicantib} confrib'j T: aliis. De 
Certis missaru lxxij». ij<*. ob. 

Sm"^— xlv^ ij«. x\ 

Pquisita — De legatis raortuo? viij*. yj**. De mortuariis Ten- 
ditis XXX". De capella bte Marie de Amburth vidJt 
de pixide eiusd x^^ v*. vij"*. q"" De pixide bte Anne 
iij^ De Colubari sup**" volta eiusde capelle ceit^ iij*^J 
pipiones expen€ in familia. De. tiimco sci Nichi 1 
aliis trucf in ecctia T; pixidib} ij*. viij**. De pis- 
cacoe et pte xpi* ix^*. iiij*. x^. ob. De eroco T: radicib} 
croci venditf xiiij*. iiij*^. De lana vendita c*cil? x 
petr) T; di xxij*. j**. ob. De octo vemetib}* pinguib} 
venditf xiiij". viij^. De xviij''^ onib*} matricib^ % ij 
Arietib^ venditf xxvj'. viij**. It de xxx Agnellis 
venditf xvj". iij**. I? de vj vemetib} pinguib} yj 
Arietibj pinguib} T; uno AgneUo nichil qz occisi ^ 
expend in familia. Ite de vij*" porcellis decialibus 
xiiij ansenilis vij*® Anatib} iiij" pullis gallina? % 
viij pullis coluba? decialiu nichil qz expef in failia. 
De cera vendita 1". De Jobe Aston p firma manerij 
de Thuruerton* de vij*^ xiij^ iiij*^. p anu vij^*. vj*. viij*. 

s « The practice of diyiding the produce of a hoat (in the Herrmg fishery) into 
doles, which are then shared hetween the owners and the crew according to an 
agreed scale, is of very ancient origin, and is still practised. The expenses of 
the voyage agreed upon at a fixed sum, according to the size of the hoat, are de- 
ductt'd from the value of the catch, which is calculated upon the medium price 
per last, and the halance is divided into doles, the number of which also depends 
upon the size of the hoat. Of these doles, one was set aside for the church and 
town ; the one-half, which was called * Christ's half dole/ was paid in lieu of 
the tithe of fiah to which the minister was entitled, and the other half was called 
the * Towns half dole,' and was applied towards the support of the haven and pier 
hy a bye-law made in 1488, and confirmed in 1593." — Fainter s Matuhip, ii. 88. 

3 Vermis. I am unable to find the meaning of this word in Du Cange, or any 
dictionary, but from the context I venture to suggest that a vemet was either a 
hoggett, or two year old sheep, or a wether. Dr. Bensly has kindly searched the 
other Bolls, and informs me that no other instance of the word occurs. 


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surplices, and in presents given to preachers, our 
brethren, and others. For certain masses, 72«. 2ld, 

Sum total, £45. 28. lOd. 

Perquisites. From legacies, 8s. 6d. From mortuaries sold, 
30s. From the chapel of Blessed Mary of Ame- 
burth, that is to say, from the box of the same, 
£10. 6«. 7|d. From the box of blessed Anne, 3s. 
From the dove-cote above the vaulting of the same 
chapel, about three dozen pigeons used in the house- 
hold. From the chest of Saint Nicholas and other 
chests in the church, and from the boxes, 2s. 8d. 
From the fishery and the part of Christ,* £9. 4s. 10 Jc?. 
From safiron and safiron roots sold, 14s. 4d, From 
wool sold, about ten stones and a lialf, 22s. l^d. 
From eight fat vemets^ sold, 14s. 8d. From eighteen 
ewes and two rams sold, 26s. 8d. Also from thirty 
lambs sold, 16s. 3rf. Also from six fat vemets, 
six fat rams and one lamb, nothing, because they 
were killed and used in the household. Also from 
seven tithe pigs, fourteen goslings, seven ducks, 
eighty pullets, and eight young tithe doves, nothing, 
because they were used in the household. From 
wax sold, 50s. From John Aston, for the rent of 
the manor of Thurverton* of £7. 13s. id. per annum, 

^ Blomefield makes no mention of a manor of the prior and convent of 
Norwich at Thurlton in his account of that parish, vol. viii, p. 69 ; hut he tells 
us, quoting from the Norwich " Domesday," that the temporalities of Norwich 
priory were 28«. 6}^.» and that Eohert Thurgarton aliened to the priory of 
Norwich a cottage and six acres of land here and in Toft. There are in 
Beg. III. (penes Dec. and Cap. Norw.) several royal charters; the earliest, 
dated 8 £dw. II., the last, 1 Hen. Y., relating to lands, marshes, and meadows 
in Tburrerton. From filomefield*s account of the revenues of the prior and 
convent, vol. iv., p. 369, note 3, we learn, *^ the manor of Thurverton» valued 
at £10. 10«. and id. per Annum, was sold to Sir Nic. Hare, knt, hy the King's 
Licence, heing left out of King Edward's Charter for that purpose." 

R 2 


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^ no plus hoc ano sexto indenture sue qz alloeatu 
eide ppt^ inundacone aque yj'. viij^ . It de pellib} 
ouiu vendit^ xvj**. 

Sm"" — xxxyj". vj*. viij'^. q**" 

De Capella sci Jobis Baptiste de nouo edificata in 
orientali angulo cimiterij eccHe Sci Nicholai Jeme- 
muth Magno ^dce De pixide Sci Wandregisilij* et 
de trunco Regis Henrici xv". xij^ ix^. q". It de 
Ml »P T; di ^ CCC aUecib} oblatf ad beata Maria 1, 
pdcm rege Henrieu xvj'. iiij'^. It de Ramis diusa? 
saliciu crescentiu in cimiterio ibm vj'. viiij*. I? 
de CCC fagottf % aliis focalib} aridis venditf apd 
Thuruton ix". viij**. I? p j planke vendit ibm xj^. 
It p V petris de playster paryce vendit^ xx*^. 

Sm"^ — ^xrij*. viij». q*^ 
Sm^ to». recepti. C^. xx^. 

Supexpen? — In Supexpen? compoti ^cedentf — ^xvj^. ij". xj*^. 


Expense. — In Stipendio unig sacerdotf pocbiat vidtt Galfridi 
Waryn % Rogeri English cu alijs diuf coadiuuatib3; 
tempe vacacois Ixyj". In vino p eccHa T; hospitib-j 
xlviij". vj'*. In seruisia empta cu xij oUis pet*nis 
cu seruisia Johis fferro'*" viij". oh. In viij'^* et x 
barellis T; j fiyrkyn berise xj^'. ix'. iij**. In xlj cub} 
iijb) T, di frumenti empti ad diusa pcia cu multura 

* St. Wandragesilius was abbot of Fontenelle, a.d. 666. The church of 
Bixley in Norfolk is dedicated in his honour. 


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£7. 6«. 8d,, and no more this year, the sixth of 
his lease, because 6«. 8d. is allowed to him on ac- 
count of inundation of water. Also for sheepskins 
sold, 16rf, 

Sum total, £36. 6«. S^d. 

From the chapel of St. John the Baptist newly 
built in the east angle of the churchyard of St. 
Nicholas, Great Yarmouth, aforesaid. From the 
box of St. Wandragesilius,^ and from the chest of 
Eing Henry, £15. 12«. d^d. Also from two thou- 
sand and a half and three hundred herrings offered 
to blessed Mary and the aforesaid King Henry, 
168. 4g?. Also from the branches of various willows 
growing in the churchyard there, 6«. 8d. Also from 
three hundred faggots and other dry fuel sold at 
Thurverton, 9s. 8d. Also for one plank sold there, 
lid. Also for five stones of plaster of Paris sold, 

Sum, £17. 88. Old. 
Sum total of receipts, £100. Is. 8d. 
Super Expenses. — Balance of preceding account, 

£16. 28. lid. 
The sum appears. 

Expenses. — For the stipend of a parish priest, viz., Geoffrey 
Waryn and Roger English, with various others 
assisting in the time of the vacancy, 668. In wine 
for the church and for guests, 48«. 6d. For beer 
bought with twelve stone jars with beer, of John 
Ferror, 8s. O^d. For eight score and ten barrels 
and one firkin of beer, £11. 98. Sd. For forty-one 
coombs three bushels and a half of wheat bought at 
different prices with the cost of grinding the same, 


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eusde Ixxvj*. iij**. I? in pane empto cu M^MM' 
M^ Synggynbred^^ vij'. ix**. In repacoe vaso^ pan- 
doxatrie "X pistrini iij*. tIj*. In lardario et dietf 
emptf in foro cu sale farina T: speb*} xTiij*\ xvj'. ij*. 
In repacoe vaso? coquine et lardarii iij'. x^. In 
Stipendiis famuloru cu liberatui^ eo^ yj". xv'. In 
Regardis datis pdicatib]; cantorib'; cleric^ histrionib^ 
^ opariis pocbianoru iiro^ xxiiij". In Elemosina 
data frib^ mendicant Hospitalanis'' Indulgenciariis 
lepsis 'I aliifi pauperib*; viij'. In cirpis ad ecciiam 
T: bospiciu V*. iij<*. In cordis ad campanas viij^. 
In empcione 1 repacoe utensiliu pmptuarij ^ hospicii 
n* hoc ano. It p copleto par armo^ vidH Salett 
body armys leggf fete ^ ganletts xxj*. iij^. It in 
repacoe uniQ salsarii argentei fracti cu addiooe 
argenti ad ide ij* j**. In aliis repacionib^ vidit 
dorno^ ^ muro^ xxxj*. x**. In repa&ib-j factf apud 
Tburverton vidit sup"" longa domu in medio curie 
ibm put P3; p biUa firmarii cu aliis expensP ibm 
Ixxiiij*. iij**. It lotrici barbitonsori 1 factori cere 
xvj». yj<J. ob. It p ij^^ T^ di incensi sine thuniamatf 
X**. In candelis de cepo p ecclia % hospicio vj', iiij**- 
In viij lagenis olei ad lapade bte marie de viij*. 
nichil qz ex deuoffie dni poris. In ^bendf equoj^ 
T; ferrurf iiij^ iij**. In focalib) q^buscuq) iiij**. xvij*. 
iij**. In reddu solutf p terrf nris in Thuruton % 
aliis villis c^cuiacentib} xx*. yj**. q"". It p*ori sci 

• Sing in ff Breads. The altar breads before consecration. These were of two 
kinds ; the larger, called singing breads, used for the sacrifice ; the smaller, called 
houseling breads, used for the communion of the people. See Myrc's Inatructiona 
for Pariah Fricsta, edited by Mr. Peacock, for Early English Text Society, p. 69. 

' Hospitallers were persons authorized to beg money for the building and 
maintenance of hospitals, churches, &c. There is some interesting information 
conceniing indulgences in the Journal of Ihe Arch. Inaf.y xvii. 250. In Reg*^. 


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768. 3d. Also in bread bought together with four 
thousand singing breads,^ 7s. 9rf. For the repair of 
the utensils of the brewery and bakery, 3s. 7d. For 
provisions bought in the market, with salt, flour, 
and spices, £18. 16«. 2d. For the repair of utensils 
of the kitchen and larder, 3«. lOrf. In wages of ser- 
vants with their keep, £6. 15s. In presents given 
to preachers, singers, clerks, players, and workmen 
of our parishioners, 24«. In alms given to mendi- 
cant friars, hospitallers,''' indulgentiaries, lepers, and 
other poor persons, Ss. In rushes for the church 
and monaster}', 6s. 3d. In ropes for the bells, 8d. 
In utensils bought and repaired of the store house 
and monastery, nothing this year. Also for a com- 
plete suit of armour, viz., salade, body armour, legs, 
feet, and gauntlets, 21s. 3^^. Also in the reparation 
of one silver saltsellar broken, with additional silver 
to the same, 2s. Id. In other repairs, viz., of the 
houses and walls, 31s. lOd. In repairs done at 
Thurverton, viz., to the long house in the middle 
of the yard there, as appears by the bill of the 
farmer, with other expenses there, 74s. 8d. Also 
to the washer, barber, and wax maker, 16s. 6Jrf. 
Also for two and a half pounds of incense, lOrf. 
For tallow candles for the church and monastery, 
6s. 4d. For eight flasks of oil for the lamp of 
blessed Mary, of 8s. ; nothing, because out of tlie 
devotion of the Lord Prior. In provender for the 
horses and shoeing them, 4s. 3d. In certain fuel, 
£4. 17s. 3d. In rent paid for our lands at Thur- 
verton, and other towns surrounding, 20s. Gld. 

BacVhythe, fo. 138, ia the following: "ffiat licencia coUigendi pro Incondio 
Koberti Portelonde de Aylesbam cuius yiiiuersi substancia fere combusta fuit in 
festo Inuentionifl sancte Cnicis vltimi elaps* cum diebus Indulgenciaruiu." 

Kobert Portlond it is presumed was an Indulgentiary. 


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Olaui p Arreragiis redditg de y^. q"" sibi debi^ p 
iiij anis pcedentib^ xxj**. It p custodia T: pastura 
ouiu aiietu 1 vemetu in fowleholme^ ix*. vj**. In 
ncc""ii8 p'or Iiij*. iiij**. 

Sm"^— Ixvj". xij«. q». 

Pensiones — ^Dno priori Ixvj*. viij'^. Celerario xl". In obla- 
coib} coventg in festo See Trinitatf cu aliis expend 
ibm xliij". x'*. In Roga Sci Nichi vij». ij^. In duab} 
pensionib} duo^ scbolariii vidtt fratrf Jobis Helgey 
T; fris Witti Gedney xxv*. In medietate decie solut? 
diio Regi Ricardo c*ca festu Sci Johis bap** xl". v'*. 
ob. In deduccoe confrm ad monasteriu T; reduc&e 
iiij'. In expens meis vag mo^^steriu ad reddend 
ffipotu xij**. Ite in expens^ cu condacooe equo& 
triplici vice versQ diim epm contra fres minores de 
iniusta tumulacoe triu occisox de navi dHi RegC 
vocat le Elzabeth x*. v**. In pargameno % scrip- 
tura copoti viij**. In die copoti iij'. iiij^. It in 
pargameno ad inventaria et eyidencias belle mano^ 


Sm"^— xij*^ iij«. ob. 

fforinseca — ^Circa capella Sci Johis baptiste in orientali angulo 
cimiterii. In cera cu duab} clauib} ad ostiu eiusde 
capelle ij'. In pictura T; deauracoe ymaginu Sci 
Wandragesilii T: Regf Henrici sexti v*. ij**. In ope 
ferreo in cera cO clave ^ fcura trunci fixi in terra 
ibm iij*. x'*. In expend Suffraganei dni Epi 1 suo^ 

s The Foldholm and Skcetholme marshes in the neighbourhood of Yarmouth 
are at this day part of the estates of the Dean and Chapter of Norwich. 


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Also to the prior of St. Olave, for the arrears of a 
rent of 5^^fl?., owing to him for the four preceding 
years, 21d. Also for the keeping and feeding of 
sheep, rams, and vemets, in Fowleholm,® 98. 6d. In 
necessaries of the prior, 53«. 4d. 

Sum, £66. 128. O^d. 

Pensions.— To the Lord Prior, 66«. 8d. To the Cellarer, 40«. 
In oblations of the convent in the feast of the Holy 
Trinity, with other expenses there, 43«., lOrf. In 
Koga of St. Nicholas, 7«. 2d. In two pensions of 
two scholars, viz., brother John Helgay and brother 
William Gedney, 25s. For the half of a tenth 
paid to our lord King Richard, at the feast of 
St. John Baptist, 40^. 5^d. In the going and 
returning of our brethren to the monastery, 4«. 
In my expenses towards the monastery to render 
the account, 12d. Also for expenses with the hiring 
of horses three times to the Lord Bishop, against the 
friars minors, concerning the unlawful burying of 
three men killed of the ship of our Lord the King, 
called the Elizabeth, 10a. 5d. In parchment and 
writing the account, 8d. On the day of the ac- 
count, 3s. 4d. Also in parchment for the inventory 
and evidences of the bell-men, 6rf. 

Sum, £12. 3«. Oid. 

Foreign Expenses. — About the chapel of St. John Baptist, 
in the east comer of the churchyard. For a lock 
and two keys to the door of the same chapel, 2«. 
For painting and gilding the images of St. Wandra- 
gesilius, and of King Henry VL, bs. 2d. For 
ironwork for a lock and key, and making a box 
fixed in the ground there, Ss. lOd. For the expenses 
of tlie suffragan of the Lord Bishop and his atten- 


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cca dedicacione eiusde capelle xviij'. iiij<^. In diiab} 
lagenis olei 1 di ad lampade eiusde ij'. iij**. I? p 
candelabro pendente supra altare ibm xij*^. It ad 
repacoem jiortus ultra v barellos berise 1 ij^^ panes 
1 ult'^ labores duo^ hoim p sex dies ibm x*. It p 
ij balistf ' cu viij camerf ^ ad easd p defensione 
loci vij'. 

Sm"" — xlix". vij^. 
Sm*^ oim Expensa^ 

iiij"j^^« liy*. vij**. ob q**". 
Sm"" oim expensaj^ 
cu supexpenf 

iiij"xvij''. vij*. yj*^. ob. q"^. 

Receptu excedit expensas liiij'. j*^. q"" 

que suma colligenda cP de tenentib3 

camarii cu residue sume que sequit 

in fine huiQ. 

Bemanencia — ^iiij cub 1 j b} frumenti. It xj barellys berise. 
It iij good fatt wedderys. I? in befe viij^. It xviij 
lenggys ^ di. It xj saltfyssliys \ di. It ij lagene 
mellis. It half a barel half ful of vynegre. It a 
rumlett halfiul of good bereegre. I? vij dokys and 
j drake. I? v hennys and j cok. Ite j Capon. I? 
a doseyii chekonnys. Ite in focalib} ij chald"~ ^ di 
of see coole. It CI di wode fagott. It CCCC T; di 
fyrr fagott^. It M^M^ir Turvys 1 eo vltra. I? 
CCC red herynggys. Ite vltra ista no""ndf qdf 
tenentes camarii debent iiij^\ xv*. vj'*. ob qua suma 
successor potest recuparl ad coihodu si velit. 

• Part of town defence. 

1 Chamber, The cannons of this period were composed of two parts, the 
barrel, and the chamber which contained the powder and ball, and was dropped 
into a recess at the breech and secured to it. £ach gun was provided with 
scyeral chambers, so that as soon as one was discharged another was ready to be 


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dants, about the dedication of the same chapel, 
18«. 4rf. For two and a half jars of oil for the 
lamp there, 28. 3rf. ; also for the candelabrum hang- 
ing above the altar there, 12d. Also for the repa- 
ration of the harbour, besides five barrels of beer 
and two dozen loaves, and besides the labour of two 
men for six days there, 10«. Also for two cannons • 
with eight chambers ^ to the same, for the defence 
of the place, 7s. 

Sum, 49s. 7rf. 
Sum total of all expenses, £81. 4s. 7^d. 
Sum total of all expenses with the balance, 

£97. 7s. 65rf. 
The receipts exceed the expenses, 54s. l^d., and the 
sum to be collected of the tenants of the charnel- 
house, with the residue of the sum which foUows 
at the end of this. 

Things Remaining. — Four coombs one bushel of wheat. Also 
eleven barrels of beer. Also three good fat wethers. 
Also in beef, 8d. Also eighteen and a half lings. 
Also eleven and a half saltfish. Also two jars of 
honey. Also half a barrel half full of vinegar. 
Also a rumlet half full of good malt vinegar. Also 
seven ducks and one drake. Also five hens and 
one cock. Also one capon. Also a dozen chickens. 
Also in fuel, two and a half chaldrons of sea coal. 
Also one and a half hundred of wood faggots. 
Also four and a half hundreds of fir faggots. Also 
three thousand turves and more besides. Also three 
hundred red herrings. Also besides these things, 
let it be noted that the tenants of the charnel- 
house owe £4. 15s. Q^d., which sum the successor 
can recover to his use if he wishes. 


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(In dorso.) 

Pcelle Eedditg in Jememuth. 
Robtg Swoll e de xiij'. iiij*^. p anii yj». viij*. % no 

pig hoc ano sexto. Gristiana Wydewell p 

tene*** nup Bartholomei Etyce yj'^. 
Johes Oowper alias Slabson p tenet® nup Jobis 

pyle apd cap^ Saraceni viij^. 



. Prior fratru carmelitaru ij*. 
Thomas Eloyce p tene^ nup Johis Philyp Spycer 

Johes Kus p orto sine gardino nup Jacobi Gase 

de xij'^. p anu n^ hoc anno rcio ^ s® d) iij'. 
Thomas Bemont p tene^® suo ad capella bte marie 

de Amburth ob ante pede pontf 


Robt9 Barett p tene*® nupWiftiffolsham Coke xij*^. 

Johes Caleyce 1 Johes Baxter p firma duoj gar- 
dino^ ibm in Barettf rowe ij». 

RobtQ Eake p tene*° suo in le Conge iiij**. 

EdmSdg Seman p una pcella tene^ nup Willi 
Pertryk capttani x**. 

Johes flfelde p alta pcella eiusde tene^^ viij**. 

Johes Trame Wever p tene*** nup Petri Davy 

Wittms flfysh p tene^** nup Johis Andrew ta- 
ner xviij'^. 

Johes Gardener p tene*° nup Willi Spycer 
postea Emme uxorf pdci Wifli j**. 


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In the 
South Leet. 


(On the Back.) 

Parcels of the Eents in Yarmouth. 

Robert SwoUe, of 13^. 4d. per year, 65. 8d,, 
and no more, this being the sixth year. Chris- 
tiana Wydewell, for the tenement late of Bar- 
tholomew Elyce, 6d, 

John Cowper, alias Slabson^ for a tenement 
late John Pyle's, near the Saracen's Head, 8d. 

In the 
North Leet. 

f The Prior of the Carmelite Friars, 2«. 

Thomas Eloyce, for tenement late of John Philip, 
Spicer, 18d. 

John Rus, for a garden late James Gase's, of 12d. 
per year, nothing this third year, and so he 
owes, 3«. 

Thomas Bemont, for his tenement before the 
foot of the bridge to the chapel of blessed 
Mary of Ameburgh, Jd. 

Robert Barett, for tenement late William Foul- 
sham, Coke, 12d, 

John Caleyce and John Baxter, for rent of two 
gardens there in Barett's row, 28, 

Robert Rake, for his tenement in the Conge, 4<3f. 

Edmond Soman, for one part of a tenement late 
of William Pertryk, chaplain, lOd. 

John Feld for the other part of the same tene- 
ment, 8d. 

John Trame, wever, for tenement late Peter 
Davy's, 12d. 

William Fysh, for tenement late of John An- 
drew, tanner, 18rf. 

John Gardiner, for tenement late William 
Spicer's, afterwards of Emma wife of the 
said William, Id. 


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Johes Pennyng capttang p firma came supiorf 

jux"^ portas cimiterii ex pte occidtf iij». 
Wifims Beyham capellan9 p firma caiSe infe- 

riorf ibm xyj^. 
Eobt9 pug capttanQ % Thomas Eleyns- 

forth capftaB9 p fir*^ came Secudarij iij'. 
Sm"" — xxvj^ j*. ob. Yh allocandi sut jj^ quos 

Johes Rus detinet p duob3 anis precedentib}. 
Et sic Sm"" — tantu xxiiij*. j^. db, 

Sm"" xxiiij'. j*'. ob. 

[^Indorsed Copotg p»orf Jememuth A®. D. J. Bonwett 

p^orf 6^ P». Supp^oris.] 

1354. Compotf f ris Ro^i de Witertofi Prions Celle Jeme- 
muth [mutilated.] 

Eecept? £212 2 6. 
(inter alia.) De capella See ITar*^ in occidentf xxxiij" v* vj'*. 

De ymagie Sci Nichi et Alijs truncf in ecctia Ixxxxiij" v*. 

Expenf. — (inter alia.) In vino empto. et roga Sci Nichi. et 

ij tabernaciis in ecctia fcis. et factur^ j See Mar^. et 

stipend ctico^ cu alijs ncc'^ijs in eccHa, xj^ ix* ij'*. 

1387. Compotf f rtrs Johis de Hoo Custodis celle magne 

Eecept^ £205 6 1|. 

Expense, (inter alia.) In expesis fctis cca noua Capetta 
viijlib. viijso. iijd. 

1405. do. do. 

Recepi? £137 17 1. 
(inter alia.) D Capella b?e Marie in Cimiterio xix^* xj* iij*'. 


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John Pennyng, chaplain^ for rent of an upper 
chamber near the churchyard gates on the west 
side, 3^. 

William Beyham, chaplain, for rent of the lower 
chamber there, 16d, 

Robert parvus chaplain, and Thomas 

Eleynsforth, chaplain, for rent of the "Secundary's*' 
chamber, 3s. 

Sum, 26«. lid., whereof are allowed 2«., which 
John Ros detains for the two preceding years. 

And so the sum total is only 24s. l^d. 
Sum, 248. IJrf. 

Indorsed. — ^Account of the Prior of Yarmouth in the sixth 
year of Sir John BonweU, Prior. The Sub-prior's part. 

D magna cruce ad hostium Austral, xvj".' 

D trunco sci Nichi et alijs truncf in Ecclia xj* yj*. 

1413. do. ffris Wifli de Sylton Custodis ceUe 

Jemem, &c. 

Recept^ £104 8J. 

Pension, (inter alia.) Confribo; nris in f5 Sci Nichi vj". 

1442. do. Johis Molet Prions CeUe, &c. 

Recept^ £82 16 IJ. 
(inter alia.) D Reliquijs, ix* ij**. 

Expnf. (inter alia.) 

In expnf factf in ecclia s. Cera Cirpis cordis % repacione 
magne fenc'^ in oriental pte cancelle cum regardf predicant?, 
xliij* X**. 

2 Bartholomew Elys, burgeaa of Great Yannouth, in his will dated 1424, 
directed his body to he interred in the churchyard of St. Nicholas, ''juxta 
aueern ex parte aquilon* einsdem ecclesie.*' — Hyming^ 133. 


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Ifm in factum celle in dormitorio cu alijs repacionib) f cis 
in eodm, Cxvj* V*. 

In repacoe rnuro^ claustri cu factura clibani % j gurgitf 
ciun arundine argitt % stipendijs laborat^ p repacoe j domQ 
voc Malthous ^ rS pacoe alia? domo? in maf xxxiiij* x'^. 

1443. Same Prior. Except? £104 19 10. 

1444. Compotus dni Johis Heulond Prions EccKe Catli 
see Trinitf Norwic? post mortem ffris Johis Eglyngton nup 
P'orifl Celle Magne Jememuth, &c. 

Recept? £72 13 lOJ. 
(inter alia.) De oblaffiibo; iiij**' p*ncipaliu festo? 1. alio? q'b*; 
Solent pochiani ex denote offerr^ cu collect^ p Rowett 1 
pascatt xviij^^ iij**. 

Expenf . In repacoib} fcis videlt in j pclos in pmtuario % 
alijs in pist^no brasino 1 circa Molendinu xviij* x** ofe. 

In mediel? vnig x* solu? diio Regi ad fin Annuc? beate 
Marie, xl» v^ ob. 

In exequijs fris Johis Eglyngton p Cista cariagf^ eiusdm 
% eleia dat^ Paupib^ 1 alijs expenff^ circa feSat^ ciusd xxix* 

1445. Compotus ffris Johis ffolsbm Prioris Celle magne 
Jememul?, &c. 

Recept^ £91 1 9. 

Expens^. (inter alia.) In Repacoib} aule claustri ^ muro? 
cu mUf alijs puis repacoib'; v^* v" oh. 

In vitriacoe camere porf sup dormitoriu cu ferrura ciusd, 
xxvij' viij**. 

In scriptura libri Thome Alquini sup Marcu, xxij'. 

1446. Same Prior. 
Recepf £96 19 4. 

Expenf. (inter alia.) Itm dat^ ad pictura cuiQda ptice I 
eccHa 1 coUectoribT; cois pontf i villa vij' iiij**. 

Itm Johi Grygg in grosso p plawncheryng xiiij' yj^. 

Km eidm p repa&e domQ fontf aqueductg in coq*na ac 
multf alijs repacoib} fcis in stabulo et pistrino, xij" viij*^. 


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K Eobto Dvn ^ Johi Welman p repacoe fontf aqueduclQ 
clibani in pist*no ac muro^ in gardino juxta cimitoriu, 
xviij* j^ ofc. 

1451. Same Prior. Recept? £86 11 7^. 

Expenf, (inter alia.) In stipendio CHci Capelle bfe Marie 

In expeni factf in ecctia s. cirpis % cordf cu regardf 
^dicanciu xvij* iij*. 

In castigacone ^ refo*^cone impngnanciu citaffiem diii 
Epi ^ pupplice rebellanciu in ecctia Jememuth, viiij' xj**. 

Pen#. (inter alia.) Km confratrib} in fest? sci Nichi, vj«. 

In roga Sci Nichi xx*. 

1453. Same Prior. Recepf £84 18 5^. 

Expenf. (inter alia.) Itm datP ad reparaconem portus 
xij* x<*. 

Penf. (inter alia.) In expenf dni Eegis t* viij**. In 
pensione scolariu xviij' ix**. 

1470. Compotus flEratris Johnis BoneweU P'oris celle 

Recept? £49 6 2J. 

1484-5 printed at length, pp. 230—245. 

1490. Compotus flfratris Thome Hoo Custodis Celle Magne 

Recept? £37 4 8i. 

1502. Compotus ffiris Johis Attleburgh Custodis Celle 
Magne Jememuth, &c. 

Recept^ £71 17 IJ. 

(inter alia.) De decimis psonalib*^ xix^ iiij^ j^ ofc. De 

xxxviij* vj**. xlij* vij**. 

oblaffiib*; in quiq} festis viz die oim sco^. Die Sci Nicholai. 

xlix^ viij^. y* ij^ ofc. 

Die natiuitatis Dni. Die purifica^is fee marie, 
iij^ iiij* v^. 
Die pasche xti xxjd ob. (sic in orig.) 

[vol. VII.] 8 


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De alijs festis in quib} solent offerre ex deuocoe lj» ix** oft. 
De sex gild eiusd ville xxj» vij** oft. 

De obaffiib} in nauib} vj* yj'' oft. De capella be Marie 
yii yUjs jijjd Q^ j)g Cera vendit^ in ead capella T; in ecclia 
x" vj» iij**. De capella boni Ilenrici xxxij* vij'*. De reddit^ 
oblac^ p Belmanos iiij* xj**. 

De trib^; cadis allecf oblat^ p Westyrmcn ad imaginem be 
Marie de Ambnrgh nichil gz expenf in dome. 

Expend (inter alia.) 

In donis histrionib*; 1 nautis in nauib*j viij" ij^. 

Itm vitriar^ p repacoe fenestre oriental cancelle v' viij'*. 

Itm p repacone fenestra? in aula pliir^ dormitoi? iij* vij**. 

I? plubatorib} opantib} sup GaceUa ^ aulam, iij" ix**. 

1504. Same Custodian. 

Recept? £77 2 3. 
(inter alia.) D septem gildis eiusdem ville xxj« ij^ oft. 

Expend £82 2 91. 
(inter alia.) In repac ffenestrag in aula % in Capella See 
Marie, vj'. Itm plumbatorib} opan^ sup CanceUam % aulam 
vij" iiij**. 

In repacoe Organo? in Capella be Marie, iij* iiij**. 

In repaffie Cancelle xxxj». Km laborantib5 in Cimitio ^ 
in gardinis iij* vj**. 

1528. Compotus ffris "Willi Reppis custodis, &c. 

Recepte £69 12 2. 

Supexpenf In supexpenf compoto? ^ceden^ ut patet in 
pede Compi ^cedent xxxv^^ xj» iiij**. 


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Cbe Bint lotel, €xtni ^Jtrmautb. 



The Star Hotel, situate on the Quay at Great Yarmouth, 
bears abundant evidence of having been erected in the latter 
part of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and aflfords us a good 
specimen of the residence of a wealthy burgess at that period. 

The exterior, fronting the Quay, built of smoothed squared 
flints, with stone dressings, has undergone little alteration. 
There is a balcony to the first floor supported on pillars. 
The entrance and the rooms on either side on the ground 
floor are low. It was a common practice at the period when 
this house was erected, to appropriate this part of the building 
for the reception of goods and merchandise; the principal 
rooms for the family being on the first floor, and at the back 
where there was usually a garden. 

The oaken staircase is broad and fleet, with a heavy 

The principal room on the first floor, looking upon the 
Quay, is called " The Nelson Room," because it contains a 
portrait of that great Captain painted from the life, by 
KeymeVy a native artist. 

This room is in excellent preservation, and presents an 
admirable specimen of interior decoration prevalent at the 
period of its erection. The walls are lined throughout with 

s 2 


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wainscot, now black with age. They are panelled to the 
height of five feet, divided at regular intervals by fluted 
pilasters which support pedestals with terminal figures, al- 
ternately male and female, between which there is a series 
of ornamental panels with flat arches richly carved. Between 
the panelling and the ceiling there is a fine moulded border 
or cornice. The ceiling is divided by flat bands like the 
cornice into six compartments, which are adorned with 
ribbed mouldings and pendant fruit and flowers. The door 
at the north-east corner opens from a small lobby cut out of 
the room.^ 

Over the fire-place are carved upon a panel in high relief, 
the arms of the Company of Merchant Adventurers of Eng- 
land, which was incorporated early in the sixteenth century, 
and designed to supersede the Silyard Company of Foreign 
Merchants, whose exclusive privileges were subsequently 

These arms are, az. in base a sea with a dolphin's head 
appearing in the water, all prop. On the sea a ship with 
three masts in full sail or, the sails and rigging ar. on each 
sail a cross gu. in the dexter chief point the luce in splendour, 
and in the sinister chief point an etoile or. On a chief ar. 
a cross gu. charged with the lion of England. For a crest, 
on a wreath two arms embowed issuing out of clouds, all 
prop, holding a globe or. For supporters, two sea horses ar. 
fumed or. The arms in this house are not emblazoned, the 
globe has been taken from the crest, and the supporters, if 
they ever were there, are gone.^ 

^ There is a similar arrangement in an Elizabethan room at Thame Court, 
Oxfordshire ; also iu the gallery at Eockingham Castle. 

2 The same coat is carved in a room at No. 4, South Quay, Great Yarmouth ; 
and it is met with in houses of the same class and period at other sea-ports. The 
fonn of oath taken on admission to " The Freedom of the Fellowship of Mer- 
chant Adventurers of England" is given in '* A Booke of the Foundacion and 
Antiquitye of the Towne of Create Yermurthe," edited by Mr. C. J. Palmer, 
in 1847 (p. 138.) 


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The open fire-place in this room had been filled up and 
boarded over (except a small space in which a modem stove 
had been inserted) until very recently, when, upon removing 
the modem wood-work, the original stone chimney-piece was 
discovered. The Dutch tiles with which the open fire-place is 
now lined were taken from an old house in Row No. 83. 
On the south side of this room there is another apartment 
into which there is a small door through the wainscot, not 
easily perceived. There is a pendant ceiling in this room ; 
and there are also similar ceilings in the front chambers on 
the second floor. 

Another apartment, at the back of the house, raised above 
the ground floor, but not on a level with the first floor, 
although divided and much mutilated, presents some re- 
markable features of its former magnificence. An original 
window still remains entire; its oaken frame elaborately 
carved externally. It has fourteen lights in two tiers, the 
three centre lights both above and below being larger than 
the others. What remains of the ceiling is very fine; the 
pendants being of unusual size and beauty : it is profusely 
adorned with fruits and flowers.^ 

Beyond this room, to the east, was another apartment; 
and again, beyond the latter, was what was called the 
Banqueting House, a name frequently applied to an apart- 
ment opening into a garden ; and here probably there was 
a small garden extending to Middle or Blind Middle Street, 
now called Howard Street. Of this Banqueting House 
nothing now remains. It was entirely destroyed in 1740, and 
a malt-house erected on the site. When this house ceased to 
be a private residence and became a tavern, the malt-house 
was converted into stables and coach-houses. These, with 

» This apartment was for many years used as a kitchen to the hutel. The 
stone chimney-piece now in this room was found in fragments in an upper 
chamber, and has since been inserted by the present proprietor. Over this room 
there is a chamber in which a many-lighted original window still remains 


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tlie adjoining apartment to the west, were all pulled down by 
the present proprietor, and a spacious dining-room and a 
billiard-room erected on the site. When this demolition took 
place some curious discoveries were made. 

Next the apartment with the beautiful ceiling already 
mentioned, were found the jambs of a stone mantle-piece, 
seyen feet wide ; and imbedded in some of the adjacent walls 
were found several corbel heads, and fragments of string 
courses, mouldings, and other ornaments, all of an ecclesiastical 
character.* There may still be seen in an external wall ad- 
joining the South Row, a small fragment of an elegant stone 
screen ; and in the wall next the North Row there are the 
remains of an ancient window arched and faced with stone ; 
and the adjoining wall is partly constructed of stone rubble 
evidently obtained from some other building. 

It is probable that all these fragments were brought from 
the possessions of the Augustine Friars, who had a cell or 
branch establishment at Yarmouth, belonging to the Great 
Priory at Gorleston; suppressed and demolished at the 

Almost immediately opposite the Hotel yard, on the east 
side of Howard Street, a large building which once belonged 
to the Augustine Friars still remains. Below it are extensive 
vaults, now used as a porter store, approached from the street 
by a low arched door- way ; and the upper part is occupied as 
a place of meeting for the Society of Friends. It is much to 
be regretted that the cut-flint front of this building next 
Howard Street has been white- washed. 

There is a popular belief that the Star Hotel was the 
property or residence of Bradshaw, the President of the 
Commission by which Charles I. was condemned and sent to 
the scaffold ; but it- has no foimdation in fact. 

Early in the sixteenth century there was in the county 

* Some of these fragments are preserved in the garden of the Aflsembly-rooms, 
South Beach. 


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of Suffolk a country house called Crowe's Hall. John Crowe, 
of Crowe's Hall, married Alice daughter and coheir of 
Thomas Parker, of Norwich, who bore the same arms as 
Archbishop Parker. Of Parker Crowe, their eldest son, 
nothing is known ; but John Crowe, another son, settled at 
Norwich ; Eleanor their daughter married, in 1601, Anthony 
Loveday, of Chediston, in Suffolk ; and William Crowe, 
a younger son, settled in Yarmouth, where he acquired a 
considerable fortime as a merchant, and served the office of 
bailiff in 1594, and again in 1606. He it was who erected 
the house, now known as the Star Hotel, for his own pri- 
vate residence ; and being one of the Merchant Adventurers 
of England he placed the arms of that company in the 
principal apartment. William Crowe, his son, was bom in 
1617, and went to London, where he established himself as 
an upholsterer in Smithfield, then not only one of the 
principal places of business in London but also a fashionable 
quarter. Pepys, in his Diary ^ speaks of calling upon " Crowe 
the Upholsterer on St. Bartholemews."* He appears to have 
acquired a considerable fortune, and to have added to his 
business that of a money lender. Among others who sought 
his assistance was Sir William Paston, of Caister Castle, who 
appears to have borrowed considerable sums of Crowe, pro- 
bably for the purpose of building his new and splendid seat 
at Oxnead. 

In 1659 Sir William Paston, having determined to abandon 
Caister Castle as a residence, sold it to William Crowe, who, 
having retired from business, passed the rest of his life at 
Caister Castle when in the coimtry, having for his town 
residence the house built by his father on Yarmouth Quay. 
By his will he desired to be buried in Caister church, and to 
have there a monument erected to his memory. His wishes 
were complied with : there is in the chancel a mural monu- 

^ There appears to have been some connection between the two families. 


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ment, having a long inscription in Latin, recording that he 
had lived many years in London ; above this inscription 
there is a handsome marble bust of Crowe. The arms of 
Crowe are carved in white marble — gu. a chevron between 
three cocks cromng, arg. He married Jane, daughter of 
Thomas Bransby, of Great Yarmouth, by Mary his wife, a 
daughter of Christopher Edmond Crowe, of East Bilney, and 
appointed his brothers-in-law, Thomas Bransby and BK)bert 
Bransby, executors of his will. 

Thomas Bransby, whose daughter Crowe married as above 
stated, was the son of Robert Bransby, of Shottesham, in 
Norfolk ; he died in 1641. Thomas Bransby, his eldest son, 
was High Sheriff of Norfolk in 1681, and resided in the 
Yarmouth house till his death in 1682. He had an only 
child, Elizabeth, who inherited this house with other very 
considerable property, and married Sir Philip Astley, of 
Melton Constable, Bart.* 

Lady Astley died in 1738, and Sir Philip in the year 
following. This house descended to their son Sir Jacob 
Astley, Bart., who in 1740 sold it to Thomas Dawson, of 
Great Yarmouth, maltster, to whom we are indebted for the 
demolition of the Banqueting House. In 1749, Dawson 
conveyed the property to Robert Wilson, Esq., a wealthy 
com merchant in London, who died in 1765, leaving all his 
estates to his two daughters and coheirs, (viz.) Dorothy, who 
married Anthony Chamier, Esq., and died without issue; 
and Elizabeth, who married Thomas Bradshaw, Esq., by 
whom she had four sons, (1) Robert Haldane Bradshaw, Esq. 

^ She likewise inherited considerable wealth under the will of her uncle 
Kobert Bransby, who died without issue in 1692, including ten messuages in 
St. Anne's Blackfriars, London, then lately rebuilt by the testator after the 
great fire of 1666. He appointed his nephew-in-law, Sir Philip Astley, sole 
executor of his will. A hatchment still remains in the chancel of Yarmouth 
Church charged with the arms of Bransby : Ar. on a bend cotised m. bctw. two 
flours de lys ffu. a lion passant or. 

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of Worseley Hall, Lancashire, and of Runcorn, in Chesliire, "^ 
sometime M.P., for Brackley in Northamptonshire, (a 
borough disfranchised by the first Beform Act.) (2) Bar- 
rington Bradshaw, Esq., who died in the East Indies in 1804. 
(3) Lawrence Bradshaw, Esq., a Lieut.-Col. in the Life 
Guards ; and (4) Augustus Hill Bradshaw, Esq., of Lower 
Seymour Street, upon whom the Yarmouth property devolved ; 
and by him in 1806, the Star Hotel was conveyed to Mr. 
William Woolverton, who in 1824 sold it to Mr. George 
Bennett, at that time a favourite comic actor attached to the 
Norwich company of comedians. By him this property was 
sold to Mr. W. H. Diver, who a few years since conveyed it 
to Mr. Shales, the present spirited proprietor.® 

^ The Bradsbaws of Buncom claim to be descended from the Bradshaws of 
Maple Hall, in Leicestershire, of which family ** Broad-Brimmed Bradshaw " was 
a member. 

" It may not be uninteresting to record here the descent of Caister Castle. 
William Crowe devised the Castle to his nephew, Boger Crowe, on whose death 
without issue it passed to his nephew, Boger Crowe, who was High Sheriff of 
Norfolk in 1703. On his death in 1725, without issue, Caister Castle devolved 
upon his nephew, John Bedlngfeld, Esq., of Beeston S. Andrew, High Sheriff 
of Norfolk in 1728, who died in 1787) aged 85, and was buried at Caister. He 
was the son of William Bedingfeld, Esq., (by Elizabeth his wife, sister of the 
last-mentioned Boger Crowe,) who was the son of Henry Bedingfeld, Esq., of 
Sturston, (grandson of Henry Bedingfeld, Esq., fifth son of Sir Henry 
Bedingfeld of Oxburgh, Ent.) by Anne his wife, daughter of William Crowe, 
and sister and heir of John Crowe. Judith, the only child and sole heir of the 
above-named John Bedingfeld, married, in 1749, Sir John Bous, of Henham, 
Bart, grandfather of the present Earl of Stradbroke, taking with her Caister 
Castle as part of her dower. By Sir John Bous the Castie was sold to Mr. Jjyon, 
of Gray's Inn, who resold it to Mr. Burton, a timber merchant of Great 
Yarmouth, by whose descendants it was sold a few years since to the late 
John Gumey, Esq., (son of the late Samuel Gumey, Esq.,) and it is now the 
property of his son. 


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md ^ainlmgs 




It is but seldom that we have on our excursions an oppor- 
tunity of inspecting Mural Paintings, and until last year, 
when we found some preserved at Fritton and Hardwick, 
we had not seen one in any of the churches visited since 
that at South Burlingham Church in 1858. 

It is generally during church restoration — I use the word 
in its conventional sense — that mural paintings are found, 
and almost as surely are they within a fortnight or three 
weeks obliterated, either by being scraped off or by being 
re-whitewashed, in which latter case, although not lost for 
ever, they cannot fail to be seriously damaged.^ An excuse 
for such Vandalism is never wanting: either the paintings 
are too fragmentary to be of any value, or, if more perfect, 
the execution is coarse or the subject apocryphal ; whilst 

1 Bead in the Church at the Meeting in August, 1867. 

* Since the ahove was written, I have seen in the Prospectus of "A 
Catalogue of the principal Exemplars of ^Icditcval Fainting in England, " hy 
Mr. E. L. Blackbume, some remarks which I cannot refrain from quoting 

** Spared to a considerable extent by time and by the ruder hand of bygone 
fanaticism, it has remained for modem interference, in the shape of the cruelly 
misapplied term of * restoration,* to remove from us irrecoverably, features of 
the highest value in an historical sense, objects of the greatest antiquarian 


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with those paintings which illustrate incidents of Holy Scrip- 
ture, it is usually alleged that funds are wanting to restore 
them, and therefore they are swept away, and the uniformity 
of the plastered wall " restored" in their stead. Thus we lose 
paintings valuable alike to the artist and the antiquary, and 
which, as Mr. Gunn very justly observes, had they been found 
in Westminster Abbey, would have been deemed priceless 
and preserved most scrupulously. It is but a small comfort 
to know that of many of them drawings are preserved, for 
how very much less in value than the original is the best 
copy that can be made, and in too many cases we are without 
even this satisfaction. Occasionally we find exceptions to the 
rule of immediate destruction, and fortunately we have met 
with one to-day. 

Some months since, Mr. J. T. Bottle, of Great Yarmouth, 
architect, having heard that in making a ventilator in the 
south wall of the nave of this church traces of colour had been 
detected, at once obtained permission from the churchwardens 
to clear off the numerous coats of whitewash. His exertions 
were rewarded by finding the whole space between two of the 
windows, in length about twelve feet, occupied by a very fine 
large and early painting, representing the "Son of Man 
coming in the clouds of heaven with power and great glory." 
TJnfortimately the central portion of the upper part of the 
painting is irretrievably lost, the wall there having been 

interest, and of an artistic kind, remains of the utmost importance, viewed in 
connection with the question of the state and progress of English Art during the 
period referred to. 

*' Affecting all in a degree, there are none of these however to which this rule 
of demolition has more largely perhaps apx)licd, and continues to apply, than 
to the painted decorations once so conspicuously, and with the limitations of 
greater or less extent, so commonly exhibited in all our ancient Churches. 
These seem fated, particularly as regards wall painting, to receive but a very 
small amount of consideration and preservative care. lu the latter cases, as 
from time to time they are brought to light, discoycrj leads, for the most part, 
hut to a recovery — not in the conservative sense, but in the contrary signifi- 
cation of the word, — if not to a more permanent and thorough destruction." 


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rebuilt some considerable time since, and the plaster at the 
lower right«hand comer is in a decayed state. The ex- 
cellence of what remains makes us regret these mutilations 
all the more. Our Lord was represented with the world 
beneath His feet, seated upon a rainbow, the lower part of 
which is still left, but of the figure of our Lord nothing but 
the bare feet, marked with the print of the nails, remain. 
On either side of our Lord is depicted a seraphim, presenting 
to Him a kneeling female. The one on His right hand, 
perhaps His virgin mother, bares her bosom, and holds her 
right breast in her hand, as if pleading her maternity. The 
other figure has her hands joined in prayer. Lower down 
are two angels, habited in albes and wearing the usual -type 
of angelic crowns, simimoning, ''with a great sound of a 
trumpet,*' the dead to judgment. The angel on the right- 
hand side of the painting is more perfect than his fellow, and 
his trumpet with its cross-ensigned banner is very distinct. 
Below are eleven nude figures, rising in various attitudes, 
and with varied expression of countenance, from the grave. 
Amongst them are represented a king and queen, mitred and 
tonsured ecclesiastics, and two knights, whose acutely-pointed 
bascinets, together with the broad bold style of drawing, 
indicate the reign of Edward III. as the date of the execu- 
tion of the painting. The treatment of the subject corresponds 
with that of other mediaBval representations of our Lord's 
second coming, but the kneeling female figures presented 
to our Lord do not, as far as I am aware, occur elsewhere. 

On the nortli wall of the nave, opposite the painting just 
noticed, enclosed within a border of Decorated character, is 
a smaller painting of our Lord's Resurrection. This is con- 
siderably faded, but the figure of our Lord, habited in a 
green vesture, stepping out of the sepulchre, holding i^ His 
left hand the cross banner of the resurrection, and with His 
right hand giving His benediction, is tolerably distinct. 
One of the soldiers' bills lies on the ground. 


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There are indications that the whole of the walls were 
originally covered with paintings, and, although for the 
present operations are suspended, it is to be hoped that these 
paintings also may be uncovered, and, with those we now 
see, carefully preserved. Indeed, where there is any intention 
of obliterating mural paintings, it is a thousand pities that 
they should be uncovered at all ; it seems to me like a fraud 
upon posterity which it will assuredly not forget to resent. 
We shoidd regard these, and all other objects of ancient art, 
as precious heirlooms, preserved to us, it is true, by happy 
accident, but still not the less heirlooms, which we are bound 
in equity to hand down intact to succeeding generations. 

Very little need be said about the church, no part of 
which appears to be earlier than the thirteenth centurj'. The 
chancel desks are Late Perpendicular ; the octagonal pulpit 
(with a modem door), and the screen, also Perpendicular, 
will, although mutilated, repay examination, the details being 
good. The font is a curious mixture. Perpendicular work on 
a much earlier base, bearing traces of a central and four 
other columns. In the octagonal upper story of the round 
tower is a bell, probably of the fourteenth century, from the 
Lynn foundry, inscribed in capitals — johaiines de lennb 
KB FECIT. There are but few of this type remaining. The 
gable springers of nave and chancel are worthy of notice. 

In conclusion, I must again refer to the wall paintings, 
to hope > that the Society will not leave Somerton without 
deciding to have at least the larger of these paintings drawn 
by a competent artist, and illustrated in the Society's Original 
Papers. It is rarely that examples of so much beauty are 
brought to light, and the Society cannot better fu]^l the 
object for which it was established, i,e,y " The Encouragement 
and Prosecution of Research into the Early Arts and Monu- 
ments of the County," than by circulating such illustrations 
among its members. 


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Cntnluitl; Cburrb Cofotr. 



Having been requested to say a few words on the curious 
and ancient tower of this church/ I do so with a feeling that 
I am quite unfit to address so learned an assembly, and 
may trust to your kind consideration in anything I may 
advance as regards my opinion of its great and venerable 

I am well aware there are many archaoologists who snule 
at the notion of any eidsting churches, or portions of them, 
being of a period much before the Norman Conquest, and 
consequently would regard Blomefield as mistaken in giving 
this tower a date so far back as Harold, from the mere fact 
of his being possessed of property in the parish, and con- 
sequently likely to build a church ; but when, arguing from 
the same premises, I attribute it to a much earlier period, I 
fear their smile would be converted into downright laughter ; 
but for my own part, as we have several Roman buildings 
still in existence in England, some in a very perfect state — 
as the Roman gate at Lincoln, — coupled with the fact that 
Christianity was introduced into East Anglia long before 
Harold's time, viz., in the early part of the seventh century, 
as Bede informs us, when churches must necessarily have 
been built for the celebration of divine service, I think it 

* Ecad at the Excursion Meeting of July, 1868. 


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therefore unreasonable to argue that no parts of them can 
be existing at present, when we consider the solidity of 
such towers as this, and the imperishable materials of which 
it is formed. 

Round towers appear to have been built at all periods of 
architecture, but generally are of an early character, and no 
doubt tlieir origin arose from the ease with which they 
could be constructed without the expense of freestone for 
angles; and under the impression that the tower of this 
church is among the earliest specimens of ecclesiastical 
architecture we have existing in England, I will draw 
your attention to a few points connected with it in suc- 
cession, and, with a view of making them plainer, will place 
before you a rough diagram of the building. 

The main features to be observed are — 

Ist. — The rudeness of construction, and gradual tapering 
of the walls to the top, without any indication of stages. 

2nd. — ^The almost total absence of freestone throughout 
its construction. 

3rd. — ^Its completeness as an original building of very 
remote date, the only addition to it being that of the bat- 
tlement, which is probably of the Perpendicular period of 
Gothic architecture. 

As regards the rudeness of its construction, it is impossible 
for any one, in a casual manner, to look at it externally 
without seeing that the skilled workman of the early Norman 
period had no hand in it, and by close inspection I think 
there is evidence to show that it was raised in courses of 
about eighteen inches in thickness, not by hand, but by 
pouring rubble material into a frame in a liquid state, and 
allowing it to stand till sufficiently consolidated before another 
layer was placed upon it ; the arches being formed on rough 
centres of wood upon which the rubble was poured, which is 
evident from the impressions of the pieces of wood being 
most distinct at the present day, these centres not being 


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(as was the custom in the Norman period) of the same size 
as the opening, but about four inches larger, so as, when 
removed, to leave the arches set in on each side two inches 
from the jambs. 

The tapering of the walls should also be noticed^ two- 
thirds of which is external, the following being the thickness 
of the walls : — at the base 4 ft. 4 in., and at the top 2 ft. 4 in., 
giving a diminution of two feet in the whole height, which is 
47 feet exclusive of the battlement, of this 1 foot 4 inches is 
external, and 8 inches internal. Thus the diameter at the 
base is 15 ft. 4 in., and at the top 12 ft. 8 in., the height 
being (a trifle under) three diameters of the base. 

2nd. — ^The next point is the almost total absence of free- 
stone; and this is very noticeable, even the jambs of the 
arches being constructed of flints and rubble, without any 
attempt at angles, the arches, as I observed, being formed of 
the same material, the only pieces of freestone being the 
small round window in the lower stage, and the three very 
remarkable ones in the form of a Runic cross in the middle 
stage, all of which are cut out of single flat stones, the 
walls being externally slightly splayed to form a kind of 
frame for them. 

3rd. — ^As to its completeness as an original building, it is 
well worthy of observation. In a general way, we find the 
upper story of round towers of early date has been removed 
and an octangular top substituted at various periods of 
architecture, — some very elaborate and elegant, as that at 
the neighbouring church of Stanford ; here, however, nothing 
has been done but to add a simple battlement, which is no 
doubt a great improvement to the general effect, though 
perhaps if it had terminated in a conical form like the Irish 
round towers, which it very much resembles in general out- 
line, we should have a better idea of what the ancient 
landlords and builders considered perfection of a village 
church steeple. 


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In the course of a recent search through the early Assize 
and Plea Rolls at the Record OflSce, I found my attention 
not unfrequently withdrawn from the matter in hand by 
lighting upon names and events with which in my early 
archaeological investigations I was familiar. The result was 
the accumulation of a number of notes of matters recorded 
in these Rolls, a good many of which relate to Norfolk and 

Among the earliest, I find full details of the abduction of 
the son of Benedict, the physician, by the Jews, in the 18th 
Henry III., and how he became " Jurnepin." ^ 

Numerous particulars of the disputes between the Priory 
and City, anterior to the burning of the Cathedral and 
Priory in 1272, which give a clearer insight into the causes 
of that catastrophe than elsewhere appear, are also to be 
found on these Rolls. 

But some entries on the Assize Rolls, of special interest to 

^ Blomefield, vol. iii. p. 44. 
[vol. VIT.] T 


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me, related to the events recorded in the Norwich Coroner's 
Roll, from which I published a number of extracts in the 
second volume of the Norfolk ArchoBology (p. 253), and I 
have thus learned the termination of cases of which the 
Coroner's Roll only furnished the commencement. 

For instance, there was on the Coroner's Roll (p. 257) the 
case of Katherine Justice, in whose house a burglary had 
been committed, and the dead body of her husband, lying in 
the hall of it, burnt. The facts then ascertained are there 
recorded, and eight persons are named as the culprits. The 
Assize Roll of the 62nd Henry III. gives the conclusion: 
three were found guilty ; one of them named Ralph, the son 
of Robert, being a clerk, was handed over to the Bishop to be 
dealt with ; the two named Nicholas were hung, and the rest 

The case to which I particularly wish to direct attention, 
is that of the man resuscitated after being hung, (p. 276). 
Recorded instances of such recovery are extremely rare ; but 
I was not aware when I extracted this case from the Coroner's 
Roll that it had been of such importance to the city as it 
appears from the Assize Rolls it was. The Record states 

On Monday, in the first week of Lent, 13 Edward I., 
Roger de Wylby, Adam le Clerk, James Nade, and William 
de Burwode, being bailiffs, one Walter Eghe was taken for 
stealing cloth from the house of Richard de la Ho, and for 
other thefts, and on the Wednesday following was taken before 
the bailiffs and whole community of the city in the Tolbooth, 
and was there required to put himself upon the country. 
And the bailiffs and community caused inquisition to be 
made if he were guilty or not, by which inquisition it was 
found that he was. Wherefore, they adjudged him to be 
hung, and he was hung accordingly. And he was taken 
down from the gallows, and carried to St. George's church 
to be buried, when he was found to be living. 


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And the jurj% at the following assizes, being required 
to say by whom he was taken from tlie gallows, said that 
William, son of Thomas Stanhard, came and acknowledged 
it, and he was committed to gaol ; and they found that four 
marks, the chattels of the felon, were in the hands of the 

And they further found that he remained in that church 
for fifteen days, and was there watched by the parishes of 
St. Peter of Hundegate, St. Mary the Less, St. Simon and 
Jude, and St. George before the gates of the church of the 
Holy Trinity, and that after fifteen days he escaped from 
their custody; and there was judgment against the four 
parishes for allowing the escape. 

The)' further found that he then placed himself in the 
Church of the Holy Trinity, and there remained until the 
King at his suit pardoned him. 

And at this assize, he came before the court and exhibited 
the charter of the King, which is dated at Burgh the 24tli 
of March, 13th year, and this charter is set out in full upon 
the Roll. 

And thereupon the bailiffs and community were required 
to say by what authority they adjudged him to be hung, and 
hung him, without suit of any one, or having taken him in 
the fact. They say that the King came at Easter into these 
parts, and was informed how it happened, upon which he 
sent John de Lovetot into the city to inquire further, and 
who, for the same matter, seized the liberties of the city into 
the King's hands, and the same liberties remained in tlie 
King's hands until the succeeding parliament. And that 
afterwards, at such parliament, the King restored them by 
his charter, which is also given verbatim on the RoU.^ 

This charter does not, as Blomefield states,® recite and 
confirm all previous charters: it recites that on account of 

* Assize Roll, City of Norwich, 14 Edward I. 
3 Blomefield, vol. iii. p. 63. 

T 2 


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the burning of the Church of the Holy Trinity, King Henry, 
his father, had seized the city liberties into his hands, and 
that after his death he had restored them to hold at his will ; 
and that they had now again been seized by reason of a 
certain transgression by them committed in taking thieves 
and other malefactors in the city, for crimes committed out 
of it, and doing execution upon them ; but he now entirely 
relieved the citizens and restored their liberties, they paying 
annually the old rent of £108, and 40s. increased rent to the 
Exchequer. And this is dated at Westminster, the 27th 
May, 13th year, (and not the 7th as Blomefield states.) 

This Record has several claims for special notice ; first, as 
being one of the very few authentic records of a return to 
life after execution, and as containing a charter of pardon on 
account of the same, and also on account of the severe 
penalty upon the city in consequence of it. 

It also brings prominently to notice what is frequently 
forgotten in discussing the right of Sanctuary — ^the enormous 
cost it must have been upon a town; — people constantly 
flying to the churches for aU sorts of offences, immediately 
casting the burden of a strict watch on the four adjoining 
parishes while they remained there. 

Another " Sanctuary '' record will be, I think, of interest. 
It is on the Assize Roll for Norwich, of the 14th Edward I. 

** The jury present that William de Lodne (Loddon) clerk, 
and Hugh Maydenelove, (of whom it appears by the Humilyard 
Roll that he abjured the realm*) were taken for stealing sheep, 
and other thefts, and imprisoned in the Tolhouse of the city, 

* Abjuring the realm. The following outh is from the Red Book of Colchester, 
p. 49. " This hear ye, Sir Coroner of our Lord the King, that I, N. S. of B, in 
the shire of E, am a felon, and feloniously hath robhed or slain, (after his con- 
fession hath been to the coroner afore), therefore I forswear the King's land 
of England, and I shall haste me to the port I am assigned to which ye have 
given me, and I shall not go (mt of the highway, and if I do I will that I be 
taken again as a felon of our Lord the King, and to the same place I shall 
diligently take my way, and that I shall not abide there but an ebb and a flood 


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(now the Guildhall) in the custody of Roger de Tudenham, 
Paul de Paggrave, William de Ref ham, and Walter Knotte, 
bailiffs of the city, and which same Hugh broke prison, and 
carried the said William tcith him upon his back to the Church 
of St. John of Ber Street, whose foot had rotted from his long 
imprisonment; and there having left the same William, 
himself immediately fled, (as appears by the before-mentioned 
Humilyard Roll) and on the morrow when the bailifls found 
the same William, he went out of sanctuary and rendered 
himself to the King's peace. And he was afterwards led 
before the bailifiPs and community; and there came one 
Christiana Startup of Lodne, who accused him of stealing 
the twenty-two sheep found with him when first taken, and 
which sheep were in the charge of William de Refham, the 
bailiff. And when the same William was asked how he wished 
to be tried, he said he was a clerk and unable to answer them, 
whereupon he was remitted to gaol. And afterwards on a 
certain other day, in the absence of the prosecutrix, he was 
again brought before them, and, placing himself on the 
country, was acquitted. And at the assizes, the bailiffs had 
judgment against them, for permitting his acquittal and 
allowing the escape." 

The terrible condition of the prisons of those days is 
forcibly presented to us in the preceding extract. The loss of 
a limb from the state of the prison would probably not have 
been remarked on at all if it had not been necessary to 
explain the circumstances of the escape ; and the negligent 

if I may have my passage in so short a time; I shall go every day into sea up to 
my knees assaying for to pass. And if it he so I may not have passage within 
the time of 40 days, I shall yield me again to church, so help me God and holy 
Doom." — Report on Colchester Jitrords, 1865, p. 32. AYhat happened if the 
undertaking was not carried out may be seen by the following extract. ** Roger 
Tril, who abjured the realm before the coroner of the city of Nurwich, being 
arrested, acknowledged his abjuration, &c. ; and the coroner produced the 
Record. Thei-efore hung; chattels none." — Gaol Dvlivert/^ Xorwich Casi/Cf 
23 Edward I. 


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watch kept on a priaon in the middle of the city, when a 
man could break it, and (though doubtless cumbered with 
fetters) could carry another man on his back half across the 
city, is also remarkable. 

Another of my extracts has reference to the " Trial by 
Duel," of which Selden says in his " De Duello " that " the 
least plural number doubled comprehended all the recorded 
cases." But that is contrary to my experience : the Assize 
Rolls of this date afford numerous instances. I have a note 
of a case at Exeter,* where a prisoner charged no less than 
seven different persons with being his associates in various 
murders and robberies. In five of these cases, duel was 
struck, in one of which he withdrew his charge upon the 
field, in two others he was the conquerer, and his opponents 
were forthwith hung. In two the result is not given, and 
in the other cases the accused preferred a trial by jury, and 
were convicted and hung. 

In the Norfolk case, which is on the Gaol Delivery Roll 
for Norwich of the 23rd Edward I., it is stated that John, 
son of Alexander Sparrow of West Winch, a prisoner, 
accused Nicholas de Belton as well of being his companion in 
robberies at J>lham, as of being concerned with him in 
divers burglaries there. And this he offered to prove by his 
body. And Belton defended himself, denying every charge, 
and offered to support his denial by his body ; therefore duel 
was ordered. Afterwards they came arrayed to the place of 
duel, and duel was therefore struck between them, and 
Nicholas de Belton, the accused, acknowledged his guilt, and 
was forthwith hung, and the accuser was remitted to gaol. 

There is a case on the Rolls of Henry Ill's time, which 
Mudox quotes in his " History of the Exchequer," and he 
gives an engraving from the drawing at the head of the 
original Roll. In this case Walter Blewberme, a prisoner, 

* Haverberg's C'asc, Asffizt- Roll, Ivth/icnter. 9 Henry III. 


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was accuser, and Hamon le Stare, defendant. The duel was 
struck, and Hamon vanquished and hung : the accuser re- 
turned to prison. In the picture, the combat is shown to 
the right, the names of the parties being written above. In 
the centre is a distant view of the gallows, the name Hamon 
le Stare again appearing above the suspended body. 

I found an entry in the Red Book of Colchester of a duel 
there at a much later period, (49 Edward III.) which is more 
minute in the details. It states that the sheriff prepared 
clothing and arms for the combatants, and brought them on 
the day appointed before the justices, to the place of duel 
on the north side of Colchester Castle. They were clotlied 
in leather coats, and had staves piked with horn, and targets 
in their hands, and license being given and silence proclaimed 
they fought, and the accused being vanquished was hung, and 
the approver led back to prison.* 

There was also the fight between the armourer and his 
man in the 24th Henry VI., in Smithfield, at which the 
armourer's friends, fearing his courage might fail him, so 
plied him with drink before he entered the lists, that when 
he did he was instantly overcome. 

The duel, however, was not confined to criminal cases. I 
have a note of a trial in the 44th Henry III., from the 
Plea Roll, where in a Hampshire case, one Adam de Spineto 
sued William Fitzbald for a knight's fee at Cnyvington, 
whereof Robert his father was seized in the time of King 
Richard, to whom he succeeded as his heir, and he offered 
proof by the body of his freeman Roger Bene. And William 
came and defended his right and that of his father, and 
offered proof by the body of his freeman Florence de Chilton. 
And thereupon duel was accorded them. Afterwards the 
duel was placed before the King at Westminster, the Monday 
after Michaelmas, in his 44th year, by the King's order. 

• Report on the Records of the Corporation of Cokhistcr, 1865, p. 30. 


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And being on the field, Adam gave half a mark for a license 
to arrange the dispute ; the arrangement being that William 
was to retain the land till Adam paid him one hundred 
marks, for which payment two terms named, a moiety being 
payable on each. 

Several curious cases are recorded in the Placitorum Ahbre" 
vatio: "Duellum." 

Many of us have done suit and service at the Court 
Baron of a Norfolk Manor, and have formed perhaps no 
very exalted notion of such a court ; few of us are prepared 
for the view of the powers and responsibilities of the 
steward and suitors shown on the Assize Roll for the 14th 
Edward I. 

"Robert Gavel and Richard Fitzwilliam, both of Buk- 
enham, fighting in the tx)wn of New Bukenham, the latter 
was struck by the former on the head with a stafi*, from 
which he died the day after. Thereupon, Robert Gavel was 
taken to the court of Robert de Tateshal, who was Lord of 
Bukenham, and delivered to Nigel Fitzwilliam, bailiflT of 
the Lord, who detained him in custody at the toll-house of 
New Bukenham. 

*' And the jury at assizes say that Robert Gavel wounded 
one Simon de Spalding, in that town, and immediately fled 
to his own house, and there remained ; and when this was 
known the said Nigel, together with his brother the aforesaid 
Richard Fitzwilliam, Richard Brun, and Roger de Bukenham 
went to the house of the same Robert Gavel to take him 
into custody, which he would not allow them to do, but 
struck the same Richard, who died from the said blow as 

** And they say that the said Nigel immediately after that 
act took the same Robert, and on the morrow caused the 
suitors of the court of Bukenham to assemble before him 
the said Nigel, charging him, the said Robert, with having 
stolen a cloak, and caused a certain woman to appear against 


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him concerning the same cloak, and there by the judgment 
of the same court he was adjudged to be hung, and he hung 
him at the gallows of the aforesaid Robert de Tateshal. 

"And it being asked of the said jury if the aforesaid 
Robert had stolen the said cloak, they say he did not, but 
they say the said Nigel, out of malice to the said Robert, 
because he had killed his brother, caused him to be charged 
with that theft, to hang him by means of his Lord's Court. 

" And because it appeared to the jury that the aforesaid 
Nigel through malice, together with the suitors of the court, 
without suit, or being taken in the fact, adjudged the said 
Robert in that court to be hung, and hung him at the lord's 
gallows, when they ought to have sent the same Robert to 
the gaol of the Lord the King; the sheriff is ordered to 
cause the same Robert de Tateshal, Nigel, and the suitors to 
come before this court. 

'* And afterwards Nigel and the suitors appeared ; and Nigel 
said that Robert Gavel was brought before him in full court 
on the suit of a certain woman, who charged him with 
stealing a cloak, and Robert endeavoured to prove that it 
belonged to him, and because he failed to do so, he was 
adjudged to be hung on the suit of the said woman. 

**And because they proceeded to judgment when they ought 
to have sent the prisoner to the King's gaol, as the enquiry 
into the death of the same Richard was out of the power of 
the aforesaid court, as well the said Nigel as the suitors of 
the court are remanded to prison. Afterwards the suitors 
came and were fined as appears below." 

The entry to which the last paragraph appears to refer, 
occurs shortly after, but it is singular that the Robert Gavel 
named in it does not appear to be the man named above, and 
I find nothing relating to Nigel Fitzwilliam. 

**The jury present that one Nicholas, a thief unknown, wad 
taken at New Buckenhan with five ells of russet cloth of 
the value of 4s, 6d. And Geoffrey le Botyller, bailiff of 


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Robert de Tateshal, assembled a court of the same Robert 
for the manor of New Buckenhamy and in full court, without 
suit of auy one, adjudged the same Nicholas to be hung, and 
hung him at the gallows of the said Robert de Tateshal. 
And also one Gilbert de Crostweyt went to the same town 
of New Buckenham, carrying two carpets and two towels, 
and was taken by the same Geoffrey, and acknowledged in 
the same court that he had stolen them, and on his confession 
they hung him. And in like manner, William Miller was 
taken with ten ells of blue cloth, and led before the court, 
and on confession was hung without suit of any one. And 
Robert Gavel also was taken for stealing corn in autumn, 
and by the same Geofitey and the suitors, without suit of 
any one, or without being taken in the fact, was hung. 

"Therefore the sheriff is ordered to cause the aforesaid 
Geoffrey and the suitors of the same court and the aforesaid 
Robert de Tateshal to come before this court. 

"And afterwards Robert de Tateshal and Geoffrey and the 
suitors came. 

"And Robert de Tateshal said that he had the town of 
New Buckenham, and held the town and court aforesaid at 
fee farm, and that he had bailiffs of his own election. And 
that if any trespass had been committed in that behalf, he 
was not bound to answer it, as it was altogether the act of 

** And Geoffrey and the court suitors are present, and are 
unable to say why they hung the said thieves without 
suit of any one as aforesaid ; therefore they are remanded to 

"Afterwards Geoffrey and the suitors were find 10s. each 
for such trespass, and found pledges: Adam de Modelond, 
Richard de Walsingham, Nicholas de Cressingham, and 
Goscelin de Depham." 

Although New Buckenham was a large manor, there were 
hundreds of others of equal and greater importance where 


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the lord had right of gallows ; and if this may be taken as 
a specimen of what was going on in other places, the sacrifice 
of life must have been appalling. 

The efforts of the Superior Courts to restrict the jurisdic- 
tion of these Courts Baron do not seem to have been very 

Another case in the same Roll is remarkable for another 

Assize Boll, Norunch, 14 Edward I, 

"Jury of the Hundred of Smethedon present, that Christiana 
Gamot, and Nicholas, the son of Mariota Bagge, of Hunstan- 
ton, were taken on the indictment of the country, at the 
sheriff's turn, and carried in custody to the town of Hunstan- 
ton, where they escaped from custody. Therefore judgment 
against that town for allowing the escape. And the said 
Christiana immediately placed herself in the church of 
Hunstanton, and acknowledged herself a thief, and abjured 
the realm before the coroner. Had no chattels. And the 
said Nicholas fled, and afterwards placed himself in the same 
church, and acknowledged himself a thief, and abjured the 
realm before the coroner. He had no chattels, nor was 
he in the leet. And after abjuring the realm, he returned 
into the country and broke into the house of John Norman 
of Hunstanton, and took and carried away goods and chattels 
of the same John to the value of 26 marks ; and flying when 
hue and cry raised, he was beheaded, on the suit of the said 
John and of the country. He had no chattels." 

I do not remember to have seen another instance of a 
sentence of decapitation for anything but treason. 

My concluding extract relates to a man whose depredations 
appear to have been of great magnitude."' It affords too an 
example of the frequent habit of offenders in those times of 

' It was only a fuw years after that the King's Treasury at WestminBter 
AblKzy was broken into and robbed of treasure to the value of £2,000,000. 


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accusing their companions and others, with no hope of 
saving themselves, no apparent motive, unless a desire to see 
them in the same peril as themselves can be so regarded. 

Oaol Delivery, Noncich Caatle, 2ird Edward L 

" Roger Wynde, prisoner, accused Ralph Tubbing, of 
Felmingham, of receiving cloth stolen by him at Refham, 
and Hugh Pecham was taken on his accusation for receiving 
cloth and malt stolen by him. William Morgrim, of South 
Walsham, he accused of being his associate in killing and 
slaying William, a servant at Lessingham Hall, when they 
carried away goods from thence to the value of £200, and 
also with being his associate in robbing the house of Roger 
Herman, and stealing there £400 in silver. And he accused 
John de Mileham of being with him at the death of William 
Here, killed between Hensted and Eccles, and of stealing 25 
shillings from him. He further accused William Lawrence, 
of Eccles, of assisting in the robbing and slaying of William 
Here ; and one Nicholas de Lund he charged with procuring 
the death of Here ; and, lastly, Robert Crispin, of Lessing- 
ham, for procuring and assisting in killing the servant at 
Lessingham, and at the robbery at the Hall." Of all these 
persons, Lawrence alone was found guilty and hung, the rest 
were acquitted. Wynde himself most justly closing his 
career upon the gallows. 

I have little doubt, a more careful and systematic examina- 
tion of these Rolls would produce results of greater interest. 
Mine have been mere desultory extracts, made in the course 
of other investigations; and abundance of material will be 
found remaining for those who will trouble themselves to go 
over these valuable Records. 


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In the preceding pages an extract has been given from the 
Assize Rolls, of a case of resuscitation after execution, and 
attention drawn to the great rarity of such cases upon the 

I have within the last few days met with another case of 
the same kind upon the Patent Rolls, of which I add a note ; 
but as the Assize Roll for Kent for the year in which it oc- 
curred is lost, I can add nothing to the information contained 
in the Ijetters Patent. 

Patents, 23 Edward I, Whereas Robert, son of Hamon 
Prat of Wyngham, [Kent] lately hung for robbery, was 
afterwards taken down from the gallows, and placed upon 
the ground as dead, and was thence carried to the church of 
St. Martin at Canterbury, and there was found to be still 
living. The King, for the honour of God and devotion to 
the aforesaid saint, has pardoned him and granted him his 
peace. At Wyngham, 21st of September. 

On the Patent Rolls, 4 Hen. Ill,, a double duel is recorded 
in Staffordshire between Hobbe the Werewode, approver, and 
Walter in the Grene, defeated, and Thomas wi' the Gold, 
victor, and the said Hobbe the approver vanquished, in a 
charge of robbery. 


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IPnrt Kntu Cratre ai Cr0mer albs S^tptren. 



The first time we hear of Shipden in connection with trade 
is in 1285, when Edward the First, by Charter^ dated at 
"Westminster, 12th May, 13 Edward I., granted to Nicholas 
de Weylond, then lord of the manor, a weekly market to be 
held on Fridays, and a yearly fair to last for eight days, 
beginning with the Vigils of the Feast of the Translation of 
St. Edward.« 

By 1337, the sea had made great inroads on the coast by 
Shipden, the greater part of the churchyard had been for 
twenty years wasted by the sea, and the church threatened 
to fall into ruin from the same cause.' This however could 
not have injured the trade of the place much, for the 
Subsidy Roll taken for Norfolk in 1333,* shows that Shipden 
was then inhabited by no inconsiderable number of men 
rich in personal estate, the total rating being 49«. 11(/., of 
which Alan fil' Galfridi paid 6«., Isabel Tebald 3«., Clement 
Hervey 3s., Robert Mosse 2«. 6rf., John Waryn 2«. 6rf., 

» Vide Charter Roll, 13 Ed. I., No. 102, and Patent Roll, 4 H. VI , (2nd part) 
m 13 printed in Appendix. 

' The only fair now held is a pleasure fair on Whit Monday. 

3 Inq. ad quod damn. 10 Ed. III., No. 29, (2nd number) and Patent Roll, 
10 Ed. III., (l8t part) m 26. 

« Subsidy Roll, Norfolk, 6 Ed. III., ^^ printed in Appendix. 


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Thomas Draper 2«. 2d,, Alan Reymund 2«. 2d., WiUiam 
Smith 2s., William Leman 2«., and twenty-seven others lesser 

A few years later, (1358) the merchants of Cromer were 
considered of sufficient importance to be mentioned with 
those of Snyterle,* Wyveton, Clay, Salthouse, and Shiring- 
ham, in a Patent of Edward I.,* directed to the bailiffs of 
Blakeney, then apparently the head quarters of the fishery on 
the north coast of Norfolk ; which gives the merchants of 
these six towns who traded in fish but did not own ships, 
free license to buy fish (apparently at Blakeney,) provided 
that the other (Blakeney P) merchants should not be disturbed 
or the price of fish raised. 

These Letters Patent recite some ordinances formerly made 
by the Xing and the Council about the fish trade, and are 
altogether so curious that I perhaps may be pardoned for my 
digression if I refer to their purport, though they do not 
directly relate to Shipden, or Cromer. 

It seems it had formerly been ordained that no fish 
should be delivered or carried out of ships to any house, &c., 
until the masters of the ships had settled its price with the 
merchants, and that no master of a ship, mariner, &c., 
should keep any fish in their houses for sale, by wholesale or 
retail ; the object of these provisions being, as it is said, that 
the fish should be sold at a reasonable price within the bounds 
and at the fairs mentioned therein. But it seems afterwards 
to have struck the legislators that though they had provided 
for the protection of the merchants against the fishermen, the 
latter were unprotected against any combination of the 
former, who, " by conniving among themselves, might seek 

^ Snitterley is said to have been the old name for Blakeney. I fancy it bore 
the same relation to it as Shipden did to Cromer, and was probably lost in 
the sea. 

.« Pat. Roll, 31 Edw. III., recited at length in Pat. RoU, 11 Hy. IV., 
(Ist part) m 5, printed in Appendix. 


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to drive the iish to too low a price which the fishermen could 
agree to take without too great a loss," and who might, by 
simply refusing to treat for purchase, have kept the mariners 
riding at anchor till their cargoes rotted under them, and 
they were driven to take inadequate prices. Another blunder 
of the previous regulation seems to have been, that if the 
fishermen had any surplus stock left after " the King's 
Purveyors, Noblemen's Purveyors, and the Merchants of 
Cities and other good Towns had made their great pur- 
chases," they were restrained from retailing it by parcels to 
the people, and it often remained so long on their hands that 
it putrified. 

To remedy these defects these Letters Patent give the 
fishermen license — if they could not agree on a price within 
six days after the ship came into port — ^to bring their fish 
ashore and sell it as best they might, and after the King's 
purveyors, &c., had made their great purchases, to carry the 
rest about to fairs and markets, and sell it there. 

Tn 1363, the Blakeney merchants certainly seem by their 
conduct to have proved that this alteration was needed for 
the protection of the fishermen, for I find that in the 37th 
Edward III., William de Witchingham and John de Bemey 
were assigned"' to see the ordinance as to the sale of salt (P) 
fish duly kept at Blakeney, and by commission to enquire as 
to who had broken it, as it was alleged on petition that 
" jademeins les Marchant^ Hostillers Regraters Forstallers 'I 
autre tielx si bien en Portj come en Villes marchandes 1 
aillours parmi la Terre engrossent toutes maneres de Mar- 
chandises Ti Vitailles si bien stokfish saltfish vins cire T; 
spicerie come autres" — and sell them for such price as they 
like to put, and what they buy for 12d. they sell for 3«. or 
half a mark, &c.® 

' Parliament Rolls, 17 Edw. I., Petitions No. 15. 

® For further particulars of Fishing Statutes see Palmer's Manship. vol. ii. 
p. 81, &c. 


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About 1380, it seems the fishermen of Blakeney and other 
adjacent towns and places in Norfolk, were often taken and 
arrested with their boats by the King's commissioners assigned 
to provide ships for voyages, (I presume for warlike purposes) 
and they petitioned to Parliament, on the Monday next aft«r 
the Feast of St. Hilary, 3 Ric. 2, alleging the great injury it 
did to them, and indirectly to the country, by spoiling the 
fisheries, and praying to be allowed to pursue their business 
quietly, especially as they knew nothing of navigation, but 
only lived by the art of fishing. 

A favourable answer was given, which the King confirmed 
by his Letters Patent • dated at AVestminster, 23 Feb., 
3 Ric. 2. 

In the following February, the King further protected 
them against this serious oppression by other Letters Patent,^ 
dated at Westminster 12 Feb., whereby he directs that the 
fishermen of the Ports of Blakeneye, Cleye, and Croumerej 
and other villages and places adjoining, as their vessels and 
ships were fit for their business only, and not in any way for 
transporting horses or warlike stores, &c., should not be 
interfered with unless on urgent occasion or necessity. 

Shortly before 1391, the inroads of the sea, which had fifty 
years before swallowed up the church and churchyard, ren- 
dered the navigation so dangerous that a pier was commenced 
for the safety and defence of ships and (fishing) boats in 
the market or port called Crowmere, as we are told in the 
preamble to certain Letters Patent dated at Westminster 
2nd Dec, 14 Ric. 2,^® whereby the King granted to the men 
of Shipden the right of levying for five years certain duties 
on all merchandize coming to their port, in aid of making 
such pier. The list of articles, which is a curious one, will be 
found in the Appendix ; the chief imports apparently being 

» Pat. Roll, 3 Ric. 2., 2nd part ml 8. 
» Pat. Roll, 4 Ric. 2, 2iid part m 22. 
i<^ Pat. R. 14 Ric. 2, (2ad part) m iA, printed in Appendix, 
[vol. VII ] V 


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herrings, salt, rygolds, (? Riga boards), waynscot, and tunhot, 
(all by the hundred), pitch and turpentine (in barrel,) oil 
(in barrel), fir spars (by the hundred), dascells (by the 
thousand), ferri (nails? by the thousand), com and malt, 
sea coal, (by the chaldron,) fish called "orgoys,*' lob, ling, 
and cod. Everything worth five shillings was liable to 
this duty, except wool, leather, skins covered with wool, lead, 
tin, and wine. 

This pier was long a sore expense to the men of Shipden 
and Cromer, and for a series of years it would be hard 
to find a will made by an inhabitant of either place that 
does not contain a bequest to it.^ I do not know when it 
was finally destroyed. 

1 Among others are the wills of John Bound, of Crowmcr, dated 1453, leaving 

to the ** sustentaco'i fretisfi^gii ala* voc' le iwr' viij*." 
Richard Chylde, of Shjpdenne, 1459, leaving to the fahric of the pier, 13«. Ad, 
John Couper, of Crowmer, 1462, leaving to "emend* le pere," 8s. 4d. 
Robert Jakkyson, of Shipden, 1467, leaving to "sustent le pere," 8*, 4dL 
William Rome^ of Shjpden, 1469, leaving to *< fabrice le pere," 69. %d. 
Roger Reed^ of Shipden, al's Crowm', 1470, leaving to "rcp*acoi* le 

pere," 3«. 4rf. 
Richard Arnold, of Shypden, 1472, leaving to " fabrice lo pere," 6 marks. 
Nicholas Hemyng^ of Crowmer, 1482, leaving to ** emendacoi' le peer," 12rf. 
John Alduen, of Shypden, 1483, *Me per," I2d. 
Matilda Coyty of Cromer, 1483, leaving to " rep*ac* le per*,*' Zs, id, 
Wm. Brymynye, of Crowmer, 1486, '* reparation of pier," I2d, 
John Mason^ of Cromer, 1487, "rep'aco'i le pere ea condicone q* p'visores 

ejusdem michi remittant o*ia debit' que a me petunt p' diet le 

pere," 6«. Srf. 
RicJuird Fenm, of Crowmer, 1487, leaving to "emend' le peer," Za. id. 
Rich, Fulstotce, of Cromer, 1487, leaving to the "fabrice le pere," Sd, 
William Atffen, of Crowmer, 1487, leaving to "le peer," 20rf. 
Rob. Chestanye, of Crowmer, 1491, " the reparation of the peer," 
Rob. Draper^ of Crowmere, 1491, "sustent le pere," 20rf. 
Robert Stronye, of Crowmer, 1498, leaving "to the pere," 3*. id, 
John Martyn, of Crom', 1499, leaving to "the peer," I2d, 
Nich. Browne, of Cromer, 1605, leaving to "the rep'acion of the pere," S«. id, 
John Anderson, of Cromer, 1614, leaving to "rep'aco'n of the pere," 6rf. 
Henry Shcllr, of Cromer, 1514, leaving "to the pere," 20d, 


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On the 30th March, 1405, Robert Bacon, a mariner of 
Cromer, is said to have captured ^ James, the younger son of 
King Robert of Scotland, who, while on a voyage from 
Scotland to France, was driven ashore near here by stress of 
weather and sent to London, where he remained a prisoner 
for nearly twenty years, becoming on his release James the 
First of Scotland. 

This Robert Bacon must have been a mariner of mark, 
for to him is ascribed the discovery of Iceland. 

In 1410, the merchants of Cromer and the five other 
towns before named, obtained fresh Letters Patent' from 
Henry IV., dated at Westminster 12th February 11 Hen. 4, 
setting out and confirming the former Letters of 1358, 
granting them certain privileges. 

. "William Crowmere, who was Lord Mayor of London in 
1423, though said to have been of Kentish family (see Norf. 
Arch,, vol. ii. p. 35) must have been of this town, as there 
is no other place of tlie name in England, as was probably 
Robert Crowmer, bailiff of Yarmouth seven times between 
1470 and 1497. 

On the 2nd July, 1420, Sir William Paston, the Lord of 
the Manor of Shippedcne, and Thomas Poye, (his trustee ?) 
obtained a confirmation by Letters Patent of that date* 
of the market and fair granted in 1285 to Nicholas de 

It has generally been stated that Cromer " was a chartered 
town, but that for a very long time the charter has been 
lost ; " and although I can find no trace of such a charter, it 
is noteworthy that, in 1443, circular letters,^ directing 
certain vessels to hasten to Portsmouth, were sent by the 

' The honour of the capture is said by the men of Cley to bolong to them. 
» Pat. Roll, 11 H. 4, (Ist pt.) m 6, printed in Appendix. 

* Pat. Roll, 4 Hen. 6, (2nd pt.) m 13, printed in Appendix. 

* Proceedings and Orders of the Privy Council, (XicoUis) vol. v. p. 279, 
21 Hy. 6. 

U 2 


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. 280 

Privy CWiicil to " the mairf and bailliffs of Lynne, Yenie- 
moiitli and Crownle/' but this is the only corroborative 
evidence of the fact I can find. 

Of the individual histories of the Cromer merchants, not 
much can now be found out. Stray glimpses of their lives 
we may pick up from their wills ; in fact, hardly any other 
source is open to us. Two or three of these wills will serve 
as samples. 

Richard Chylde, of Shypdenne, by his will* dated 17th 
Aug., 1459, directs his body to be buried in the Church of 
the Apostles Peter and Paul at Shipden, before the image of 
tlie Holy Trinity, and leaves, among otlier bequests : To the 
High Altar for tithes forgotten, 30*. ; To the emendation of 
the Church, 20». ; To St. Peter's light, 40*'. ; To the Plough 
light, 2«. ; To the fabric of the pier, 18\ 4'*. ; For the stipends 
of two chaplains to celebrate daily for a year, for his soul 
and the souls of his relations and benefactors, 16 marks ; 
For a trental of St. Gregory, 10*. ; To his son Thomas in 
money, 40', ; To the Guild of the Holy Trinity, 3«. 4'^. ; To 
the light of the Blessed Mary, 2». ; To the light of Salvator, 
12^. ; To each of his sons and daughters, 20^. ; and. To the 
poor in the almshouse at Shypden, 6*. 8**., to be distributed 
during four years. 

He also directs Ihat his wife Katherine should have his 
half-share of a ship called "The Margaret," with all the 
apparatus belonging thereto. She was also to have all his 
nets, with their cords, floats, and other necessaries. 

If his ships well and prosperously return from sea, by the 
Divine grace, he will have a chaplain to make a pilgrimage 
for the good of his soul to Rome, in Lent. 

Roger Reed, of Shipden alias Crowmer, the father of that 
liartholomew Reed, the celebrated goldsmith, who was Lord 

c Hog. IMynys f" .51 '■. 


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Mayor of London in 1502, made his will the 18th Nov., 

He too will be buried in the church, to the reparation and 
the high altar of which he leaves 20^. and 2*. respectively. 
To the reparation of the pier he gives 3*. 4**., and, like Chylde, 
will have a trental of St. Gregory, and a priest to celebrate 
for the good of his soul. After a few bequests to his wife 
Katherine, his daughter Agnes the wife of John Carre, and 
his five sons, Richard, William, Barlhohmew, John, and 
Simon, he leaves the whole of his residue to pious uses. 

Robert Stronge, of Crowmer, whose will is dated 17th July, 
1498, is more retiring than his two predecessors, desiring to 
be buried in the south porch, to the reparation of which 
he leaves 6". 8**., and half as much to the reparation of 
the church. The guild of St. George and the Plough light 
get 12^. each, and the pier 3*. 4**. The following directions 
are curious. 

"Also I will y^ if William Rugge wol by the on 
halfe of my Shyppe called the marye w* all ye apperell 
ports longyng he (is) to have yt for xv^^ to be payd to 
myne Executes w^in ij yere or ellf to be sold to as 
good a pryce as y* may be brought to Also I woUe 
y^ Richard Stronge my brodyr and Wat' Stronge myn 
Sonne have my boote namyd the fortune w* all y® apperell 
p' to longyng be a lefull pryce made be Robt Warde 
my supvisor Also I well that my lytyll boote named 
y® Jorge be soldo for as good a pryce as it may be 
brought to by myne execufs," 


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Subaidi/ Boll for Norfolk, 
mid AM in 

D. villa? de Shipeden. 
D. Johoo Waryn ij« vj** 
Thorn Draper ij« ij'* 
Alano Reymud ij» ij<* 
Nicho Munk'^ x** 
Cristia Mosse viij** 
Barth Grune (?) viij** 
Johiie Told xij** 
Johiie Golman xij^ 
Robto Mosse ij» vj** 
Nicho fil Barthi xx*» 
Willmo Smijth ij« 
Robto Le Moyne xv^ 
Witts Rust viij^ 
Alano fil Galfrl vj- 
Isabell Tebald iij« 

relating to the collection of a ^sth 
the 6th Edw. III. (^I») 

I D. Johno Aliot (?) xij* 
] Ida Atlebur) viij^ 

I Witts Maran (?) ij« 

Rico Le Monye viij** 
Witto Passhelen x** 
Stepho Le Clerk xx*> 
< Clem to Huy iij* 

Robto de Egemere iij« 
Rico Lorn ® viij*^ 
Witts Leman ij* 
Rico Wataille xviij** 
Wal?o' Ka?ine ij- 
I HugfilHugix'i 

j Thoin Huy xij** 

: Hug Le Clark xij<* 

Patent Roll, 14 Ric. IL, Zndpt., mem. 44. 

p hoibz \ R. dilcis sibi pbis hoib} ville de Shipden in 

Shipden in > coin Norflf. saltm Sciatis qd de gra nra spali 1 

com Norff. ; de avisamente consilij nri in psenti pliamento 

nro, — concessimf vob, in auxilni construccois 

cujusdam pere p vos jam novit p salvacoe t defensione 

naviu ^ battello^ in comcio vocato Crowemere applicancm 

incepte T: inchoate, consuetudines subscriptas de reb^ 

■» Vide Feet of Fwcr, Xorf., 21 Ed. 3, No. 23. 
8 Vide Fat of Fittcs^ Xotf, 23 Ed. 3, No. 117. 


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venalibT; ad pdca villain ^ comsum veiiientib'5 levand ^ 
colligend p manus illo^ quos ad hoc deputavitis a data 
psentiu usq*5 ad finem quinq^ anno? px sequen plcnarJ 
completo^y videlt, de qualt lasta allecis venalis octo de- 
narios, de qualt vaga sails venalis duos denarios, de qualt 
centena de Rygoldf venal tres denarios, de qualt centena 
de Waynscot venal unu denariu, de qualt centena de 
Tunholt venal unu obolum, de quoit barello picis T: 
terebinti venat unu obolu, de quoit barello olei venat 
duos denarios, de quoit centena sparro? de fyr venat 
unii denariu, de quoit millenari dascett venatt unu de- 
nariu, de quol millenar ferri venal quatuor denarios, de 
quol quaixio cujuscunqj genlis bladi ^ brasei venal unu 
obolO, de quatt chaldra carbonu maritimo? venal unu 
denariu, de qualt centena piscis vocati Orgoys® venal 
computat p decies viginti duodecim denarios, de qualt 
centena de lob ^^ linge T: cod venal sex denarS de qualt 
carcata rebj venalib*; carcata unu denariu, de quoit equo 
reb} venalib} carcato unu obolu, de qual navis mcandisis 
infra comsum pdcm applicante quatuor denar, de quoit 
batelle vocato fissher carcato mercandisis ibidem appli- 
cante unu denariu '^ qualt re alia venali supius non 
specificata ad pdca villam Ti comsu veniente valoris 
quinq^ solido?, exceptis lanis coriis % pellibji lanutis 
plumbo stanno % vino unu quadrantem ; Ita qd denarij 
inde pvenientes circa constructoem pere pdce T, non in 
alios usus ponant: % fidelit expendant: Et ideo vob 
mandam^ qd consuetudines pdcas p ctos pbos ? leg 

9 " And in case that no Orgeys, that is to say, fish greater than Lob, be found 
in a ship called a Lode-ship^ in the hundred of Lob, Ling, and Cod, the masters 
and mariners shall have of every hundred of Lob, Ling, and God (the hundred 
accoontcd to six score) twenty Orgeys, if there be so many, and if there be less, 
the masters and mariners shall have all the Orgeys." — Stat, at Large^ 31 Ed. 3. 
Stat. 3 Cap. 2. 

w Lobbe, a large North sea fish. — BaiU-y. 


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holes p vos ad hoc deputand % assignond de hif reb'; 
venalib*} honestiori ^ quietiori modo quo poritis p dcm 
quinquenniu in forma ^ea capiatis, et sup peram pdcam 
bene 1; fidclit expendi 1: apponi fac^ completo auteui 
dco ?mino quinq^ anno|( dee consuetudines penitf cessent 
1, deleant: In cuj^ Ic p dcm quinquenniu duratur). 
T R apud westm scdo die Decembr. 

p peticoem in pliamento 

Patent Boll, llth Henry IV,, 1st part, mcni. 5. 

D. I pr omib'; ad quos tc saltm Inspeximus irrotu- 

exemplificacoe ) lamentum cujusdam bris patentis Ef nup 

Kegis Angl avi nf i in rotulis Cancellar^ sue 

in hec vba. 
Edward p la grace de dieu Roi dengletre T, de France 
T; seign' dirlande au Bailifs de nre ville de Blakenoye 
salu<; Coment % nadgaus ^ la vente de pesson sale 
eussieus p nous 1; nr]e conseil entre autres choses ordine 
q^ nul pesson ne serroit live ne porte hors de niefs a nulli 
maison naiUors avant q^ le seign' du nief en quele le dit 
pesson feust charge % le marchant qi le pesson achaVoit 
serroient du pris dicel et q^ nul V de nief mariner nautre 
ne herbgiroit neve ferront herbger en leur maisons en 
prive neu apt pesson en la moddf ne pesson sek p*' 
revendre autre fortj a retaill em:; serroit tout tien pesson 
vendu resonablement dein^; leo bound % ad fevr T; pris 
contenu'; en la dite ordinance Nous iadumenis con- 
siderant"} les meschiefs q^ purroient avenir en celle partic 
cost assovoir si les marchant'? p conive entre eux 
vorroient mettre le pesson a trop petit pris a quel les 
pescheurs ne purroient accorder san^ trop g*nt pte i 
auxiut si les f^' no niefs mariners \ pescheure aps le 
gros acat^ fait^ p ncj p''veours % acators 1 les p*^veous 
T: acato*^s des ^'■''^ \ p marchunts des cit^s % autres bones 


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villes ?roient restreint-; de herbger en maison ^ de 
vendre p pcelles a singulers psones du people le pesson 
q^ demorroit nient vendu, le pesson p cas serroit sovent 
p celle cause si longement en mains de pescheurs qui 
devendroit purri 1; issuit ^roit le pesson 1; la secondc 
seison de pescherie a celle fort-; p au; queu chose sroit 
mlt damageuse as (^' de niefs marinls 1 pescheurs r a 
tout le poeple. Si volons 1; ordinons qen cas q^ les 
pescheurs Tendeurs 1: les acato's ne purront s^ les pris 
de pesson accorder dein^ sis jours aps ce q^ la nief en 
quele la pesson est, soit yenue aut port q^ bien lise ap 
i'* du niefs mariSs 1, pescheurs aps le sisure jo^ ensi 
passe de treer hors de niefs 1 herbger en maisons 1, del 
vendre a resonable pris selonc ce q> les acatour T; vendours 
purroit accorder. Et en cas % les dit<; pescheurs 
vendours ^ les acatours accordent s' le pris de pesson 
issiut q^ la vente se face dein; niefs % lors aps ceo q^ no*; 
acato" 1 p'veours 1 les acato's 1 p^veours de f^« 1 les 
marchant'; des cites 1 autres bones villes avont fait*; 
leur gros acatz 1, pWoiances bien lise au f **' de niefs 
mariners 1; pescheurs de herberger en maisons le pesson 
qi demorra nient vendu aps les dit-; acat<; 1; p^voiances a 
vendre au poeple en gros ou p pcelles 'X de le carier a 
feires % marchees p' faire ent lour pfit selonc ce qils 
verront melt 3; esploiter. Et q^ les marchant*; des villes 
de Snyterle Wyveton Claye Salthous Shiryngham ^ 
Crowemere qi usent tiele marchandise de pesson q^ ne 
sent f^ de niefs mariners ne pescheurs puissent franche- 
ment entre autres marchant'^ 1; acato^'s achater pesson 
selonc ce q> leur estat demande en maS® T; as feor T; prio 
avant ditz. issuit toute foit^; q^ pmy leur acat*; les autres 
marchant*; acato's T; p'veo's ne soient restreint*} ne 
destourbe^ de faire leur marchandises 1 p'voiances 
selore le p'port de I'ordinance avant dite ne les pris 
de pesson encru en nulle mante. Et p' ce vous maudons 


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q^ toutes les choses dessuseites face 5 publier en la dite 

ville de Blakeneye T; aillours ou mestier serra T; fermement 

tenir 1 garder en la manSe avant dite et ce ne lessei^ 

en nuUe manle. Don a Westm le sisme jour doctobre 

de nr8 regne dengletre trent primer et de France 


Nos autem tenorem irrotulamenti pdicti ad requisicoem 

piscatoj T: marinate? naviu villa? de Snyterle Wyreton 

Clay Salthous Shiryngliam T: Crowemere tenore psencium 

duximus exemplificand : In cui^ T:c T ^ apud Westm xiij 

die Februar) . 

Patent Roll 4 Henry VL, 2nd pari, mem. 13. 

De confirraaeoe | II omib-j ad quos T:c Saltin Inspeximf cartam 
Paston ) diii Ef quondam Regis Angl pgenitoris nri 
fcam in hec vba, 
Edwardus dei graJ Reg Angt Dns Hibfi ^ Dux 
Aquitani Archeepis Epis Abbib*; Priorib*} Comitib'5 
Baronibj Justic Vicecomitib'; Prepositis Ministris 1 
omib'5 Ballivis T: fidelibj suis Saltin Sciatis nos concessiese 
Ti hac carta nrS confirmasse dilco % fideli nro Nicho 
de Weylond qd ipe T; herodes sui imppm heant unii 
mcatiun singulis septimanis p diem Ve8is apud maSin 
suu de Sheppedene in com Norff T: unam feriam ibidem 
singulis annis p octo dies annuatim videlt in vigilia ^ 
in die T: in eras tin o festi t'nslacois Sci Edwardi % p 
quinque dies sequentes Et unam aliam feriam singulis 
annis p duos dies duratur! videlt in vigilia T; in die 
festi Assumpcois be Marie apud maSium suu de Oxeburgh 
in com ^dco Et unam aliam feriam simili? ibidem 
singulis annis p octo duratura videlt in vigilia % in 
die T: in crastino festi Annunciacois be Marie 1 p quinq^ 
dies sequentes Nisi nicatum illud T; ferie ille sint ad 
nocumentum vicinoj; meato? T vicina? feria?. Concessimf 


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ctiam ^fato Nicho qd ipe T: hedes sui imppm heant libam 
warennam in omib'j dmcis T: suis maflio^ ^dco? T; omib'j 
dmcis rris suis de Charssend T: Westersend in com 
Suff: dumtamen tre ille non sint infra metas foreste 
mS Ita qd nullus intret rras illas ad fugand in eis 
vel ad aliquod capiend quod ad warrenain ptineat sine 
licencia T; voluntate ipius Nichi vel herednm suoj sup 
forisscuram nram decern libra^ Quare volumf ^ firmit 
pcipimf p nob T: heredib*; nris qd pdcus Nichus \ 
heredes sui imppm heant pdca mcatum Ti ferias apud 
maSia sua pdca de Sheppedene ^ Oxeburgh cum omib} 
lib^tatib) 1 libis consuetudinib} ad hujusmodi nlcatum 
T, ferias ptinentib} nisi mcatum illud T; ferie ille sint 
ad nocumentum ^ vicina? mcato^ T; vicina? feria^ Et 
qd imppm heant lifcam warennam omibj dmcis tris suis 
pdcis dumtamen tre ille non sint infra metas foreste 
fire Ita qd nullus intret rras illas ad fugand in eis 
vel ad aliquid capiend qd ad warennam ptineat sine 
licencia T: voluntate ipius Nichi vel heredum suoj sup 
forisscuram nram decem libra^ sicut pdcm est Hijs 
testib} veSabilis prib^j R. Bathon T: Welleii T: A. Dunelm 
Epr^s Edmundo f re nro Edmundo comi?e Cornub Gilbto 
de Clare Comite Glouc T; Hereford Rogo Bigod Comitc 
Norff T; Marescallo Angt Heni^ de Lacy comite Lincoln 
Jolie de Warrena comite Surr^ Johe de Vesci Reginaldo 
de Grei Robto til Johis T; alijs Dat^ p manu nram 
apud Westra^ duodecimo die Maij anno rcgni nri tcio 
Nos autem concessionem confirmacoem voluntatem % ^cep- 
tum ipius pgenitoris nri ^dca quo ad dca iScatum 1 feriam 
apud pdcum mafim de Sheppedene ac huif warennam in 
omib} tris dmcis ejusdem maSij hend rata hentes, T; gra ea 
p nob % heredib} nris quantu in nofe est acceptamf approbamf 
T: ea ditcis nob Willo Paston 1 Thome Poye cllco nunc 
tenentib'5 ejusdem maSij de Sbippedeuc ut dicit*^ tenore 


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psentiu confirmamf put carta ^dca ronabilit^ testat"" et put 
iidem Wills ^ Thomas ea here debent ipiq> ac alij nup 
tenentes dci manlij de Sheppedeiie \ antecessores sui huif 
mcatum feriam 1, warennam ibidem a tempore confeccois 
carte pdce semp ha .... s ronabilit^ here consueverunt In 
cujus T;c T. R apud Westm^ scdo die Julij. 

p dimid marca soluta in hanapio. 


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h CANDLE "^^.^^ -^ 

Digitized by 

Google— - 





The Parish of Kenninghall, in which we are now as- 
sembled/ is one that has received more or less notice from all 
who have written on the history and antiquities of Norfolk. 
Indeed^ from certain conjectures and assumptions of the 
older topographers, continually repeated in modern compi- 
lations, it might be supposed that its associations are with 
a very early period of habitation in this part of Britain ; and 
that, if properly investigated, matters of much historical 
interest might be brought out respecting it. For instance, 
we usually see it stated in the Directories, that "Boadicea 
held her court here,'* and that "the Royal Castle" was 
inhabited by "the East Anglian Kings." "Whoever first 
committed these statements to writing, would seem to be 
rather unconscious of the four hundred years that intervened 
between the death of Boadicea and the conquest of Britain 
by the Saxons. Were there any foundation for either of 
them, what a field for investigation should we have here for 
a Norfolk Archaeological Society ! how much light ought to 
be thrown upon our early history by an examination of the 
site of such an important stronghold ! A very long search, 

^ This paper was rend on the spot. 


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however, into documentary evidence, and into the local to- 
pography would fail, I fear, to produce any residt whatever, 
as far, that is, as relates to Boadicea and the British times ; 
or as regards the residence here of East Anglian Kings : for 
that it was inhabited as a settled residence by the Saxons, 
there is good evidence, as I shall presently show ; and the 
reason for this barren result, I fully believe, is that there is 
nothing of the sort to find out. Neither Spelman, nor 
Camden, nor Blomefield, make any reference to Boadicea ; 
indeed, the scene of her chief residence would, in any 
case, be but a matter of conjecture ; and Kenninghall was 
never known by any British name. Were it true, we 
should have expected to find here one of those lofty circular 
moxmds which are usually believed to be camps of the British 
period, although that is not altogether a settled question; 
and British antiquities of all sorts would be abundant, 
whereas I am not aware that anything of importance, of 
this kind, has been found here.* 

I think, however, I can point out from what quarter the 
idea has arisen. It is all owing to that most valuable but 
most abused branch of antiquarian pursuits, local etymology. 
Out of this prolific source of misapprehensions, Camden 
(or rather others who jumped to conclusions which he did 
not draw himself) has conjured up the figure of Boadicea 
holding her court here ; and Blomefield, or perhaps some 
theorist before him, has added to the scene a line of Saxon 
kings, dwelling here in a palace or castle of which no stone 
remains. Camden says (I quote from the English edition, 
by Gibson,) that Kenninghall ^^ seems to have had the name 
left it by the Iceni."^ He imagined the first syllable *Ken' 
to have something to do with the British word Iken or 
Iceni; and this, as far as I can discover, constitutes the 

* Blomefield mentions some urns near the earthworks, but of what period is 

3 Gibson's Camden, second edit. i. 458. 


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t)nly ground for attributing a British occupation to the 
locality. But not a word is said here about kings or queens 
or courts. Then Blomefield observes that "Kenning" in 
Saxon signifies a King; "so that Cyning or KenninghaU 
signifies the King's House, and, according to the etymology^ 
it hath been a seat of the East Anglian kings, who are said 
to have had a castle here ; " ^ and this, he says, indeed seems 
true; and then proceeds to mention the earth- work at 
Kenninghall Place, which he thinks was the site of it. 
Thus we have the two ideas broached, — that of British 
occupation, and the Hall of the Kings ; and this, I believe, 
is the origin of the unsubstantial notions respecting Boadicea 
and the East Anglian castle. 

I need hardly tell the members of our Society that the 
name of Kenninghall is one of very common formation, and 
means the "hall" or stone dwelling of the Kennings, a 
Saxon family of that name. When our forefathers came 
over from Germany, and took possession of this land, they 
were not without patronymics; and according as difierent 
families settled in difierent places, the land was called after 
their own names. There were probably many of the 
Kenning family who came, or they soon increased: as 
•we have Keningham in Mulbarton parish, Kennington in 
Surrey, Kent, and Berkshire. No doubt the word Cyning 
in Saxon is the same with our word King ; but this would 
no more imply that all the family so called were kings than 
that every person nowadays of the name of King belonged 
to the Royal Family. 

So much, therefore, for the name of the place and its 
imaginary association with royalty, British or Saxon. 
Having, I hope, cleared away a little of the obscurity 
which has hung over the origin of this place, I would now 
turn to matters of real history, and which we judge of for 
ourselves. Although we find no support in the name of 

^ Bloraefield, i. 215. 


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Kenningball for the residence of kings, yet the etymology- 
does imply that in Saxon times there was a substantial 
dwelling here, as in other Saxon places terminating in 
"hall." That Saxons lived here in considerable nimibers 
has been recently proved by the discovery of their burying 
place. The site is a sandy field, sloping to the east and 
overlooking the present village, about half a mile west from 
the church. In digging for gravel during the past year, 
the workmen came upon several graves about two feet fix)m 
the surface, and various antiquities were found in them. In 
those of males were the usual iron bosses of shields, swords, 
and spearheads, and bronze fibulsB; in those of females, 
amber and glass beads, fibulsB, buckles, &c., generally of 
well-known Saxon types. No urns have been found, so that 
cremation does not appear to have been the practise of the 
tribe of Saxons who settled here. Most of the articles 
obtained were disposed of before the spot was visited by 
archaeologists, and some are now in the possession of 
Mr. Prigg, of Bury, and others of Mr. A. Marsh, of Diss. 
It was owing to this discovery that it was thought desirable 
that our Society should make an excursion in this direction 
tO'day ; and by the permission of the occupier of the land, 
we shall have an opportunity of making some further in- 
vestigation this afternoon.* 

I have already mentioned the earth-works at KenninghaU 
Place in this parish. They are situated at about a mile and 
half to the east of the village, and consist of double banks 
of considerable height, with a ditch between them, and in- 
closing a space nearly rectangular in shape, of upwards of 
eight acres.* What is very unusual and difficult to account 
for is, that this space is divided down the middle by another 

^ Nothing more was found on tliiB occasion. Several good examples of fibulas, 
&c., have been since obtained from the place, and are in Mr. Fitch's collection. 

^ Blomefield says four acres. He seems to have overlooked the portion outside 
the cross line of banks. The contents in the Tithe Map ore 8a. 2r. 32p. 


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line of banks, with a ditch, not straight, but in the form of 
a wavy line. Blomefield says there is a mount at each 
comer, that at the south-east being much the largest. 
This appears to be a mistake, as there is nothing of the 
kind to be seen : on the contrary, there is a large pit or pond 
at the south-east comer, and some enlargement of the ditch 
at other comers. I am inclined to think that Blomefield 
must have looked at a map of the place, and, seeing lines 
representing hollows, took them for moimts ; but it is strange 
that he should not have known this, as his own residence at 
Fersfield is only about two miles off. There seems to me to 
be nothing here like the usual British earth- works : it more 
resembles Eoman work in shape. "We know, however, that 
the old manor-house of Kenninghall manor stood within it, 
and was called '^ East Hall," from its position to the east of 
the church and village. The manor, which was in the hands of 
the Crown in the time of Edward the Confessor and till after 
the I^orman conquest, was granted by the Conqueror to 
William de Albini, together with the lordship of Buckenham, 
to be held by the service of being chief butler to the Kings 
of England on the day of their coronation ; and East Hall 
remained the manor-house "through all its changes," as 
Blomefield says, imtil it was pulled down by Thomas, third 
Duke of Norfolk, when he built a much larger house, after- 
wards called the Palace, about a quarter of a mile to the 
north-east ; and the old site has ever since been called " The 
Candle Yard," because the candles for the Duke's household 
were made there. I am therefore inclined to think that these 
earth-works are no older than the Norman or post-Norman 
period ; and that they were the defences of a fortified manor- 
house of that time. The easternmost half, within the cross 
line of banks, may have enclosed the keep and principal 
dwelling rooms; while the other half may have served to 
protect the outhouses and cattle. 

The manor remained in the Albini family about two hun- 


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dred yeare, and to this time, no doubt, we may attribute the 
erection of the Norman church, of which a remnant is still 
to be seen in the south doorway. The rectory was given to 
Old Buckenham Priory by "William, second Earl of Arundel, 
who died in 1176, his father having founded that house. 
The manor came to the Montalt family, by marriage with 
the heiress of Albini, from about 1260 to 1330 ; and after 
reverting to the Crown, and passing through several other 
changes, recorded in Blomefield, it came through Elizabeth 
Fitzalan, wife of Thomas, Lord Mowbray, to the Dukes of 
Norfolk. Thomas Howard, third duke, " the Great Duke " 
as Blomefield calls him, so celebrated as a statesman in the 
reign of Henry VIII., and who married the Princess Anne 
daughter of Edward IV., was the one who pulled down the old 
hall, at the original site already mentioned as East Hall, and 
built, about the year 1525, a magnificent house a little to the 
north-east, afterwards known as Kenninghall Palace or Place, 
because, on his attainder in 1546, the estate was seized by the 
King and settled on the Princess Mary, afterwards Queen, 
who occasionally resided here. It was a very extensive and 
ornamental building, in the form of the letter H, surrounded 
by a park of seven hundred acres. When Mary succeeded 
to the throne, she restored the attainted Duke to his honours 
and estates, and he came and died here in 1554 ; "^ and the 
manor has since passed with that of Fersfield, the Duke of 
Norfolk being still the owner. It is rather remarkable that 
there has been no print or drawing preserved, that I can 
learn, of this the chief seat of the Dukes of Norfolk in the 
coimty ; and very little reference to it occurs in any con- 
temporary writings. Yet it must have been the meeting-place 
of many historical characters in the stirring times of Mary, 
Elizabeth, and James I. Mary came here when her brother 
Edward VI. died, July 6th, 1553, and on the 9th of July, 

. ' Misprinted in Blomefield 1547. 


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she wrote a letter® to the Lords of the Council, dated*' at our 
manor of Kenninghall/' in which she asserts her title to the 
Crown, and states that she had learned from an advertise- 
ment that the King, her brother, had died on Thursday at 
night, last past. In the Chronicle of Queen Jane, printed 
by the Camden Society from the Harleian MSS., the writer 
says, after recording the death of Edward VI., "The 12th 
of July, word was brought to the Councell, being then at the 
Tower with the Lady Jane, that the Lady Mary was at Ken- 
ninghall Castle in Norfolk, and with her the Earle of Bath, 
Sir Thomas Warton sonne to the Lord Warton, Sir John 
Mordaunt sonne to the Lord Mordaunt, Sir William Drury, 
Sir John Shelton, Sir Henry Bedingfield, Master Henry 
Jemingham, Master John Sulierde, Master Bichard Freston, 
Master Sergeant Morgan, Master Clement Higham of Lin- 
colnes Inne, and divers others ; and also that the Earle of 
Sussex, and Master Henry Ratcliffe his sonne, were comming 
towards her: whereupon by speedy councell it was there 
concluded that the Duke of SuflPolk, with certain other 
noblemen, should goe towards the Lady Mary, to fetoh her 
up to London."* Blomefield says, in a vague way, that Queen 
Elizabeth was " often here," and makes out that the Palace 
belonged to her. This could hardly be, if Queen Mary 
restored it to the Howards. Blomefield also says that 
Elizabeth ordered " her tenant Chapman, who then lived in 
Fersfield Lodge, to lay out the way now called Chapman's 
Entry, out of her own ground, the old way being so strait 
that the Queen could not conveniently pass through it, it is 
now (he says) disused, and is called Queen Bess's Lane, from 
her being scratched with the brambles in riding through it, 
as tradition tells us." It seems pretty evident that Elizabeth 
came here on her progress into Norfolk in 1578 : a long 
contemporary account of this progress, by B. Goldingham 

* Printed by Foxe, Holinshed, and Heylyn. 

• Chronicle of Queen Jane, p. 3. 

X 2 


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and Thomas Churchyard, is printed by Blomefield, iii. 317, 
from Stow's Holinshed. She visited Suffolk in great state, 
and on leaving Bury the Queen came here, when "the 
Earl of Surrey did show most sumptuous chear, in whose 
park at Kenninghall were speeches well set out, and a special 
devise much commended ; and the rest, as a number of joUy 
gentlemen, were no whit behind to the uttermost of their 
abilities, in all that might be done and devised." From 
hence she went on to Lady Stile's at Bracon Ash, and then 
to Norwich. 

Dr. Nott, in his Life of the Poet Earl of Surrey, says, 
" some idea may be formed of the magnitude of the house at 
Kenninghall, when w-e find ^ that besides a suit of apartments 
for the duke and another for the duchess, there were separate 
apartments also for the Earl of Surrey, for tJie Countess of 
Surrej% for the children, for the master of the children, for 
the Duchess of Richmond, for the Lord Thomas Howard, for 
Mrs. Holland, for Mr. Holland, the Duke's secretary, and 
Mr. Adryan (Adrian Junius) the physician of the household. 
We meet also with Sir John Colborne's chambers, the cham- 
bers of tlie children of the chapel, those for the almoners, the 
auditor, the master of the horse, the treasurer, hunter, and 
the comptroller. There were, besides these, apartments in 
the tennis court, and in the offices." The Palace was 
completely taken down in the year 1650, and the materials 
sold. The numerous remains of ornamental brickwork in the 
walls and houses of the neighbouring villages are believed to 
be part of the spoils of this mansion. I myself possess a 
three-quarter portrait, perhaps by Zucchero, of Thomas, 
fourth duke, beheaded in 1572, which is said to have come 
from the palace here. The only remains on the spot consist 
of a small farm house, with some pointed windows in brick, 
of the time of Henry VIII. 

* Dr. Nolt has printed somo Inventories, &c., from papers in the Land Rerenue 


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The claim of the Duke of Norfolk to be chief butler on 
the coronation day, in right of the manor of Kenning- 
hall, was allowed at the coronation of James II., with the 
fee of a gold cup and ewer.^ 

Kenninghall church does not present so many objects of 
interest as we might have expected from the long residence 
here of a great family. The south doorway, already men- 
tioned, is the only remaining part of the Norman church, 
and is a good specimen of the style. It is remarkable for 
having a sculpture of a horse half-way down the jamb, 
supposed to be a representation of the white horse of Hengist. 
This door has been engraved in the Excursions through 
Norfolk, but the horse is omitted. The next earliest parts 
of the church are the chancel and the single row of nave 
pillars, for there is only a north aisle. These are of early 
Decorated work, about 1270. Blomefield's statement that 
the chancel was built by John Millgate, Prior of Buckenham, 
is evidently wrong, for he was the last prior at the Dis- 
solution, 270 years too late. He took his infoimation from 
Weever, who speaks of the prior's tomb in the cliaucel as 
showing that he built it ; but he calls him Shildgate, Prior 
of Wymondham. A recessed tomb, which seems to have 
taken the place of the old sedilia, may be the tomb of Prior 
Millgate of Buckenham, for it is very late. There is another 
interesting tomb on the north side of the chancel detached 
from the wall. It is of diminutive size, and the sides are 
panelled with tracery and shields, and the Purbeck marble 
slab has a small indent of a brass of a man in armour. 
Blomefield says that one of the shields had the arms of 
Audley quartering Touchet painted on it, and supposes it to 
be the one mentioned by Weever in memory of "George 
Lord Audley and his wife, daugliter of the Earl of Bath." 
The date is about 1500. 

* Blount's Ancient Ttnurcs. 


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In the nave the only Decorated work, besides the pillars, 
is one of the clerestory windows which is a quatrefoil, and 
shows what the rest were. The church appears to have had 
considerable alterations made at the beginning of the six- 
teenth century. The windows are mostly of that date, 
and also the tower, which Blomefield says "was designed 
to be carried to a greater height, but was never finished, 
its head being shortened by the misfortunes of its founder, 
Thomas, Duke of Norfolk, whose crest remains on the 

The oak scats of the church are of this date, and have 
been very fine. Blomefield records some inscriptions which 
were formerly to be seen on them. The last two bays of 
the nave roof towards the east are also very good; and 
there arc some fine bosses in the roof of the aisle. A small 

bracket on the jamb of the chancel arch has a carving of an 
oak-leaf and acorn, with the letters Igf^ for some benefactor 
named Oakley, who is thought by Blomefield to have erected 
the rood-screen ^ and the font cover, which has been a lofty 
late Perpendicular one. Some remains of the lower panels 
of a parclose are in the aisle, with painting of a late and 
rough character. At the end of the aisle is a chapel, 
opening by an arch into the chancel ; an outer doorway has 
the initials W. B. in the spandrils, thought to be for 
"William Blenerhasset. 

' The Rood-screen was existing when Blomefield wrote. 


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Other persons buried here without memorials were, Jane, 
wife of Charles Nevile, Earl of Westmoreland, daughter of 
Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, and sister of Thomas, Duke 
of Norfolk ; also Elizabeth, Duchess of Norfolk, 1667, wife of 
Thomas, fourth duke, and daughter of Sir Francis Leyboume, 
and widow of Thomas, Lord D'Acre. 


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'$attB on Starst0ii C^urtl^, 




Starston is very pleasantly situated on the banks of a 
rivulet running into the Waveney. On" the rising ground 
on the north side of the stream stands the church, which 
until this year consisted of a nave and chancel, south porch, 
and west tower. 

Its erection, as in the case with most churches, is of 
various dates. The walls of the nave, from certain indica- 
tions of deeply-splayed narrow window openings with semi- 
circular heads, now filled up, appear to be of late Norman 
work, and to have had Decorated windows afterwai-ds in- 
serted in them. The roof of this part, figured in Brandon's 
Open Timber Roofs, is of the Perpendicular style, and is a 
very good specimen of the period. It is of a plain arch- 
braced construction, without hammer or collar beams. Traces 
of white stars painted on a portion of it still remain. 

The chancel and chancel arch are of Perpendicular work, 
the east window being of three lights. On the north wall 
is an elaborate monument in marble of various colours, to 
the memory of Bartholomew Cotton, who held the manor of 
Bressingham, and died in 1613. He is represented kneeling 
and in the costume of the period. 

Digitized by CjOO^I-^ 


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utal Painting ~ 


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The west tower and south porch are also of Perpendicular 
date. The roof of the latter springs from four stone corbels, 
on which are carved the emblems of the four Eyangelists. 
The tower has five bells, and a fine and lofty arch opening 
into the nave. 

During the present year the church has been enlarged by 
the addition of a north aisle and organ chamber. In pulling 
down the north wall of the nave for this purpose, an arched 
recess was discovered about the middle of the wall and 
within two feet of the ground. It was about four feet wide 
and the same in height, measuring to the top of the arch, 
and had evidently been bricked up for some centuries, 
probably from the time of the Keformation. On the wall 
at the back of the niche, the depth of which was about a 
foot, was painted the subject figured in the accompanying 
illustration. When first opened the colours were exceedingly 
bright and perfect, but had become so pulverised by age 
that the slightest touch destroyed them, and I found it quite 
impossible to secure the smallest portion, as the removal of 
the plaster shook the colour off like dust. It was at first 
supposed to represent the death of some local celebrity, but 
I am inclined to believe with Dr. Ilusenbeth, to whom I 
have shewn the drawing, that it was never customary to 
represent on church walls any family subject, or anything 
unconnected with saints or sacred history. Dr. Ilusenbeth 
says it represents the death of the Blessed Yirgin, and tells 
me he has an old wood-cut much in the same style. 

In that case the figures at the head of the bed would be 
S. Peter wearing a cope, S. Paul holding a scroll, and 
S. John standing behind and represented as a younger man. 
An old legend mentions these three Apostles as present alone 
at first, while the other Apostles, who had all been summoned, 
stood without. The principal mourners are no doubt in- 
tended for holy women in attendance upon Mary, and the 
rest for various friends, and acquaintances in Jerusalem. 


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The soul is carried up to heaven in the usual conventional 
winding sheet. 

The legend on the scroll is probably Precar Te Maria, but 
Archdeacon Hopper, the rector of the parish, thinks it was 
Pro Te Rna Maria, Rna being a contraction of Regina. 
The date of the execution of the fresco is^ I imagine, either 
late in the thirteenth or early in the fourteenth century. 
The painting of parts of it was very beautiful — especially 
the shield with the crucifixion, a portion of which was un- 
fortunately destroyed before the drawing could be taken. 
It was a perfect miniature, and would bear looking into 
with a magnifying glass. 

Near this niche, but not immediately under it, was found 
the sepulchral slab shewn in the illustration. On it is a 
cross standing on a calvary of three steps, with a circle 
round the head, intended for a nimbus or glory. The 
meaning of the ornament in the middle of the cross, if 
meaning it has, has not been satisfactorily settled. Slabs of 
this design are not uncommon. One precisely similar is to 
be found at Buckenham Ferry, and another at Horningsea 
in Cambridgeshire, figured in Mr. Cutts' Manual of Sepukhral 
Slabs, plate liii. The date of it is about the end of the 
thirteenth centurv. 


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^/lU oH< iHOM TO TH^ FOOT. 


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• ' * • 


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In 1866 the attention of the Society was called to the 
discovery by the Rector of Sporle of a Mural Painting in 
his parish church of St. Mary, and a visit to the place by 
myself was the immediate result. My pencil was set to 
work, and with no little difficulty I succeeded in making 
accurate drawings of the various compartments into which 
the subject was divided. These were afterwards shown to 
our learned member, Dr. Husenbeth, who kindly sent me 
explanations of the incidents represented in each panel ; and 
subsequently G. A. Carthew, Esq., the local secretary to the 
Society of Antiquaries in London, requested me to make for 
them a set of drawings in detail. An able paper of descrip- 
tion and a short notice of the church, written by him, were 
printed in the Society's Transactions of Dec. 6, 1866. 

I have now the pleasure of sending to the Norfolk and 
Norwich Archax)logical Society, as a small contribution to 
its Journal, a sufficient number of lithographic impressions, 
with Dr. Husenbeth's observations, for the forthcoming issue 
of its Journal to the members. 

Although the limits of the lithograph do not allow that 


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minuteness of detail that I might wish, still they enable 
me to give a correct notion of the arrangement and treat- 
ment of the subjects. The painting is executed in distemper- 
colours, and the legend of St. Catherine is represented in 
twenty- five panels, each panel bounded by a red line, and 
the whole surrounded with a border of a zigzag pattern of 
red and white on a black ground. It occupies a space on 
the south wall of the south aisle, measuring about eleven feet 
five inches in length, by seven feet eight inches in height. 
The subjects in the panels, from one to eleven, beginning on 
the left hand, are drawn with great freedom and boldness of 
outline ; but great delicacy is portrayed in the virgin saint ; 
the colouring too is feminine and subdued. From the twelfth 
panel to the twenty-fifth, the conclusion of the subject, is seen 
a most singular contrast in the design, the latter fourteen 
apparently by another artist of less skill ; — ^bad and coarse 
drawing ; grotesque and ludicrous forms, and harsh colour- 
ing, in which red predominates. It is conjectured that these 
last panels were painted over the finished subjects of the 
former artist, but in no instance was I able to discover any 
under-painting beyond the division lines of the twelfth 
panel, so it may be concluded that the first artist was by 
some cause or other prevented from proceeding to the end*' 
of his undertaking. The date of the painting is indicated 
by the costumes, the ornaments of which in some instances 
are curious, viz., the chaplets of flowers or jewels, of rare 
occurrence in representations of mediaeval decorations; but 
the curling hair, forked beards, short-cut tunics, worn close 
to the chin and scalloped round the bottom; the party- 
coloured and motley dresses; the long toes to the boots, 
termed " crockowes ; " ^ the pointed basinet, &c., all belong 
to the early part of the reign of Richard the Second. 

* Being so named from the city of Cracow : Poland and Bohemia having 
been incorporated by John, the grandfather of Richard's Queen, the fashion 
probably was derived from thence." — rianche. 


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XrvnnJiM'hn? Vput" hy C O'tU Ctt , 'titer. | 


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The panels are numbered from left to right, and follow 
downwards as you would read an English book. 

First Row of Panels. 

1. The Emperor Maximinus II. having heard of the 
learning and high reputation of St. Catherine, said to have 
been the daughter of Costus, King of Cyprus, sent for her to 
Alexandria. She was accompanied thither by her parents ; 
and is here represented as received at the palace by the 
empress, to whom she is commended by the emperor. Her 
father and an attendant are seen behind. 

2. The emperor had ordered all to offer sacrifices to his 
gods. In this painting the people are kneeling and sacri- 
ficing at an altar in the temple, and the emperor is assisting. 
St. Catherine coming into the temple remonstrates with the 
emperor, showing that they are worshipping the devil, who 
appears over the altar. 

3. When the sacrifices were over, the emperor ordered 
St. Catherine to be brought before him, and being confounded 
by her wisdom and arguments, determined to send for wise 
men to dispute with her. She is here represented discoursing 
with the emperor. 

4. Here are three learned men, representing the whole 
number of fifty, haranguing before the emperor, and St, 
Catherine behind them answering their arguments. 

5. A great number of persons of all ranks were present 
at the disputation, and they are here represented by a 
number of secular and religious persons. Behind these the 
saint is seen discoursing. The emperor, enraged at the 
defeat of his learned philosophers, commanded St. Catherine 
to be taken to prison. 


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6. The chief and most learned of the philosophers under- 
took to refute St. Catherine. He is here haranguing at the 
side of the emperor. The figure behind the saint, crowned, 
is probably intended for her father, the King of Cyprus. 

7. The chief philosopher owned himself vanquished by 
St. Catherine's discourses, and he and all the others became 
Christians. The emperor tried again to gain the saint by 
great offers and promises; but, finding all ineffectual, he 
began to treat her with great severity, and ordered her to be 
stripped and scourged. She is here standing before him 
receiving her sent'Cnce. 

Second Row. 

8. The saint appears here at the window of her prison, 
in which she remained twelve days under the custody of 
Porphyrins, who is addressing her from the outside. 

9. By means of Porphyrins, the empress Faustina visited 
the saint in her prison ; and they were both converted to the 
faith of Christ by her discourses, as were also two hundred 
soldiers of the emperor's guard. The kneeling figure in this 
painting, on the left side, is probably Porphyrius. St. 
Catherine appears before him holding what appears to be a 
lamp — ^perhaps emblematical of the light of true faith. 
Behind is the empress listening to her, and before her stand 
the soldiers of the guard. The Almighty appears above 
protecting her. On the right are a female and a crowned 
figure, probably meant for the saint's parents, and the head 
of another is seen wearing a kind of mitre or tiara. Between 
these and the soldiers appears some drapery in graceful folds, 
but so imperfect as to be inexplicable ; it may however have 
been used to convey the empress secretly into the prison. 

10. After twelve days St. Catherine was again brought 
before the emperor. She appears with the marks of scourging, 
Porphyrius holds her left arm, and an executioner, with a 
three-lashed whip knotted with bullets, stands behind. She 


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still courageously holds out against all the offers and threats 
of the emperor. 

11. Porphyrius, the keeper of the prison, the keys of 
which are hanging at his side, is here seen with the saint 
before the emperor, who sentences St. Catherine to be tied to 
a dreadful engine with four wheels, set with saws, nails, and 
knives, which when set in motion would tear her to pieces. 

12. When the saint was tied to the wheels, there came 
lightning and thunder ; and angels cut the cords, and broke 
and set fire to the wheels. The saint fell to the ground 
unhurt, but many of the pagan spectators were killed by the 
broken pieces of the wheels. All this is represented in this 
painting of double size. St. Catherine is seen above as 
fastened to the wheels. Two angels with swords are cutting 
the cords, and are holding golden vials pouring out the 
divine wrath. The saint is seen below after the explosion of 
the engine, and the bodies of the pagans slain lie aroimd her, 
under drapery. The wheels are partly visible. The emperor 
also is struck by the explosion, as he is falling back terrified, 
blood is gushing from his mouth, and the sword falling from 
his hand, on the left of the painting; while the empress 
appears on the opposite side rebuking him for his cruelty, 
and openly declaring that she also is a Christian. 

13. The emperor was greatly enraged at this, and sum- 
moning the empress, commanded her to be beheaded. The 
officers are here leading her off to execution. 

Third Row. 

14. The empress beheaded. 

15. Porphyrius is here represented burying the body of 
the empress by moonlight. 

16. The emperor sent for the two hundred soldiers of his 
guard who had become Christians, and sentenced them to 
death, which is represented in this painting. 


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17. The emperor enquired who had buried his empress. 
Porphyrius acknowledged that he had ; and that he was also 
a Christian. In this painting the emperor appears attended 
by his sword-hearer, and sentences Porphyrins to death. 
The figure bending before the emperor is probably the 
executioner, and Porphyrius stands at his side. 

18. This represents the massacre of the soldiers of the 
guard and of Porphyrius, who is seen slain on the left hand, 
denoted by his keys^ as keeper of the prison. 

Fourth Row. 

19. The emperor once more sent for St Catherine. He 
said it was through her that he had lost his empress and 
his soldiers. He asked her if she would now worship his 
gods, threatening that if she refused he would order her to 
be flayed alive. The saint lifting up her hands, indignantly 
refiises to sacrifice. 

20. The executioners are here seizing upon the saint, and 
preparing to execute the sentence. 

21. Devils are here represented contending for the soul 
of St. Catherine. 

22. The saint is here led to execution. 

23. St. Catherine is beheaded, and her soul received into 
heaven by an angel. 

24. Angels are carrying the body of the saint in a 
marble tomb to the top of Mount Sina, and two angels below 
are incensing it. 

25. Pilgrims paying their devotions at the tomb of St, 
Catherine on Mount Sina, where the emperor Justinian after- 
wards built a magnificent church and monastery. 


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ItotfS 0n IX Jdter mxH §tthx'diian 





This " Letter and Declaration," a printed broadside in my 
possession, and exhibited at a recent Annual Meeting of 
the Society, relates to one of the most important events 
recorded by the historians of our nation, namely, the Resto- 
ration of Xing Charles IT. For as the Revolutions of 1643 
and 1688 rescued our ancestors from the arbitrary power of 
kings, so did the Restoration save them from a military 
despotism no less odious. 

George Monk, who had been one of Cromwell's greatest 
generals, and who, until the abdication of his son Richard 
Cromwell, had also served the cause of the Parliament, 
becoming dissatisfied on learning that the junto of officers 
had dissolved the Parliament and usurped all authority in 
the State, was annoyed, and marched to London at the head 
of about seven thousand men, with the professed object of 
freeing the Parliament from the oppression of the soldiers. 
As he advanced towards the capital, the leading gentry of 
the various counties of England flocked around him, ex- 
pressing their earnest desire that he would lend his aid to 
restore the kingdom to liberty and peace. A great number 
of these addresses were presented to him at St. Albans, on 
the 28th January, 1660, and very probably the one now 


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Having readied London on the 3rd February, 1660, he 
waited for a few days in order to see in which direction the 
popular feeling went, and then declared for a free Parliament, 
which, as soon as it assembled, took steps to restore the 
exiled Stuart. Monk acted with great secrecy and dissimu- 
lation, and shortly after the Bestoration was created Duke 
of Albemarle and Knight of the Garter : he was appointed 
to fill the ofl&ces of Master of the Horse, Gentleman of the 
Bed-chamber, and first Commissioner of the Treasury; he 
also received the grant of an estate worth £7000 a year, and. 
Lord Macaulay tells us, became the third wealthiest subject in 
the kingdom. In 1664, when the war with Holland broke 
out, he was made head of the Admiralty,^ and in 1667 was 
again placed at the head of the Treasury. He died 3rd Jan., 
16fg, leaving an only son, who succeeded as second Duke, 
was also a Knight of the Garter, and died in 1688, when the 
title became extinct. 

The document now before us cannot be said to throw 
much fresh light on the histoiy of the great national event 
to which it refers, but it is thought that even a bare list of 
the names of the principal landowners and gentry of the 
county, who had either survived the overthrow of monarchy 
or who had sprung up on its ruins, could not fail to be of 
interest to the members of our Society. It has, however, 
been attempted — and, thanks to the kind aid of the Rev. W. 
Qrigson, with more success than could otherwise have been 
hoped for — to identify the individuals whose names are sub- 
scribed to this Declaration, and to state in a concise form 
whatever one was able, after this lapse of time, to recover 
concerning them. 

^ '* Great fleets had been entrusted to the direction of Rupert and Monk ; 
Kupert, \t'ho was renowned chiefly as a hot and daring cavalry officer; and 
Monk, who, when he wished his ship to change her course, moTcd the mirth of 
his ciew by calling out, * Wheel to the left,' " — Macaulay's History of Ettgland^ 
Tol. i. p. 312. 


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Of the Gentry of the County of Norfolk and the 
County of the City of Norwich, To his Excellency 
the Lord Generall MONK. 


Right Honourable^ 

Tee the Gentry of the County of Norfolk and of 
the County and City of Norwich do cordially 
rejoyce with many others of these Counties, and 
of the Nation, for your Excellencie's return into 
your Native Countrey with honour and safety : 
And that the late Differences in the Armies are 
now so happily composed without blood-shed : We 
are desirous to blesse our good God for these 
mercies, and to acquaint your Lordship, That we 
have signified the Resentment of our grievances 
to the Speaker of the Parliament ; A true Copie 
whereof we have here inclosed, sent to your Excel- 
lency, least any persons should in our absence 
mis-represent us or our intentions to your Lordship : 
We rest 

The Declaration, 

We the Gentry of the County of Norfolk, and the County 
and City of Norwich, Being deeply affected with the sense 
of our sad Distractions and Divisions, both in Church 
and State ; And wearied with the Miseries of an un- 
naturall Civil War, The too frequent Interruptions of 
Government, the Impositions of severall heavy Taxes, 
And the loud out-cryes of multitudes of undone and 
almost famished people, occasioned by a generall decay 
of Trade, which hath spread itself throughout the whole 

Y 2 


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Nation, and these Counties in particular ; And having met 
together and consulted what may best remedy and remove 
Our and the Nation's present grievances and Distractions ; 
Do humbly conceive, That the chief Expedient, will be, 
the Recalling of those Members that were secluded in 
1648, and sate before the Force put upon the Parliament 
(We of this Couoty of Norfolk, being by such Seclusion 
deprived of any person to represent us in Parliament) and 
also by filling up the vacant places thereof ; And all to be 
admitted without any Oath or Engagement, previous to 
their Entrance; Which being done. We shall be ready to 
acquiesce and submit in all things to the Judgment and 
Authority of Parliament ; Without which Authority, the 
People of England cannot be obliged to pay any Taxes. 

The Letter to Generall Monk and this Declaration 
was signed by 
Thomas Lord Richardson 
John Hobart 
Horatio Townesend 
John Asteley 
William Hewitt 
John Palgrave 
Thomas Berney 
Wil. Rant 
Adrian Parmenter 
Edmund Durman 
John Rawley 
Henry Watts 
John Maum 
John Andrewes 
John Salter 

Edmund Bacon 
N. Le Strange 
Thomas Pettus 
Wil. Doyley 
Thomas Guybon 
John Windham 
James De Grey 
Butts Bacon 
Thomas Rant 
Chr. Jay 
Joseph Payne 
Rob. Bendish 
Richard Wenman 
John Laurence 
Thomas Wisse 

Philip Woodhouse 

Ralph Heure 

John Tracy 

Arthur Jenny 
' Augustin Sothcrton 
! John Buxton 

Francis N orris 
I Thomas Johnson 

Thomas Le Gros 
1 John Hovile 

Richard Catelyne 
I Suck. Jay 
I Rob. Suckling 
I Samuel Smith 
' Rob. Holmes 

With many hundreds more of the Knights, Gentry, Citizens 
and Free-holders. 

Printed for John Place at Furnivals Innc Gate in Holborne 1660. 


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1. Thomas Lord Richardson, Baron of Cramond in 
Scotland, was M.P. for Norfolk in 1660. He died in 1674 
and was buried at Honingham. 

The inscription on his monument (given by Blomefield, 
ii. 447) is-. 

" MS. Hie jacct Thomas Richardson, Incy tus Baro de Cramond apud Scotos, 
Vir invicta Fide, et Fortitudine, Qui nullis Fanaticorum Factionihus infectus 
in corruptissime seculo Integer continuit, et suum commodum pne causa Regali 
post hahuit, obiit Maii 16 Anno Dom. 1674, et setatis suae 47." 

His arms were Or, on a chief sable 3 lions' heads erased of the field, to 
which Charles I. added a canton azure charged with a saltire argent. 

2. Probably Sir John Hobart, of Blickling, 3rd Bart. 
M.P. for Norfolk 1654, 1656, 1668, &c., to 1681. 

His arms were, Sable, an estoile of 8 points Or between 2 flanches ermine. 

3. Sir Horatio Townshend, 3rd Bart. He rendered es- 
sential services to the Royal Cause during the Usurpation : 
he was one of the six commoners who, with six peers, went 
to the Hague to entreat King Charles II. to return to 
England and take the goyernment of his dominions into 
his own hands. He fortified the town of Lynn for the 
King's reception, and was commander of the Royalist forces 
on the coast of Norfolk; he was also M.P. for Norfolk in 
1656, 1658, and 1660. Having been so instrumental in 
restoring the monarchy, he was rewarded in 1661 by being 
created on the 20th April, Baron Townshend of LjTin Regis, 
and on the 11th Dec, 1682, he was advanced to the dignity 
of Viscount Townshend of Raynham. 

Anns : Azure a chevron between 3 escallops argent. 

4. Query, a mistake in some way for Sir Jacob Astley, 
of Melton Constable, created a Baronet, 25th June, 1660. 

I cannot find any mention of a John Astley living at this period. 

5. Sir William Hewitt, of Breccles : he died in 1667. 

Arms : Gules a chevron engrailed between 3 owletts argent. 

6. Sir John Palgrave, of Northwood Barmingham, co. 
Norfolk, created a Baronet by Charles I. in 1641. 

Artns : Azure a lion rampant guardant argent. 


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7. Thomas Berxey, of Swardeston, was High Sheriff of 

Norfolk in 1047. He waa 3'ounger brother of Sir Richard 

Bemey, first Baronet, of Park Hall, Reedham. 

ArfM : Quarterly gules and aaure, orcr all a cross engrailed ermine. 

8. William Rant. 

Two penons of these names were living oontemporaneoiisly, first cousina to 
each other, and it is difficult to say which of the two is intended. Wm. Bant 
of Yelverton, the son of Humphrey, died in 1683, aet 57 ; and Wm. Rant, 
afterwards Sir William Bant, Kt. of Thorpe Maiket, died in 1711. They were 
hoth nephews of Sir Thomas Bant mentioned below. (No. 24 ) 

Arfns : £rmine, on a fesse sable 3 lions rampant, Or. (Granted by 
Cooke Clarenceux, Ist June, 1583, to Humphrey Bant of Norwich. ) 

9. Adrian Parmenter was Sherifi" of Norwich in 1632, 
and Mayor in 1642. 

10. Edmund Burman waa Sheriff of Norwich in 1632, 
and Mayor in 1648. 

11. John Rawi^ey or Ray ley, son of Robert Rayley of 
Cley, Norfolk, Sheriff of Norwich, 1642, Mayor in 1649. 
In 1643, Sheriff Rawley carried £110 of the proposition 
money to Cambridge for the fortification of the place, and 
had six men with carbines to guard him all the way. He 
was buried at St. Andrew's, Norwich, 12th August, 1673. 

12. Henry Watts, Sheriff of Norwich, 1639, and Mayor 
in 1646. Buried at St. Andrew's, Norwich, 21st Dec., 1669. 

13. John Maum, probably misprint for Mann, Sheriff of 
Norwich, 1649, Mayor in 1653, High Sheriff of Norfolk 

in 1672. 

Arms : Sable, on a fesse counter-embattled between 3 goats passant 
Or, as many pellets. 

14. John Andrews, Alderman of Norwich. 

On the 30th May, 1649, he proclaimed the Act for abolishing Kingly Oopern- 
ment. — Blomefeld^ ill. 399. 

15. John Salter was Sheriff of Norwich in 1639, Mayor 
in 1655. His name occurs amongst those returned in 1664 
for refusing to give anything towards the subscription for 
regaining the town of Newcastle-upon-Tjme, according to 
an Ordinance of Parliament. 

Arms : Gules 10 billets, Or. 


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16. Probably Sir EoMfND Bacon, of Redgrave, 4ih 
Bart., he died in 1685. 

j4rm9 : Gules on a chief argent, 2 mulletts sjible. 

17. Sill Nicholas Lk Strange, of Ilunstanton, second 

Bart., died in 1669. 

Anns : Gules, 2 lions passant in pale argent. 

18. Sir Thomas Pettus, of Rackheath, 2nd Bart. He 
was High Sheriff of Norfolk in 1664, and died in 1671 . The 
father of Sir Thomas Pettus was created a Baronet by 
Charles I., 23rd Sept., 1641, for his zeal and fidelity to the 
Royal cause. 

Arms : Gules, a fesso argent between 3 annulets Or. 

19. Sir William Doyly, of Shotesliara, was knighted by 
Charles I. for his gallant behaviour abroad in the service of 
Gustavus Adolphus. He was M.P. for Yaiinouth in 1660-1. 
At the Restoration he was one of the Commissioners ap- 
pointed by the House of Commons, out of their own members, 
to see the army disbanded in 1661. He was also one of 
those chosen by the City of Norwich to wait on the King 
with the resignation of their charter: he was created a 
Baronet in 1663, and died in 1677. 

Arms : Gules, 3 bucks' heads caboshcd argent attired Or. 

20. Sir Thomas Guybon, of Thursford. He died 29th 
May, 1666, and upon his monument at Thursford Church is 
a long inscription, of which the following is a portion. 

" Tertio Vicecomite sub Caroli prime et secundo, cirenarchioe, viro per 
onnia intcgerrimo crga Deura piissimo, ecclesiam ortbodoxo, regem et monarchiam 
maxime devoto patriam bone merito, vicinos beneyolo, seipsum sobrio, omnes 
bumano. Qui temporibus democraticis philo basilius, perfidis fldelis ; et ob 
singularem fidem in principem et patriam non semel afflictus afflictis patiens, 
dubiis pnidens arduis constans, turbidis tranquillus, malis bonus, bonis optimus, 
omnibus oequus." 

A)'ms : Or, a lion rampant sable, over all on a bend gules 3 escallops argent. 

21. John Windham, Esq., of Felbrigg. 

Arms : Argent, a chevron between 3 lions' heads erased Or. 

22. James de Grey, Esq., of Merton : he died in June, 
1665. He was brother of Sir Robert de Grey, who was 
knighted bj" Charles I. in 1641. 


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23. Butts Bacon^ third son of Sir Nicholas Bacon, 
created a Baronet 20th July, 1627. His estate was at 
MUdenhall, co. SuflFolk : he died in 1661. 

24. Thomas Rant, Esq., of Surrey House, Norwich. 
M.P. for Norwich, 1660. Knighted by Charles II. He 
died in 1671, and was buried at Thorpe Market. 

Arma : Ermine, on a fess sable 3 liona rampant Or. 

25. Christopher Jay, Sheriff of Norwich in 1653, 
Mayor in 1657, M.P. for Norwich in 1661. 

Anns : Gules, on a bend engrailed argent 3 roaefl of the field seeded Or. 

26. Joseph Payne, or Paine, Sheriff of Norwich, 1664, 
Mayor 1660, knighted in 1660. Died 15th August, 1668. 

He had a grant of the following arms from Edward Walker, Garter, 
1st Sepcmber, 1660 : — Sable, a fesse raguly between 8 lions* x>a^'8 erased 
Or, armed gules. 

27. Robert Bendish, Sheriff of Norwich in 1663, Mayor 
in 1672. 

I cannot identify to what funilj he belonged. 

28. Richard Wenman, Sheriff of Norwich in 1646, 
Mayor in 1662. He was burnt in his bed in 1677, being at 
the time bed-ridden, and '^ left alone with a candle to light 
him a pipe." 

29. John Lawrence, Sheriff of Norwich, 1659, Mayor 
in 1669. Buried at St. Andrew's, Norwich, 27th September, 

SO. Thomas Wisse, Sheriff of Norwich in 1659, Mayor 
in 1667. He died in 1702, a}t. 78. 

Arms : Per chevron gules and ermine, in chief a besant between 2 
trefoils Or. 

31. Sir Philip Wodehouse, of Kimberley, Bart., M.P. 
for Norfolk in 1656 : died in 1681. 

Anns : Sable, a chevron Or gutte de sang, between 3 cinquefoils 

32. Most probably Sir Ralph Hake, of Stow Bardolph, 
M.P. for Norfolk in 1654, 1656, 1661. Died in 1671. 

33. John Tracy, probably Sir John Tracy, of Stanhoe, 

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34. Sir Arthur Jenny, Knight, of Knodishall co. 
Suffolk, and of Heigham co. Norfolk. High Sheriff of 
Norfolk in 1665. 

Amu : Enaine, a bend gales cotioed Or. 

35. Sir Augustin Sotherton, of Taverham, Knight. 
He died 24th May, 1662, and was buried at Taverham. 

Aitns : Argent, a fesee gules, in chief 2 crescents of the last. 

36. John Buxton, of Tibenham co. Norfolk, M.P. for 
Norfolk in 1656, and one of the secluded members in that 
Parliament. He was appointed High Sheriff of Norfolk in 
1638, and was ordered to levy and collect the ship money. 

His arms were, Argent, a Hun rampant sable, tail erect and elevated 
oyer the head. As a compensation fur the great losses sustained hy him 
in the Civil Wars, Charles II. granted to the family a second coat of 
arms to be quartered with the original coat, viz., Sable, 2 bars argent on 
a canton of the second, a buck of the first attired Or. 

37. Francis Norris. One of those who refused to sub- 
scribe to the regaining of Newcastle. (See No. 15.) One 
of the first Aldermen of Norwich under the New Charter 
of 1663, Sheriff of Norwich in 1665, buried at St. Andrew's, 
Norwich, in August, 1666. 

38. Thomas Johnson, Sheriff of Norwich in 1651 : died 
in 1660. 

39. Thomas Le Gros, son of Sir Charles Le Gros, of 
Crostwick Hall. 

Arms : Quarterly, argent and azure on a bend over all sable 3 mullets Or. 

40. John Hovile. I cannot identify him, but he was 
probably of the Hovells of Hillington. 

41. EiCHARD Catlin, or Catlyn, was chosen one of the 
Members of Parliament for Norwich in 1640, and sat in the 
Long Parliament. He died in 1662. 

Armt : Per chevron sable and Or, 3 leopards passant counterchanged, 
on a chief arg. 3 roundlets. 

42. Suckling Jay, of Holveston co. Norfolk. Died in 
1677, aet 74. Buried in St. Andrew's, Norwich. 

Arms : Gules, on a bend engrailed argent 3 roses of the field. 

43. Robert Suckling, of Woodton, High Sheiiff of 


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Norfolk in 1661. His will was proved at jSTorwich 4th July, 
1689 : he is called Colonel Suckling. 

Arms : Per polo gules and azure, 3 bucks trippant Or. 

44. Samuel Smith, Recorder of Norwich in 1648. 

45. Egbert IIolmes, Sheriff of Norwich in 1646. Buried 
at St. Andrew's, Norwich, in 1662. 

As an addition to these Notes, the Grant of Arms to 
Dr. Benjamin Hoadly, successively Bishop of Bangor, Here- 
ford, Salisbury, and Winchester, is appended. It is copied 
from the original on vellum in my possession, and is inte- 
resting from its informing us that his grandfather, Mr. John 
Hoadly, had been chaplain to General Monk, and his father, 
Samuel Hoadly, master of the Free School in Norwich. 

The Grant is as follows : — 


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To ALL AND SINGULAR to whom these Presents 
shall come S' John Vanbrugh, Kn* Clarenceux King of 
Arms, and Peter Le Neve Esq'. Norroy King of Arms, send 
Greeting. Whereas the Eev*^ Benjamin Hoadly, Doctor in 
Divinity, Rector of S^ Peter's Poor London, and of the 
Church of Streatham in the County of Surrey, now nomi- 
nated by his Maj^y to the Bishoprick of Bangor hath made 
Application to the Rt Hon**^® Henry Earl of Suffolk and 
Bindon, One of the Lords of the King's most Hon^-® Privy 
Council and Deputy (with the Royal Approbation) to his 
Grace Thomas, Duke of Norfolk, Earl Marshal and Here- 
ditary Marshal of England, for Our Devising, and (after his 
Lordships Approbation) Assigning unto him such Arms and 
Crest as may be lawfully bom by him and his Descendents 
and the other Descendents of his Grandfather Mr. John 
Hoadley who was sometime Chaplain to General Monk in 
Scotland, to whom he was subservient in promoting the 
King's Restauration and died at RolvQnden in Kent 28** 
June 1668 leaving two sons surviving. Viz* Samuel Hoadly 
Father to the said Dr. Benjamin Hoadly late Master of the 
Free School in Norwich and John Hoadly (Uncle to the 
said Dr. Hoadly) now Rector of Halstead in the aforesaid 
County of Kent ; And forasmuch as the said Earl of Suffolk 
and Bindon considering the Premises did by Warrant imder 
his Hand and Seal, bearing Date the Tenth day of this 
Instant February, Order and Appoint Us to devise, and 
after his LorP* Approbation Assign unto the said Dr. 
Benjamin Hoadly, such Arms and Crest accordingly. Know 
ye therefore that We the said Clarenceux and Norroy in 
pursuance of the Consent of the said Earl of Suffolk and 
Bindon, signified as aforesaid and by Virtue of the Letters 
Patent of Our Offices, to each of Us respectively granted, 
under the Great Seal of England have devised and do by 
these Presents (with his LoP' Approbation) Grant and Assign, 
unto the said Dr. Benjamin Hoadly, the Arms and Crest 


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hereafter mentioned, Viz* Quarterly Azure and Or in the 
first Quarter a Pelican of the Second, Vulning its Breast 
Proper, and for the Crest, On a Wreath of his Colours upon 
a Terrestrial Orb or a Dove the wings expanded holding an 
Olive Branch in the Beak proper, as the same are in the 
Margin hereof more plainly depicted. To be bom and used 
for Ever, hereafter by him the said Dr. Benjamin Hoadly 
and the Heirs and other Descendents of his Body and also by 
the other Descendents of his Grandfather Mr. John Hoadly 
aforesaid lawfully begotten, with their due and respective 
Differences according to the Law and Practice of Arms 
without Lett or Interruption. In witness whereof We the 
said Clarenceux and Norroy, Kings of Arms, have hereunto 
Subscribed Our Names and affixed the Seals of Our re- 
spective Offices, this Twentieth day of February in the 
Second year of the Reign of Our Sovereign Lord, George, 
by the Grace of God King of Great Britain France and 
Ireland, Defender of the Faith &c. Annoq Domini 1715. 

Signed John Vanbrugh Peter Le Neve, Norroy 

Clar* King of Arms King of Arms. 


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'§att$ on Stnlt^axp C^xml^. 



In a paper read not very long since at one of the meetings of 
the Norfolk and Norwich Archaeological Society, the remark 
occurs "that we Archaeologists are too apt to isolate our 
objects of interest, and not sufficiently to view them in their 
chronological and historical surroundings ; '* and it appears 
indeed to be true that the province of the Archaeologist is, 
not only to cherish the abounding relics and monuments of 
the past, — to rescue, to preserve, and to elucidate, — ^but also to 
catch the fading impression of human energy still lingering 
about these, to clothe them anew with the life which is 
associated with them, and to gather around the historical 
events of which they afford evidence. 

In this view, places and buildings of lesser antiquarian 
importance, and hitherto overlooked, may arrest attention, 
and yield objects worthy of notice and metnorial. Such an 
object of interest seems to have presented itself in the church 
at Sculthorpe, in West Norfolk, where there existed, some 
years ago, a number of coats of arms, which time and other 
changes have now swept away, but which were valuable as 
attesting, in the . picturesque language of heraldry, to the 
connexion, traditionally known, of this church with Sir 
Robert Knollys, — telling, in quaint shape and lively colour, 

[vol. VII.] z 


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the talc of his companions and adventures in tlic varied 
campaigns of the fourteenth century. 

During the restoration of this church in 1801, whilst care 
was taken to preserve, without impairing, any relics of 
bygone skill or story, it was found that these shields, which 
would have been well worth cherishing, put up by Sir Robert 
Knollys, had unfortunately disappeared. They were probably 
of wood, and were fixed " in the roofe of the church." They 
had no doubt gradually decayed, and were finally destroyed 
when the old roof, adorned with carved figures of angels, was 
removed in 1815. They are, however, minutely described by 
two eye-witnesses, and were still to be seen in the church 
little more than a hundred years ago, in the time of 
Blomefield. By a still earlier observer they are also recorded 
in detail, — Henry Chitting, the writer of the Visitation of 
Norfolk ChurcJm, from 1600 to 1620.* Blomefield mentions 
sixteen shields.^ Both speak of the coat, Argent, a fesse 
engrailed between three Catherine wheels sable: this occurs 
also in many churches in Norfolk, accompanying the coat of 
Knollys, and is attributed to Casteler, in Glover's Ordinary ; 
neither antiquarian, in enumerating the shields in Sculthorpc 
church, assigns a name to it. Sir Robert Knollys' arms are 
described as occurring in three ways — his simple coat, (Gules, 
on a chevron arg. three roses of the first) then the same 
within an azure border, then impaling Beverley; this last 
repeated " around the church." His arms were also found 
at this period in other churches in Norfolk ; — St. Michaers, 
Norwich ; Harpley, Cromer, North Barsham, North wold, 

The manuscript of Henry Chitting notices twenty different 
coats of arms in the roof of the church at Sculthorpe. Eight 
of these are the same as those which were placed in 1419 by 
Sir Thomas Erpingham in St, Michael's church at Norwich, 

^ This manuscript is now in the possession of Lord Orford. 
'-' 8vo. edition, vii. 177. 


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and which, according to the inscription beneath them, were 
to commemorate such warriors as had gained for themselves 
renown and glory in the reign of Edward III. The same 
idea guided the selection of most of the coats of arms at 
Sculthorpe, which were, as far as can bo gathered, those of 
Edward the Black Prince ; Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of 
Gloucester; John of Ghent; Sir Robert KnoUys ; Edward the 
Confessor ; De Norwich ; Sir Hugh Calverley ; Beauchamp ; 
Felbrigge ; Erpingham ; Morley ; Wodehouse ; Mortimer 
of Attleborough, impaling, or, a cross gules; Stafford; Tyes; 
Ingloys ; Shelton ; and KnoUys impaling Beverley. Lastly, 
the coat described " Argent, a fesse engrailed between three 
Catherine wheels sable," ^ 

' Extract from Henry Chitting*8 Visitation of Norfolk and Suffolk, A.D, 
1600 to 1620. 

In the roofe of the church, — 

Norwich, Azure and gules per pale, a lion ermine. 

St. Edward. 

England and England with a label of five points argent. 

E. Morley. 


Mortimer of Attleburgh sideth [i.e. impales], Or, a crosd gules. 

Enowles, Gules, on a cheveron argent three roses gules. 

Shelton or Mawtby. 

England quartereth Castile and Arragon. 

Beauchamp, Gules, a fesse inter sis cross-crosslets or. 


Ingloys, Gules, six harlots or, on a canton argent five billets sable. 

Thomas Woostok, A border argent, England. 


Felbrig, Or, a lion gules. 

Woodhowsc, Sable, a cheveron guttc or inter three cinquefoiles ermine. 

Gules, a cheveron argent with a labcll of three points mesrae. 

Argent, a fosse ingrailed inter three Katherine whecles sable. 
Knowles, within a border azure bczanted. Orate p* ala Rob'ti Knowles milit*. 

Argent, a fesse gules inter three caulvcs trippant sable. 
Knowles without a border sideth Argent, a fosse dancy inter three leopards* 
heads sable. [BevcrK'y.] 
Knowles sideth the same coat round about the churchc. 


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The arras of De Norwich were placed in the cliurch from 
the connection of the family with Sculthorpe. **Shelton" and 
"Mawtby" bore almost a similar shield; the one here was 
probably that of Sir Ralph Shelton, of Great Snoring, who 
had been at the battle of Crescy. The arras of the Black 
Prince in this case had a label of five points instead of three. 
An example of this is engraved in Boutell's Manual of 
Heraldry ; where it is mentioned that the Prince used a seal 
with a silver label of five points. The badge of Edward the 
Confessor was impaled by Richard II. ; it may have been 
added to the other royal shields in tins church in remembrance 
of Edward III., whose patron saint he was, and who had 
placed the arms of "St. Edward," it is supposed for that 
reason, in St. Stephen's Chapel in Westminster Abbey. 

Of Sir Robert KnoUys no distinct biography appears to 
have been written, but from many sources, details of his life 
and doings may be ascertained, and a picture formed of his 
long and successful career. Of this career Froissart affords 
the most interesting particulars. Much of the history of 
Sir Robert KnoUj^s is preserved in the vivid and romantic 
pages of the old chronicler, and the notices of more modern 
writers seem dull and unreal in comparison with his contem- 
porary descriptions; but facts and traditions have been 
gathered and published by later research : to Weever, 
Bloniefield, and more recently to Mr. J. G. Nichols, we owe 
information conveyed in their accounts of the several churches 
with which Sir Robert KnoUj's was connected. He is also 
commemorated in A Chronicle of London, ftvm 1089 to 1483, 
written in the fifteenth century, and in Fabyan's Chronicle, 
published in 1533 ; also in Fuller's Worthies, Dugdale's 
Monasticon, Boothroyd's History of Pontefract, and in other 
chronicles and histories, media) val and modern. 

It was in the stirring times of Edward III. that he first 
took arms, about the year 1351, and this was the com- 
mencement of a series of foreign expeditions or campaigns. 


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which, with an intervening period of sevon years, when he 
resided in Brittany, occupied the following thirty years of 
his life. He served during this eventful time under three, 
successively, of the sons of Edward III., — the Black Prince, 
John of Gaunt, and Thomas of Woodstock ; and was 
engaged repeatedly in those celebrated wars where the best 
and bravest of her knights so often turned the fortunes of 
the day to England's glory. Among these, Sir Robert 
KnoUys seems to have had one chosen friend and comrade. 
Sir Hugh Calverley; and the two Cheshire knights per- 
formed together many congenial feats of arms. One of the 
first of these — the account of which is the earliest mention 
of Sir Robert Knollys' military life, then begun, at thirty- 
six, in the prime and flower of his age — was the combat 
between thirty English and thirty Bretons, which was 
arranged between the French and English generals in the 
hope of ending the incessant struggles and bloodshed of 
which Brittany was the scene in 1351, and which is known 
as the battle of Trenfe. "The place appointed for it was 
at the half-way oak-tree between Josselin and Ploermel, and 
the day fixed the 27th of March, the fourth Sunday in 
Lent. Each combatant chose what arms he liked. The 
advantage at first was for the English, but after the greater 
part of both sides had been killed, the Bretons at last gained 
the day." 4 

Five years later he accompanied the Black Prince to 
France. To him was given the command of part of the 
English army, and he was one of those, who, in that short 
and marvellous struggle at Poictiers, where eight thousand 
English put to flight seven times their number, shared the 
perils and triumphs of the day. 

After this he made two more campaigns before he again 
joined the immediate army of the Prince of Wales. The 
first in 1358, when he assisted in the war made upon France 
* Froiasart, also Fullei-'s Worthies, p. 179. 


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by the Xing of Navarre, which lasted about two years. 
Some of its incidents are described in Fabyan's Chronicle — 
" The 2nd day of Maye was wonne by Sir Robert Knolles 
and his company, a towne called Chasteleyn sur Louvayn, 
and pilled it. And after wyth their pillage and prisoners, 
the sayd Englishmen rode to the new castell upon Loyre 

And then the sayde Sir Robert Knolles, with aide 

of the king's men, daily wonne many townes and strong- 
holds in Bretagne, 1359." In Ilolinshed's Chronicle we are 
told that " Sir Robert Knolles, with other captains and men 
of war, upon the tenth day of March, scaled the walls of 
the citie of Auxerre, and behaved so manfullie that they 
were masters of the town before the sun was up. They 
got exceeding much by the spoil of that city and by ran- 
soming the prisoners. The citizens agreed to give to Sir 
Robert Knolles gold which amounted to the sum of twelve 
thousand and five hundred pounds." * 

These and similar successes, and their substantial results, 
disinclined Sir Robert Knollys to lay down his arms, and 
when peace was made between France and England in 1360 
he joined the Free Companies, and, with Sir John Chandos 
and other well-known knights, took the side, so long sup- 
ported by England, of the Count de Montfort in the contest 
for Brittany, which still remained xmdecided. De Montfort, 
with the powerful aid of these valiant adherents, succeeded 
in his object ; Charles of Blois, the rival claimant, was 
killed in battle ; Du Guesclin, the famous general, taken 
prisoner ; and in return for the important services which 
placed him in possession of the dukedom, he granted estates 
and the castles of Derval and Le Rouge to Sir Robert 
Knollys in the year 1364. 

Sir Hugh Calverley, who had also joined the Companions, 
served soon after this in Spain, when the brother of the 
King of Castile deposed him and established himself upon 

^ Ilolinshed's C/iroiticU-, under Edward III , 13-58. 


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the tlirone ; but Robert KnoUys was not of this expedition, 
and, indeed, although he was for some time a member of tlic 
Free Companies, his services were consistently given to the 
English side, and the causes they espoused. In 1367 he, 
with the other knights companions and many thousand 
soldiers, rallied anew round their old banner, and fought 
under the Black Prince when he invaded Spain to replace 
Pedro the Cruel upon the throne of Castile. Then was 
gained the battle of Najara, and the enterprise was, as to 
its special object, successful ; but months of hardship to the 
Prince and his followers ensued, and. even then had begun 
the lingering illness which afterwards deprived these gallant 
knights of their royal leader. The Prince's army broke up ; 
he himself retired to his own province of Aquitaine, and 
Sir Robert Knollys took up his abode for a time in Brit tan j'. 
Half-way between Rennes and Nantes is the small village 
of Derval, where the castle stood which was his Breton 
home and stronghold, and which he had possessed since 
1364. That he remained here in this interval (the year 
1368) is probable; and it was from this place that in 1369 
he set out to aid the Black Prince when Aquitaine rose in 
revolt, and the war between France and England was re- 
newed. " Sir Robert Knolles resided in Brittany, where he 
had a fine and large estate. He had always been a good 
and loyal Englishman, and had served under the King of 
England and the Prince of Wales in their different expe- 
ditions, by whom he was much loved. Having heard that 
the French were carrying on a disastrous war against the 
Prince, and meant to take from him his inheritance of 
Aquitaine, which he had assisted in gaining for him, he 
collected as many men-at-arms as he possibly could, and 
went with them to serve the Prince of Wales at his own 
cost and charges. He set out from his castle at Derval, 
landed at La Rochelle, and took the road to Angouleme. 
The Prince and Princess were exceedingly pleased to see 


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Sir Robert, and It seemed they could not do enough to show 
it. The Prince appointed him captain of the knights and 
squires of his household, out of love to him, and as a reward 
for his valour and honour. When all preparations -wrere 
made, Sir Robert set out to meet the French, and, joined by 
Sir John Chandos, proceeded to lay siege to many French 
towns." ® 

This was the prelude to what almost immediately followed, 
— his summons to England to command the expedition of 
1370, that on which his fame chiefly rests, and which is 
always chronicled as his greatest undertaking. 

The art of war, as then practised, without the trained and 
paid strength of a regular standing army, and without any 
general or skilled use of fire-arms, enhanced the importance 
of individual attributes, rendering invaluable such soldiers 
as Robert KnoUys and others of his stamp, whose personal 
prowess and enterprise, and zeal in bringing followers into 
the field, assisted so greatly the military operations of those 

Many writers witness to the remarkable bravery and 
capacity of KnoUys; qualities for which he was prized by 
the King, envied by the nobles, "loved by the English, 
feared by the French," '^ ^^le vMtable dimon de la guerre,*' ^ 
who, "on account of his consummate courage, made the 
other English generals less formidable to the French." "'^ 

With such fitting qualifications, it is not surprising that 
King Edward desired to engage him to make another effort 
in the English cause, then overshadowed by the coming 
cloud of disaster ; and he had not been a month at Derval, 
after his return from Aquitaine, before " the King of 
England sent him positive orders to set out without delay, 
and cross the sea to him in England. Sir Robert willingly 

• Froissart 
' Fuller's irorthies. 
8 Jliatovy of the Orders of Knighthood^ by Sir Harris Nicolas, vol. i., p. 4Q. 


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obeyed this summons, and, at the request of the King, 
undertook an expedition into France. He entered it with a 
large body of men,* and marched through the kingdom with 
a magnificence for which the people and the rich provinces 
paid dearly/'^ The army, we are told, advanced to the 
gates of Paris, where King Charles V. from his palace 
watched the fire and smoke of the enemy. " In despite of 
the power of the French, he drove the people before him 
like sheep, destroying towns, castles, and cities, in such a 
manner and number, that, long after, in memory of this act, 
the sharp points and gable ends of overthrown houses were 
conunonly called Knolles' mitres." ^ 

But these successes, although they contributed to his 
reputation, could not retrieve the cause he had undertaken 
to assist. The Black Prince returned to England, Sir 
Robert KnoUys, partly in consequence of some differences 
which arose between him and others in command, retired 
into Brittany, thus closing the expedition of 1370. This, 
with the two campaigns fought under the Black Prince, 
formed the principal epochs of his military life. A time of 
comparative peace and retirement followed ; " he gave orders 
to all his men at arms and archers, to go where they could 
find most profit, and several returned to England." 

He was still in Brittany, governor of the castle of Brest, 
in 1377. 

In 1376 the Black Prince died. We can imagine how, 
during those calmer years, the faithful soldier, from his 
castle / of Derval, watched with sympathy and grief the 
untimely fading of " the flower of English chivalry ; " mind- 
ful of the welcome hour when first, in 1356, he had entered 
the congenial service of the illustrious prince ; recalling the 
valour and courtesy successively so conspicuous on the 

* Hume says, *' at tho head of thirty thousand men." 
* Froissart. 
2 Fuller. 


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eventful day at Poictiera, when he may himself have been 
an eye-witness to the supper after the battle, at which the 
prince remained standing to serve his royal captive; re- 
membering too the kindness and the favour with which his 
own services to the prince had been requited, which made 
the loss so personal, his recollections so dear ; and the bright 
heroic qualities, pre-eminently characteristic of their possessor, 
but whose reflection was shed over his followers, so that " Ich 
dien '' and ** Hoch Muth " seemed not only the prince's own 
motto, but the watchword of all around him. Whether 
Sir Robert KnoUys visited England during the four years 
of seclusion and suffering which preceded the death of 
Edward does not appear, and whether he was one of the 
large number who, at the last solemn moment, passed through 
his chamber ^ to take a farewell look at the dying prince, we 
know not ; but he at any rate shared in the universal sorrow 
his premature death occasioned, when even at Paris funeral 
masses were performed for the dead, shadowing forth the 
impressive pomp of the final scene at Canterbury. 

But the services of Sir Robert KnoUys to the Plantagenets 
did not die with the Prince of Wales ; he continued to assist 
the royal princes in the wars which they subsequently imder- 
took, and we find him once more, in 1378, actively resuming 
his profession of arms, and joining John of Gaunt in one 
of his foreign expeditions- Two years later he was with 
Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester, when he con- 
ducted an array into France on behalf of the Duke of 
Brittany. Peace was however made by the Duke with the 
King of France, the French war languished, and Sir Robert 
KnoUys returned to England to end his active career by a 
timely service to the young King Richard II. The rebeUion 
headed by Wat Tyler broke out, disturbed the peace of 
London, and perilled the safety of Richard. This was re- 
pressed by the remarkable courage of the boy-king, then 

^ Mcmoridlfi of Cinitcvhurff,]). 114. 


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only fifteen years old, who, aided by the veteran soldier, 
successfully pacified the insurgents. 

This was in the month of June, 1381, and in that same 
month, on the 27th, the manor of Sculthorpe became the 
property of Sir Robert KnoUys.* The heiress of Sir John 
de Norwich, who had possessed this manor, and whose family 
had held it since 1317, took the veil and sold her estates at 
Sculthorpe. These were bought by Sir Robert KnoUys, who, 
now nearly seventy years old, turned his thoughts towards 
England, ceased to live abroad, and severed his long con- 
nexion with Brittany and Aquitaine. It is asserted " that in 
his old age he resigned the government of Aquitaine."^ 
From this it would seem to have been the case that after the 
return home or death of the Black Prince, he was given 
authority over some part of the territory yet remaining to 
England ; but after 1380 he is not again mentioned in the 
annals of foreign warfare : his active services ended in the 
loyal assistance he gave to the j^oung king, and it seems 
conclusive that from this time until his death in 1407, he 
remained in England, with the exception of one visit to 
Rome, to fulfil a vow, a pilgrimage undertaken with some 
idea of religious devotion, but also to visit the hospital 
which he had there founded in conjunction with Sir Hugh 
Calverley ten years before. 

These last twenty-six years of his life were chiefly 
employed in devising and carrying out many good and great 
undertakings ; the vast wealth and costly treasure which ho 
had acquired in the French wars being now apparently 
devoted to these objects.® Of him it could not be said, as so 
remorsefully bj' one in later times, " Had I but served my 
God as I have served my king. He would not in mine age 
have left me to mine enemies . . . .," for, the two grand ideas 

* Blomcficld, under " Sculthorpe." 

* Kcnnol's Iltst&iy of Enghtmly and Polydore Vcrgirs IThtory of T.nglani. 
^* lUoincfield, vol. vii., 8vo. edition, p. 175, and Kt-nnct's JUntory nf Eutjlaud. 


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acted out in his life were these, two services, according to the 
standard of the day — spotless loyalty, brilliant courage, 
ready self-sacrifice representing the one, and the consecration 
of time and wealth to pious enterprise fulfilling the other. 

In fact, the peculiarity of his career, and that which raises 
him above his comrades of that time, eminent with him for 
genius, courage, and devotion as soldiers, is the union of this 
with the greater merit and higher achievement of deeds of 
religion aud mercy, which were equally a part of his life and 
character, and for which he is still remembered and com- 

The variety and range of these undertakings, and their 
magnitude, are remarkable. Besides the two Norfolk 
churches, Harpley and Sculthorpe, one near London^ the 
church of the Carmelites or White Friars, was entirely 
rebuilt by him.'' "He gave bountifully to the building of 
Rochester bridge, and founded a chapel and chantry at the 
east end thereof." ® He established a hospital at Rome " for 
English travellers," and a hospital and college at Pontefract. 
The college was intended for a master and six fellows, and 
the almshouse adjoining for a master, two chaplains, and 
thirteen poor men and women. His estates at Sculthorpe 
were settled on this college, which was liberally endowed, 
the revenue amounting to £180 per annum.^ In Queen 
Elizabeth's time (1563) it was still called " KnoUes's Alms- 
house," and " in it were maintained fifteen aged people ; and 
the Mayor of Pontefract was authorized from time to time 
to place aged, impotent, and needy persons in the same 
almshouse, according to the ancient foundation." ^ This 
institution was intended by Sir Robert KnoUys to have been 
established at Sculthorpe, or, as it is expressed in Leland's 

^ Blomefield. Bugdale's Monatticon^ vol. vi., page 1572. 

* Fuller's Worthier, and Woever'a **Funerall Monuments" 
8 Tanner's Xotitia Monastica (Yorkshire) xcvi., 4. 

* IJoothroyd's llistonj of Pontefract, 


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Itineraryy " Syr Robert Knolls that was the notable warrior 
yn France, builded in this part of Pontefract Trinity College, 
having a hospital joined to it ; he was myndid to have made 
this college at his manor of Skouthorp, three miles from 

Walsingham, but at the desire of Constance hys wife, 

he turned his purpose, and made it in the very place of 
Pontefract where his wife was borne/'* This wife Con- 
stance was probably •« Beverley, as the arms which oc- 
curred frequently at Sculthorpe and Harpley impaled with 
his were borne by a Yorkshire family of that name. She 
died before him, and was buried at White Friars' church. 
It is alleged that they had one daughter, Emma Babington, 
but this seems doubtful; and whether he was the ancestor 
of the Earls of Banbury or not is. a disputed point : he was 
probably a member of the family from which they descended, 
but had himself no children.' In the east window of St. 
Michael's church at Norwich, before mentioned, the several 
coats of arms, of which Sir Robert KnoUys' is one, were to 
commemorate such of the knights of Edward III.'s time, 
belonging to Norfolk and Suffolk, as had died without leaving 

Sir Robert had possessed the manor of Sculthorpe four 
years when he founded at Pontefract the college and hos- 
pital which he had desired to establish at Sculthorpe. He 
had probably therefore taken up his abode at the manor- 
house before this period (1385). More than one writer 
mentions his having '' lived " at Sculthorpe : the restoration 

• Lcland*8 Itinera)^, vol. i. page 41. 

' *<Tho armorial battlomenta of Harpley Church, Norfolk." From the 
'* Herald and Geneaioffist," by J. G. Nichols, F.S.A. 

* " An old parchment roll in my possession informs me that the following 

arms and inscription "were fixed in the window In the second pane .... 

Rob. Knollys."— 5/(w/i^W, vol. iv. page 87. 

Under the window was an inscription: '^Monsieur Thomas Erpingham, 
Chevalier, a faire cette fenetre au remcmbraunce de tout les seigneurs, barones, 
et chivalercs qui sont morts sans issu male, on Ics contes de Norff. et Sufiblk, 
depuis Ic coronation de Edwarde III." 


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of the church, and the large number of commemorative 
shields placed in it by him testify to his interest in the place. 
In a list of his property made in 1385, his "house" at 
" Sculthorpe '* is recorded. Much that is now standing of 
the church is of the period of the later years of his life, the 
date of the present north aisle according with that of his 
alleged residence. 

His estate here was considerable, and he had lands in 
adjacent parishes, all of which, with other property in York- 
shire and London, were left by him to Pontefract College. 
Dugdale gives an enumeration, taken from the Valor Eccle- 
siasticus, 26th of Henry VIII., of the various estates which 
he settled upon this institution : ^ — "Collegium sive Domus 
" elemosinar^ de Sancta T^initate in Pontefract fundat : per 
" Hobertum Knolles, militem. 



" Norf. Skulthorp, mansio, &c. . . 27 17 6 J 

" Dunton, maner^ . . . 19 10 

" Tatterforth, maner^ . . . 10 2 2 

" Kettlestone manei^ . . . 4 8 10 

" Burnham maner*^ . . . 11 

" Overhaye, manei^ . . . 8 17 3 

" Sherfurth, maner^ • . .202" 

The manor of St Pancras in Middlesex also belonged to him, 
and was bequeathed to the Carthusian Priory in London. 

With these extensive possessions, it is easy to see how his 
solitary old age was enlivened and occupied by the distri- 
bution and assignment of his wealth. What became of liis 
estate in Brittany remains obscure, and he seems to have 
had no tic with Cheshire, his native county, where he had 
no inheritance. The position to which he had attained was 
unaided by the prestige of feudal greatness or distinguished 

* Momnlicou, vol. vi. pert ?, page 714. 


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family, and was the result of mere force of individual 

But although Cheshire did not contribute to his success, 
he has not been forgotten there. Upon the monument of 
Sir Hugh Calverley, in Bunbury church, in that county,* 
are the arms of KnoUys and Calverley repeated alternately 
all round the recumbent effigy; doubtless by the desire of 
Sir Hugh, his friend and companion in arms, who, like him, 
lived through all the chances and dangers of war, and ended 
his days at an advanced age. 

Sir Hugh Calverley's arms were placed by Sir Robert in 
the church at Sculthorpe, when the time came for decorating 
his finished work. 

Continuing the already begun elevation of his predecessors, 
he added to and enlarged the church, and then, as was the 
custom in those days, placed around it his own coat of arms 
and those of the heroes who had shared with him the events 
and triumphs of his life: first and foremost that of the 
Black Prince, not, as in Harpley church, his badge, ^^pour 
lapaix," but that weU-known device, associated with many 
an inspiring recollection, — the arms of England with a 
silver label, — borne by the Prince on the field of battle ; 
the same whose lions and fleur-de-lys still dimly gleam from 
the faded surcoat hung above the royal tomb in Canterbury 
cathedral. Then followed the other arms, as before enume- 
rated, — ^fourteen coats, besides his own with two modifications. 
A half-effaced painting in the roof of the north aisle, im- 
possible now to identify, is the only trace in the church of 
armorial decoration, and whether it formed part of the 
bright diadem which then ornamented the interior cannot 
be known. An indisputable memorial of the work of Sir 
Robert KnoUys exists however in a shield of stone, which 
was found in the church some years ago, with his arms 
carved upon it — a chevron and three roses. 

The rebuilding of the church, although no transient 

<"' Sec Slolliara's ^himmatfn! T'Jf'jirs, plaUs 5^S, {)'), 


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undertaking, was probably finished by himself, for his days 
were long in the land, and as time passed away he still 
lived on. The special gift had been his of immunity in 
danger, and to it was added an extended period of old age, 
in which to prosecute his more consecrated labours. The 
last years of his long career, begun under the brilliant 
auspices of Edward III., and stretched out through the 
successive reigns of Kichard II. and Henry IV., were 
brought to a peaceful close in his adopted county of Norfolk, 
where, at the age of ninety-two, under the shadow of hi% 
own church tower, he finally passed away from a life more 
varied, more stirring, more shining with bright deeds than 
often faUs to the lot of a soldier of fortune. He died " in 
peace and honour " on the 15th of August, 1407, and was 
buried "about the Feast of the Assumption." The burial 
took place, according to a previous arrangement, at the 
White Friars' church, by the side of his wife Constantia. 
To that far distant destination his body was conveyed in a 
litter, — a funeral procession doubtless attracting many ob- 
servers, as, winding out of Sculthorpe on the long-ago 
summer morning, it moved slowly out of sight in the 
direction of London.'' 

" The boast of heraldry, the pomp of power, 
And all that beauty, aU that wealth e'er gave, 
Await alike the inevitable hour ; 
The paths of glory lead but to the grave." 

Although so large a number of writers have chronicled 
the life and doings of Sir Robert Knollys, so that particulars 
are afforded from very various sources, yet these are so 
unconnected and desultory, that a certain indistinctness 
clings to the portrait as it presents itself. The dust of 
centuries has thickened over it, and hides from us the many 
picturesque details, the countless incidents, the look, the 
bearing, the immediate surroundings, which, if still visible, 

"^ Dugdale's Baronage, vol. ii. p. 412. Stowc's Survey of London^ p. 43S, 

Stowe's Chronicle, p. 334, under Henry IV. 


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would be the points of light to enliven and enrich the sub- 
ject; but still a figure is discernible whose natural force 
and determination of character s^era to have stamped the 
circumstances and actions of his life, lending zeal to service, 
constancy to purpose, and causing faith to blossom in those 
good works which had manifestly less to do with a selfish 
superstition than with a true and wide charity to the world 
around him. 

But whilst the most remarkable of those associated with 
the church at Sculthorpe, and its special benefactor, he was 
not its founder. Some three hundred years before this time 
there is no doubt that a church existed ; it is noticed in 
Domesday Book; and further evidence was lately afibrded, 
when in preparing the foundations for an addition due west 
of the nave, traces of an ancient tower were found, showing 
that the church had originally been built in the more usual 
form, instead of, as afterwards designed, with the tower 
placed on the south side of the nave. This second tower 
bears evidence of a somewhat earlier time than the days of 
Sir Robert KnoUys, and competent judges have given it the 
date of the latter part of the thirteenth or beginning of the 
fourteenth century. The proportions are beautiful, and it 
still forms the best feature of tho church : — its masonry, 
unscathed by the rough exigencies of many centuries of 
Norfolk climate, as sharp, solid, and well-defined as on the 
day it was completed. The situation, projecting south of 
the nave, made its arched doorways the principal entrance 
to the church. It was probably the work of the family of 
De Norwich, who, at the time indicated, held the manor. 
The church, as reconstructed by Sir Robert Knollys, appears 
to have consisted of nave, north aisle, and chancel. The 
chancel must have been a large one ; its foundations only 
remain, about ten feet beyond the present building. In 
1470 its "high altar"® was still in full use. The north 

« Will of Henry Unton, August, 1470 
[vol. VIT.] 2 A 


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aisle, more abiding, is in excellent preservation, and contains 
some small stone corbels, alternately heads and shields. In 
three of these is carved a Catherine wheel, a coat of arms 
which has sometimes been attributed to the family of De 
Boys. One of this name was rector of Sculthorpe at the 
very moment of the restorations by Sir Robert Kiiollys, and 
they were probably his arms which were thus associated 
with the new church. 

But although the rest of the armorial decorations — blinks 
connecting this quiet locality and its village church with 
historical personages and events — ^have faded and disap- 
peared, other memorials of a different kind of interest 
remain. The chief of these is the Font, a fine specimen 
of the Norman style, in massive square form, elaborately 
carved. From the resemblance of this font to another in 
the neighbourhood,— one less ornamented, but of the same 
date and form, that at Toftrees, — and from the fact that 
other relics of Norman work — fragments of stones and 
pillars — have been found in Sculthorpe church, it would 
seem not improbable that this font was originally made and 
intended for the place it has so long occupied, and was 
carefully preserved, with the reverence attached to its sacred 
mission, through the several changes and renovations which 
passed over the building in bygone times. 

The block of stone, some three feet square, is enriched on 
all four sides with sculptures, and one of these is cited ^ as 
displaying an unusually early instance of the Virgin Mother 
crowned, and bearing in her arms the infant Christ. The 
carving of the face, crown, and waving hair of the Madonna 
is still clear and delicate. The child on her knee receives 
the adoration of the "three kings," whose figures are 
depicted, as well as that of S. Joseph, and the Virgin 
and Child, on one side of the square, forming the orna- 
mentation of that part of the font. The attitude of the 

• Paley'a Manual of Gothic Architecture^ p. 64. 


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Digitized by CjOOSI^ 

• • , • • 


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three wise men answers exactly to the Biblical description — 
" They saw the young child .... fell down and worshipped, 
and presented gold, frankincense, and myrrh:" — kneeling, 
they offer vases and a bag of gold; each being further 
represented with a crown, according to tradition. S. Joseph 
stands on the other side of the Virgin. 

The remaining three sides of the font contain patterns of 
circles, foliage, and other designs ; and at each upper comer 
is a carving of the head of a ram or lion, a slender pillar 
beneath finishing each angle. 

The font was placed in 1861, for its better preservation, 
upon a new pedestal, consisting of five shafts, copied from 
that of the Norman font in the church at Toftrees. 

After the font perhaps the most noticeable objects in the 
church are two monuments to the TJnton family. The 
earliest is in memory of Henry TJnton, and is the most 
interesting, not so much from the history of the individual, 
of whom little can be ascertained, as from the beauty of the 
brass which commemorates him. He is said to have come 
from Chorley in Lancashire, and to have purchased estates 
in Norfolk, and was apparently buried here. Underneath 
the graceful brass which bears his name — a kneeling figure 
in armour, with the hands clasped as if in prayer — is this 
inscription : 

l^ic iacet ^tnxmsi ®nton fficntilman quoBam 
Cirograpfjoni Bni ifteflig lie (toi Banco qui 
obiit biccCimo feptimo tie mtnt^ aiufluCti 
a° Bni iE^cccclxx cui* ale ppiciet^ lieujS aimen. ^ 

* The following note on the word Cirographorus, in pocond line of Union's 
inscription, has been offered : — 

*' If a deed is made by more parties than one, there ought to be as many 
copies of it as there are parties to it, and each should be cut or indented on the 

2 A 2 


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His will, which is given in Nichols' Union Inventories,^ 
throws some light upon the circumstances with which he 
was surrounded, and is the earliest document which has been 
found relating to the TJntons. Henrj TJnton's brother 
Hugh was the ancestor of the more distinguished branch 
of the family, who lived at Wadley in Berkshire, whilst 
his own descendants settled as merchants in London. The 
other brass figures in the church are probably t}iose of his 
son John, with Elizabeth his wife, and their eight children. 

The brass in memory of Henry XJnton has from time to 
time attracted attention. It was visited by Weever, and is 
noticed in his Funerall Monuments. Blomefield also mentions 
it, but without particulars of the individual or family ; and 
Cotman drew it fifty years ago, for his beautifid collection 
of Norfolk Brasses. 

top or side to tally with the other, which deed, bo made, is called an indenture. 
Formerly it was usual to write both parts on the same piece of parchmcDt, with 
some word or letters of the alphabet written between them, through which the 
parchment was cut, either in a straight or indented line, in such manner as to 
leave half the word on one part and half on the other. Deeds thus made were 
denominated Chirographa, the word chirographum being usually that which is 
divided in making the indenture." — Blackstonc, Comment ariea, vol. ii., p. 296. 

The office of Chirographorua Domini Regis^ held by Sir H. Unton at one 
period of his life, was so called because that officer engrossed and delivered the 
indentures or chirographs of the fines acknowledged in the Court of Common 
Pleas. The officer is of very great antiquity. He is mentioned in the Statutes 
2 Hen. IV. c. 8, Westminster 2d. (13 Ed. I.), and 23 Eliz. c. 3. (See 3 Inst. 

3 The Union Inventories ; toith Oeneaiogieal Notices of the Family of Union. 
By J. G. Nichols, Esq., F.S.A. 


ized by Google 

Coins founb at Jiss. 




In the early part of the year 1871 some considerable 
alterations were made to a house situated in Mount Street, 
Diss, at about a hundred yards to the north of the church, 
since occupied by B. Button, Esq. The workmen employed 
by Mr. C. Bishop, builder, were removing the brick flooring 
of one of the ground-rooms, and excavating the soil beneath 
in order to insert the joists of a boarded floor, when they 
discovered the hoard of coins which is the subject of this 
notice. The house itself is a brick one, of no great antiquity, 
having probably been rebuilt within about two hundred years ; 
but no doubt it occupies the site of an older one, probably of 
a timber house of the same date and class as some others yet 
remaining in the town of Diss, — as Mr. Leathers', corn 
merchant, St. Nicholas Street, and Mr. Abbot's bookseller. 
Mere Street, houses of the fifteenth century, some notice of 
which has already been made in these volumes. * Beneath 
the bricks they came upon the original hard clay floor, and in 
the centre of the room, at about eighteen inches from the sur- 
face, the remains of an earthen vessel were found, containing 
coins to the number of more than three hundred. On Mr. 
Bishop being informed of the discovery he obtained posses- 
sion of most of them, and has kindly allowed me to catalogue 

* Vol. ii. pp. 21, 22. 


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them. I have seen a few more that passed into the possession 
of other persons in the town, and on the whole the list is 
a tolerably complete one. There are no coins earlier than 
the reign of Henry IV., and possibly none so early, nor 
any later than that of Edward IV. It was just about at 
this time that the Church at Diss must have undergone 
extensive alterations, by the rebuilding of the aisles, side 
chapels, and chancel, probably by Philippa widow of Robert 
Fitz Walter, (and secondly of Edward Plantagenet, Duke 
of York) who held the manor in dower, 1415 — 1431 ; and 
as some substantial houses were also then erected in the 
town, it must have been a time of some activity in the place. 
For what reason this money was concealed it is, of course, 
impossible to say. It was safely stowed away beneath the 
floor, till those who could have revealed it passed away, and 
tlicre it has remained while generations have lived and died 
above its hiding place, all unconscious of its story for four 
hundred years. It will be seen that, with the exception of 
two fine gold nobles, all the coins are of silver. None 
appear to be particularly rare, but the varieties are rather 
numerous, and having been evidently all deposited at the 
same time, and belonging to a limited range of years, it has 
been tliouglit desirable that our Society should preserve a list 
of them. 

The gold coins and the groats are mostly in very good 
preservation ; but the pennies appear to have been much 
more in circulation, and are all more or less defaced. The 
description of some of these may, therefore, be incomplete, 
in consequence of their obliteration. 


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I Reign. I 





The king standing in a 
ship, which has two ropes 
only; no flag at the mast; 
under the right elbow an 
annulet ; on the bulwarks 
two lions passant guar- 
dant between three fleurs- 
de-lis. In the quarters of 
the shield on the king's 
arm, the arms of France 
are three fleurs-de-lis only. 


The same as No. 1, but 
with a flag at the ship's 
stern charged with me 
cross of St. George. 




The usual floriated cross 
within a circle of eight 
foliations ; between the 
four arms of the cross as 
many lions passant (piar- 
dant, each with a crown 
above it. In the centre 
of the cross the letter H. 


Mint mark, a fleur-do- ; 
lis. I 

Same as No. 1. ' 



and Mint. 




VI. ? 


The king's head, full- 
faced, crowned with an 
open crown fleury, within 
a double tressure of nine 
arches. An annulet on 
each side of the neck. 

Mint fnark, a cross 
pierced (or more properly, 
four cruciform stops con- 
joined xjx ) HBNRIC*. Dl*. 


A Cross extending to 
the edge, through two 
circles of inscription ; in 
the quarters of the cross 
three pellets ; an annulet 
conjoins the three pellets 
in the 2nd and 3rd quar- 

Mint mark as on obv. 
In outer circle, rosvi. 


After posvi, an annulet ; 
after devm a double stop . 
In inner circle, villa, 
CALisiB. After each word 
a double stop. 




ized by Google 


and Mint. 









Same tyx>e, but without 
annulets by the neck. M. 
m.j a oro6s flory. Between 
each word of the legend 
acinquefoil pierced, except 
after rbx., where ia a loz- 

Same as (2) except be- 
tween each word a leaf. 

Same as (2) except m. 
m., which is the same aa 



— I — ' Same as (8). 





(9) I 








Same as (I), but on 
each side of neck three 
pellets, one and two. M, 
m. illegible. 

Same as (1). 

Same as (I), but with- 
out the annulets. 

Same as (1). 

Same as (3), with the 
addition of a single pel- 
let on the dexter side of 
the neck. 

Same type as Groat, 
No. (I). M. m.y a cross. 

Same type, but with- 
out annulets ; and before 
LA a lozenge, after la a 
double stop, after posti 
and after cALisiE, acinque- 
foil pierced. M, m. as on 

Same as (2), except 
after pobti and calisxb a 

Same as (2), except m. 
m, as on obv. 

Same as (2), nothing 
after pobyi, before ana 
after la a double stop, 
nothing after calibib. 

Same as (5). 

Same as (1), but after 
roBvi three pellets, one 
and two. In the quarters 
of the cross an annulet 
conjoins the three pellets 
in the third quarter only. 

Same as (2) ; afterynxA 
a double stop, after posyi 
and after calisib a cinque- 
foil pierced, as (2). 

Same as (8). 

Before la and before bib 
three pellets, one and two; 
after la and after sib a 
double stop. 

Same as (1), spelling 
shortened to calib'. 





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and Mint. 











M. m. a cross flory ; 
after henbioys a leaf; 
after hex a lozenge. 

Same as (12). 

Same as (12), but after 
HBNBiGVsaroee, or cinque- 



a cross. Before la a 
lozenge, after it a double 
stop, after calisib a rose 
or cinquefoil. 

Same as (12), but with- 
out m. m. 

Same as (13). 




and Mint 










as (15) wi 
it. Jf. m. a 

the mullet, 

Same as (16). 

Same as (1) but with- 
out annulets. 

Same as (18) but tn. m, 
a cross flory ; on each side 
of the crown a pellet ; on 
the king's neck a leaf. 

Same as (19) no leaf on 

Same as (6). 



mullet on the left shoul- 
der. M. tn. a plain cross. 

After posvi a small 
cross; after civitas and 
after lomdon a double 



marks in inner 


! Nothing after posvi ; 
I a double stop after snri- 
I TAB (so spelts and after 

Same as ( 1 ) with annu- 
lets; a double stop after 
CIVITAS and london. 

No marks after any 
words. In the 2nd and 
3rd quarters a small fourth 

Same as (19), but the 
additional pellet is in the 
1st and 4th quarters. 

Same as (20) but before 
TAB and DON a double 



ized by Google 


and Mint. 










— Edw. 
London. IV. 


(28) • 


Same as (1) without 
the annulets, if. m. a 
cross flory. 

Same as (2). 

Same as (19), leaf on 
neok doubtfiU. 


Defaced; coarse letter- 
ing ; annulets between 
words ; Roman N. 

3f. m. a cross. On each 
side of the crown a pellet ; 
on the king's neck a fleur- 


M. m. a rose, or cinque- 
foil, pierced ; on each side 
of the king's neck four 
pellets. One has after 
FRANC, a double stop, and 
an annulet above. 


M. m. a cross. Before 
LOM a leaf, after dox three 

Similar to (3) ; m. m, a 
cross, after posvi a leaf, 
before lon a lozenge, after 
DON a leaf. 

No marks. 


D in AnmoBMM. is an a. 
No marks. 

M. m. a cross; an an- 
nulet before dstx. 

M. m. a cross. In the 
2nd and 3rd Quarters a 
small fourth pellet. 

JT. m. as on o^., after 
CITITAS a lozenge. 









— ? 

— P 



ANOLIE. M. m. illegible ; 
after hex three pellets. 


In a tressure of eleven 
arches, M, m. a cross; 
on each side of the crown 
an annulet. 


Similar to (26) Roman 

POSVI, &c. Jf. m. a 
cross. crviTAS London. 
No other marks. 

Aft^r CITITAS a cross 

No marks visible. 

Annulets between each 
word of outer circle. 


ized by Google 


and Mint. 














Jf. m. a cross pattee; 
a double annulet between 
each word. 

Similar to (26). 



if. m. as on obv. After 
poBvi and after adjittobb* 
a double stop. 

Similar to (26). No 

Reads civrroR instead 

of — TAS. 



















LiB. A star or cinquefoil 
on each side of the crown ; 
after ilex a lozenge. 

As (38). 

Same, but with a star 
on the dexter side of the 
crown, and an annulet on 
the sinister side. 

After HBNRICU8 a double 

Same ? 

Apparently similar. 

A pellet on each side 
of the crown. 

Like (41), but the gene- 
ral type is different. 

An open quatrefoil in 
the centre of the cross. 


As (37.) 

As (38), but with an 
annulet after tas. 

Same as (37). 

In the centre of the 
quatrefoil a pellet ; after 
TAS a double stop. 

After TAB an annulet, 
and another conjoining 

Nothing after tas. Con- 
fused by double striking. 

A pellet in the quatre- 






ized by Google 


— — No pellets. 

and Mint. 

















St. Ed- 






oLi'. A pellet on each 
bide of the crown, and a 
croaa or square flower by 
each shoulder ; a cross 
stop before rbx and after 


A pellet on each side 
of the crown. 

Before and after rbx 
a star ; a crescent on the 

Before rbx a lozenge (F) 
after it a double stop. 

Defaced. One has^an 
annulet after bdwardus. 

— — Defaced. 

M. m. a cross patt^e ; 
after anolib a cross stop. 

— — Defaced. 


M. m. a cross pattee, 


Quatrefoil in c€ 
before, but with e 
in it, a fourth p 
the 2nd and 3rd q 

A knot in the a 
the cross, like an 
figure of 8. civi 

No knot 

After DON a stai 

Annulets conjoin] 
lets in 2nd and 3r 
ters. After tas a 

An annulet con 

A quatrefoil 

Annulets conjoin 
lets in the 2nd s 

(Quatrefoil in 
Annulet conjoining 
in the 2Dd quarter 



izecJ by Google 


Extracts from the Proceedings of the Committee. 

1864, January 28M. The Eev. J. Bulwer exhibited a 
latten ewer, about four inches in height, with a spout and 
handle, perhaps for consecrated oil, found in Salthouse fen, 
near Holt, in September, 1863. 

Mr. Fitch exhibited a copper roundel, enamelled, repre- 
senting the head of our Saviour, or of a saint, with four 
mitres round it ; apparently intended for a badge, or for the 
centre of a dish or bowl : thirteenth century. It was found 
at Framingham, near Norwich. 

Mr. Fitch also reported the discovery of a fine amphora, 
broken, at Thorpe by Norwich, on ground belonging to the 
Rev. W. Frost, near the spot where the antiquities reported 
in February and March, 1863, were found. The amphora 
was empty and clean, and the surrounding ground contained 
much charcoal and calcined flints. 

March Srd, A letter was read from T. Barton, Esq., 
Threxton, informing the Committee of the discovery of a 
Roman flue at Saham, from which it is supposed that a 
hypocaust may exist, and ofiering facilities for excavation. 

May 4th. Mr. Fitch exhibited a circular leaden seal 
found at Ipswich: device, a double cross; inscription, " + 
siGiLL : FELiPi : HALAT : " thirteenth century. Also an oval 
bronze seal, with a bird, inscribed " + credem nenhi," also 


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found at Ipswich. And a copper die, or stamp, with a 
figure of David playing the harp, in a circle, inscribed "-f- 
AVE : MARIA : GRACIA : PLENA : DOMINUS : tbcvm" ; aboT^e 
the circle, three small circles and a half, with a bird, ap- 
parently a swan, in each : thirteenth century. 

July Ist, Mr. Fitch exhibited a fine bronze seal of the 
fifteenth century, of the Abbey Talley in Caermarthenshire : 
device, the Agnus Dei, the words " Ave Maria " below, and 
the half-figure of a mitred ecclesiastic; (described in the 
Norwich volume of the Archeeological Institute.) Also a 
small bronze seal, found in Asylum Lane, Heigham : device, 
a lion, " SUM leg fortis." It was mentioned that this was 
the motto of the Albini family. 

September 8th. Mr. Fitch exhibited a bronze mortar, 
inscribed, jan vanden ghein me fecit mocccclviii. 

Mr. Manning exhibited a copper purse-stretcher, en- 
amelled in colours, with the signs of the 2iodiac : thirteenth 
or fourteenth century ; obtained at Brussels. 

December 8th, Mr. Manning exhibited a bronze seal 
obtained at Hadleigh, Suffolk, of the fourteenth century, 
with a female head, and inscribed + ie sv flvr de fin 

Mr. Fitch reported the discovery of a mural painting in 
Coltishall Church, on the north wall, and exhibited a drawing 
of it by Mrs. Gunn, and of two double-splayed windows, 
herring-bone masonry, &c. 

The President, Sir J. P. Boileau, Bart., communicated 
a letter to him from the Rev. J. F. Bateman, of South 
Lopham, stating that an examination had been made, since 
the Society's visit to his church in the previous September, 
of the circular wiudow on the north side of the nave, by 
which it was proved that it was double-splayed; and that 


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other remains of former windows and doors had been found. 
This curious little window belongs to the same class as those 
discovered in Framingham Earl Church, noticed in a previous 
volume,* having had a hoop of wood inserted in a groove at 
the opening, pierced at the edge with eyelet holes, for the 
purpose of stretching cord across instead of glass. 

1865, Januaiy2%th. Mb. Manning exhibited a gold ring, 
said to have been found in West Norfolk, of the fifteenth 
century; engraved with a crest, a cock's (?) head between 
two wings, out of a coronet. 

Mr. Gunn exhibited a large "marmot," or pot of bell 
metal on three legs, (broken) foimd in Bishopgate Street, 
Norwich, believed to be of the thirteenth or fourteenth 
century. Deposited by the late Sir J. P. Boileau, Bart., in 
the Norwich Museum. 

A celt of white flint was also exhibited, found at Ormesby. 

March 2nd. Mr. J. S. Benest exhibited a bronze candle- 
stick, found in Rampant Horse Street, Norwich, in digging 
for the foundations of a house in the occupation of Miss 

March ZQth. Mr. Manning exhibited, by permission of 
the Rev. J. W. Millard, of Shimpling, a MS. book of Swan 
Marks and Orders, 1598 ; also a MS. Herbal, in English, of 
about the time of Chaucer. 

May 2ncl, Mr. Gunn exhibited a flint celt found by 
himself on the edge of Fritton lake. 

August 26th, The Rev. J. Bulwer exhibited two spear 
heads and a breast {)in, dug up from the peat, near Stoke 
Ferry, in 1864. 

• Original Papers, Tol. iy., p. 363. 


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1866, May ^\st A communication was received from 
Mr. L'Estrangb respecting some consecration crosses on 
the exterior of All Saints Chtirch, Norwich. He says : — 

''Theie crosses are frequently found painted on the inside walls of our 
ohurohes, and are often of graceful de8ig;n, yarying in sise from six or seven 
inohes in diameter to near two feet; ocoasionallj they are accompanied by 
inscribed scrolls. At St John de Sepulchre, Norwich, one is still preserred 
with 'Adorabo ad templum sanctum tunm dn'e/ At St. Sayiour's there 
were two on the east wall of the chancel with these words : * £t porta oeli,* 
'£t aula Tocabitur dei/ At St Peter per Mountergate two crosses had 
scrolls oyer them, respectively inscribed 'Domu* tua' dn'e decet sanctitudo,* 
Ps. 92, and ' Beati qui habitant in domo tna dn'e,' Ps. 83. There are particular 
directions concerning these internal consecrated crosses in the service, De 
Eedeeiee Bedieatume^ in the Fontijleale Somanum, and Durandus in his 
Rationale IHvinorum Qfieiorum fully explains their symbolical meaning. 
Pugin, also, in his admirable Oloeeary^ has an article upon them which 
contains all that one could wish to know about them. He is the only writer, 
that I can find, who refers to those outside churches : he says, ' I am inclined to 
believe, from the fact of their being outeide the church, that the external walla 
were anciently anointed in this country.' Some years ago, the Rev. James 
Bulwer, who, I think, intended to write a short notice of consecration crosses 
generally, and to have illustrated it with a plate, giving several varieties, told 
me that he had observed patches of plaster on the external walls of churchea, 
upon which he bad no doubt consecration crosses had been depicted. Since then, 
I have noticed several churches with similar remains ; Ovington and Catfield 
occur to me. But at Newton St. Faith's there are actually twelve patches of 
plaster on the nave alone. (Twelve is the number required by the Rubric for 
the inside.) At Shotesham, I am told, the remains of colour still exist But 
the only instance I have yet met with of stone consecration troeaes is at All 
Saints. They are small circular stones, about six inches in diameter, with a 
plain cross in slight relief ; each has, or had, a piece of iron, about the thickness 
of an inch and half nail, exactly in the centre. There is one cross under the 
east window of the chancel, one under each of the five windows on the south 
side of the church, and another near the south porch ; there is another under 
the west window of the north aide, and three on the north wall of the nave ; 
these make eleven in all. The one required to make up the rubrical number of 
twelve, would be found most likely at the east end of the north aisle, against 
which the vestry is bmlt. All the stones on the south side are in an advanced 
stage of decay ; but those on the north side are more perfect, and the one at the 
west end of the north aisle is remarkably well preserved, and it was this which 
first attracted my attention about a year ago, and set me wondering what it 
could be, and led to my finding the others. The church is now being repaired, 
the most important discovery yet made is, that the stalls in the chancel were 
arranged after the fashion of those in St. Peter Msncroft and St Peter per 
Mountergate, of which plans, &c., will be found in Mr. Minns* paper on 
* Acoustic Pottery ' in our last Part." 

The discovery of the jars here noticed, was also reported 


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by Mr. Phipson ; they were sixteen in number, placed under 
where the stalk had been, their mouths opening into a trench 
on each side, as at St. Peter's per Mountergate Church, 
already described in this volume. 

Mr. L'Estrange also communicated an account of a brass 
inscription restored to the church of St. John Timberhill, 
Norwich, by Mr. Titlow, and of errors in Blomefield's History 
respecting it. 

The same gentleman also sent a drawing by Mr. Spaull, 
of a coffin-slab at Hindringham Church to Abbot Hugo, 
of Langley. 

Mr. Fitch exhibited a large number of flint Implements 
from the drift, recently found at Thetford, some taken out 
of the soil by himself. 

Jtme 19^A. Mr. Carthew exhibited a brass shield, be- 
lieved to have been taken from Ely Cathedral. Arms: — a 
lion rampant, impaling, chequy, on a fess, three martlets. 
Date about 1400—20. 

Mr. L'Estrange exhibited a cast of a wood-carving of 
the head of St. John the Baptist in the charger, from a 
spandril of the doorway of the screen in Trimingham 

August IQth. Mr. Fitch exhibited a silver seal found 
outside St. Augustine's Gates, Norwich, 1866, representing a 
female head, with the legend, +<^s ^vy sel de amour lel : 
circa 1350—1400. 

The Rev. E. Gillett exhibited a carved wooden helmet 
and crest, (a plume of feathers out of a coronet, with a 
crescent for difTerence) probably part of a monument ; long 
preserved at Lincoln Hall, Beighton, formerly belonging to 
"William de Waynflete : circa 1400. 

Sir J. P. BoiLEAU, Bart., President, exhibited some 
tracings of wall decoration, found at Hethersett Church, on 

[vol. vii.] 2 B 


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the wall at the east end. The chancel of the church had 
been taken down, but the paintings are of the fifteenth to 
the seventeenth century. 

September 4th, Mr. Manning exhibited, by permission of 
the owner, a jet chessman, found at Thelton, Norfolk, in 

1866, belonging to T. E. Amyot, 

Esq., of Diss. It is apparently of 

the Saxon period, and may be of 

Norse manufacture. It is engraved 

with lines and circles, and is shaped 

like a small flat bottle, with a 

conical projection rising from the 

top. Not many chess pieces have 

j been preserved in this material; 

two in the Museum at Warrington 

are noticed in the Archaeological Journal^ ix. 304, and xiii, 

180. This piece from Thelton has been exhibited to the 

Society of Antiquaries, and the woodcut published in their 

" Proceedings," vol. iii. p. 385, is here reproduced by their 

obliging permission. 

The President communicated a sketch and notice from 
Mr. Elwes, of Congham, respecting a stone hanmier, and a 
bowl or mortar, recently found there. 

Mr. Fitch reported that a portion of a fine screen had 
been discovered at St. John de Sepulchre Church, Norwich. 
The figures are in outline, and represent St. James, St. Blaise, 
St. Ursula, St. George, St. Etheldreda, St. Gregory: drca 

November 29th, Mr. Manning exhibited, by permission 
of Mrs. Holmes, of Gawdy Hall, Harleston, an ivory chess- 
man, believed to have been purchased by the late Mr. 
Sancroft Holmes. Of this piece it is remarked in the 
"Proceedings" of the Society of Antiquaries, (who have 


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kindly allowed their illustra- 
tion of it to appear with the 
Thelton specimen described 
above) that '4t is ornamented 
with minute dots and con- 
centric circles, and probably 
is a knight. A similar speci- 
men, but of larger size, is 
in the British Museum. It 

is uncertain whether this specimen is Italian or Oriental." 
Mr. Manning presented a copy of Mr. Alfred Newton's 

pamphlet on " The Zoology of Ancient Europe," containing 

some account of discoveries of remains of " Lake Dwellings," 

at Wretham Mere, Norfolk. 

1867, January IQth, Mr. Fitch exhibited a fine silver 
armlet or fibula, found near Chelmsford, Essex. 

Mr. Manning exhibited a gold ring with a sapphire, dug 
out of a pit at Fressingfield, Suflfolk : circa 1400. 

Mr. T. Jeckyll sent a sketch of a fireplace in a farm- 
house at Fundenhall, with a frieze of plaster : circa 1600. 

The Rev. J. Gunn reported the discovery of mural 
paintings at Bmnstead Church, representing the "deadly 

April Srd. Mr. Fitch exhibited a '* costrel," or portable 
bottle, sixteenth century, found in Chapel Field, Norwich. 

Mr. L'Estrange sent an extract from the will of Nicholas 
de Stow, P.C. of Snettisham, 1376, leaving five marks to the 
paving of the chancel of that church : confirming the state- 
ments in Original Papers, vol. i. p. 373. 

The Eev. J. BuLWER reported that Mr. Bolding, in 
making excavations at Weybourne Priory, had discovered 
what he believed to be the plan of an older church. 

Mr. Fitch exhibited a gold coin of James I., found at 
2 B 2 


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Hellesdon. Ohc, : a rose crowned : ia. d*g. mag. br. f'. et. 
h'. rex. Rev. : a thistle crowned : tueatxjr. tjnita. dkus. 

June 21sL Mr. Fitch reported that seven gold angels, 
of the reigns of Henry IV., Henry VI., and Richard 11., 
were found in making a road at Attleborough hall. 

Sept. 24:fh. The Rev. J. Lee- Warner exhibited a rubbing 
of a brass legend at Wellingham, " Hie jacet e . . . . Thomas 
Pecke, eremita." eirca 1450. 

Mr. Fitch exhibited the brass matrix of the seal of the 
Deanery of Flegg, eirca 1400 ; and a bronze wolf, said to 
have been found at Caister by Yarmouth; apparently the 
head of a staff. 

November 5th. Mr. Minns exhibited a brass seal found 
at Castleacre: device, a priest with hands raised over a 
chalice on an altar : s'. rob'ti. capil'. de. wridlington." 

Capt. Bulwer exhibited a brass locket, in the form of a 
heart, enclosing a cross, found in East Dereham churchyard, 
August, 1867. 

Mr. Fitch exhibited a silver ornament of square form, 
size 1| inch by \ inch, with the figures of St. Peter and St. 
Paul, and the letters "aps. a^s," apparently a mould for 
taking impressions ; also a leaden matrix found at Booton. 
"+ s'. wil'mi. de. sloth." 

1868, January 2nd. Mr. C. J. Winter exhibited a 
drawing of a portion of a mural painting of a consecration 
cross at St. Andrew's Church, Norwich. 

February 6th. Mr. Fitch exhibited two flint Implements 
of the palaeolithic type, found at Santon Downham, Suffolk.* 

June 2nd. Mr. Fitch exhibited a leaden bulla of Pope 

* Mr. Fitch read a Paper on the discoyery of these Implements, at the 
Annual Meeting on the 19th. 


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dement III., fousd in St. Giles' churchyard, Norwich, 
May, 1868. 

Mr. Manning exhibited a polished flint celt found at 
Needham, near Harleston, Norfolk. Also some leaden objects 
found at Leverington, Cambridgeshire, viz. : a spindle-whirl, 
probably Saxon ; a shield-shaped article with a lion rampant, 
pierced with a hole; and a roundel with the Royal arms, 
James I. (P) ; also a bronze pin of Roman date. 

Mr. L'Estrangb exhibited two deeds, with seals, of 
Gregory Draper, 143o, 1456, with merchants' marks diflering 
from those of the same person noticed in the Society's 
Original Papers, vol. iii. p. 215. It was suggested that he 
had probably made use of another person's seal. 

August 4th. The Rev. Precentor Symonds exhibited a 
small bronze celt, the cutting edge having a groove, pur- 
chased at Tours, France. 

September 2nd, Mr. Fitch exhibited a fine bronze seal, 
found August, 1868, in Norwich. It is the seal of the 
Hundred of Lothingland, Suffolk, and is similar to that of 
the Hundred of Wangford, figured in the Archmological 
Journal, vol. xi. p. 31. and in Suckling's Suffolk . It is 
inscribed, "S. regis in comit.' Suff : Hundr do ludingland." 

October 7th, A communication was received from Mr. 
Harrod respecting the extracts from the Lynn Subsidy 
Roll, printed in the Society's Papers, vol. i., stating that he 
had been able to confirm the date by comparison with a Roll 
at Ramsey Abbey, as being of the 19th year of Edward I. 

Mr. Manning exhibited an iron javelin head with four 
blades, found in the bed of the river at the "Goldspur" 
bridge, Hoxne, Suffolk ; probably Danish. 

Mr. F. Worship exhibited a leaden *' signaculum," said 
to have been found at Blackfriars Bridge, London, with the 
dat« 1021 in Arabic numerals. It is doubtless a forgery. 


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Mr. Fitch exhibited a collection of ancient Carib concli 
implements, — chisels and hones ; and a piece of Carib pottery, 
sent by the Rev. Greville J. Chester to the Norwich Musenm 
from Codrington Estate, Barbadoes. (See Wilson's Pre- 
historic Archceohgy ; and Archceological Journal, vol. xxvii. 
pp. 43, 71.) 

December 1«^. Mr. Fitch exhibited a fine collection of 
stone implements from Denmark, Sweden, and Ireland. 

1869, May 4fh. Mr. Manning exhibited a collection of 
Saxon antiquities belonging to Mr. A. Marsh, of Diss, con- 
sisting of bronze fibulse, clasps, buckles ; and about a hundred 
amber and glass beads, found at Kenninghall. 

Mr. Fitch exhibited a silver ring found at Earlham ; a 
bronze celt found at Reedham ; and a white flint implement 
from Lakenheath. 

Julp 6th. A drawing was presented by the Rev. E. J. 
HowMAN, of a mural painting discovered on a splay of a 
window in Denver Church. The subject is uncertain; the 
date apparently circa 1360. 

Mr. Manning exhibited a brass plate, (see Illustration) 
size 8 inches by 6|, chased with foliage, and pierced with 
a large circle in the centre, and with four quatrefoils in 
the comers, the circles having round the edge the 360 
degrees, and the letters of the alphabet, one to every fifteen 
degrees. It was procured from a farm-house at Bressing- 
ham, near Diss, and was among a collection of curiosities 
formed by a Mr. Harrison, resident there about 150 years 
ago, and mentioned in Blomefield's Norfolk, vol i. p. 73. 
It was inserted in a pantry door, and the central circle was 
used to pass the hand through to lift up the latch. This 
instrument being thought to be a portion of an astrolabe, the 
following remarks are added from a letter received from a 


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Portion of an Ancient Brass Astronomical Instrument. 

co¥rELL5 Anastatic Pmrss, Ipswich 


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high authority on such subjects, Octavius Morgan, Esq., M.P. 
He says : — 

'* It is, I think, certainly not a portion of an astrolabe, although the 
graduated scale is, like the limb or outer circle of an aatrolabe, divided into 
360 degrees. Here eyery division of fifteen degrees seems to be designated by 
a letter of the alphabet, while in every astrolabe I have seen, and I have three 
or four, and there are several in the British Museum, it is not so. The usual 
astrolabe was a circular instrument having several flat plates, rulers, and 
indices, revolving on either side of it, and was suspended by a ring by which it 
was held on the thumb when observations were made by it. The plate you 
have is doubtless a portion of some such instrument, but whether for vertical or 
horizontal use is not clear. The hollow centi-e must certainly have been filled 
by some moveable dials or plates, with perhaps a ruler, index, or sight, as in an 
astrolabe. The four quatrefoils I take to have been simply omamental/'* 

Mr. Fitch exhibited a fine gold gimmel ring of five 
pieces, with joined hands. 

A letter was read from T. Barton, Esq., reporting the 
discovery of Homan coins at Fincham, and of Homan urns 
at Ovington. 

August 10th. Mr. Fitch exhibited a " drinking- vessel " 
of pale earthenware, British, found some years ago at Edge- 
field, Norfolk; peculiar from having a cross on the under 

December Ist. Mr. Fitch exhibited a gold ring set with 
an uncut emerald, found at West Bilney. 

I'STO, Ma^ 3rd. The Secretaries reported that they had 
visited " Grime's Graves," in Weeting, in company with 
Canon Oreenwell and others; and that he had made very 
important discoveries there. These have been since com- 
municated in a paper read before the Ethnological Society, 
in London. By the kind permission of Canon Greenwell, 
the principal part of his paper, so interesting and valuable 
to every student of pre-historic antiquities, is here reprinted. 

Brandon (ho says) is with one exception, the only place in England where the 
manufacture of gun-flinta is still maintained. This is principally duo to the 

* See Mr. Morgan's " Obtenratlons on the Astrolabe/' Areh(whgiOj toI. xxxIv. 


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abundance of flint, of a superior quality, which the Upper Chalk of the neigh « 
bouring district supplies. The town is situated on the River Ouse, there forming 
the boundary between the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk ; and the locality 
has been, in various ages, the abode of people who haye used flint extensively, 
though for very different purposes. The drift-gravel, found at levels of greater 
or less height in the valley of the river, has been most prolific in implements 
of the time when man was occupying tho country together with many extinct 
mammals. These beds, worked for road material, at Thetford, Downham, 
Broomhill, and Brandon Fields, have afforded an almost endless store of palaeo- 
lithic implements, as the cases of many a museum bear witness. In very much 
later, but still in pre-historio times, the district was occupied by a large 
population, as is shown, amongst other indications, by the numerous articles 
of flint lying scattered upon the surface of the ground. In a country like that 
in question, where the soil is an infertile and drifting sand, it appears difficult, 
at first sight, to account for its having been so extensively occupied in those 
early days — an occupation which continued throughout Roman and Anglian 
times. Without taking into consideration the supply of flint, in itself a mine 
of wealth to a stone-using people, the isolation, and therefore defensible position 
of the locality, was, probably, one reason why it became the place of habitation 
of a numerous population. To a great extent it is separated from other parts 
by the Fens, which, under any circumstances, must always have presented a 
strong barrier against attack from the west and north. Besides the defence 
afforded by the Fens, they provided, in their forests and swampy thickets, a 
constant supply of game — one of the principal requirements in any place of 
abode selected by a people who to some extent subsisted by the chase. The 
country was then, as it is still, a very paradise of the hunter, whether the 
necessity of existence was the motive which impelled him to the exercise of his 
craft, or he was prompted thereto merely by the love of sport. The deer, the 
swine, and the ox were the wild animals which then rewarded the hunter's toil, 
now replaced by tho hare, the rabbit, the pheasant, and the partridge. 

As has already been stated, implements of flint, most of them belonging to 
the neolithic age, are found scattx^red over the surface of the ground throughout 
the whole of the locality in question. There are snme particular sites, how- 
ever, where such articles, together with large numbers of chippings and cores of 
flint, imperfect and broken implements, and the tools Aiath which they were 
fabricated, are discovered in still greater profusion. One of these is situated 
about three miles N.E. of Brandon, and one mile north of the River Ouse, 
at a place called Grime's Graves, in the parish of Weeling and county of 
Norfolk. It is evident from the quantity of refuse pieces of flint, and the 
numerous fabricating- tools still remaining at the spot, that it was the place 
where a manufactory of flint implements had been carried on ; and the purpose 
of this paper is to give an account of the examination of the pit- workings there, 
from which the material itself was obtained. 

Before describing the pits themselves and the way in which tho flint was 
worked, it may be well, in the flrst instance, to give some account of the 
implements, whole and broken, and of tho articles in flint and other stone, 
found on the fields immediately adjoining to the pits. This appears to be 
necessary, because there can be no doubt that in them we have the result, to 
some extent, of the operations of the people who quarried the flint; and we 
may thus gain a knowlcdjje of the implements they fabricated, and by that 


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means arriye at some conclusion as to the period during which the pits were 

By fi&r the larger number, as might indeed be expected, are chippings of 
various sizes, the refuse pieces struck off from the block in reducing it to diape. 
These are in such quantities in a field immediately to the south of the pits, that 
in some places it is scarcely possible to put the foot down without treading on 
one. The next most numerous article is what at first sight might be taken for a 
round core, the remainder- piece left after all the flakes suitable for implements 
had been struck off. On a more careful examination these appear to have been 
chipped into shape by design, and to have been intended for hammers, to break 
up the flint and to flake it with ; and many of them show, in their battered 
edges, the signs of a long-continued use for some such purpose. They were 
also probably used for splitting the chalk in the course of sinking the shafts and 
making the galleries to be described in the sequel. 

Of such articles as may be denominated implements, the most frequent one is 
somewhat in the form of an adze. The greater part of these were broken ; but 
a few perfect specimens have been found. The cutting-edge is not equally 
bevelled on each side as in an axe, but flat on one side and more or less convex 
on the other, thus having the shape best adapted for the purpose to which an 
adze is applied. These tools may have been intended to quarry the chalk on the 
spot, and may also have been used as hoes in cultivating the ground. I think it 
highly probable that stone implements of the axe and adze form have served a 
double purpose, in the manufacture of wooden articles and in the processes of 
agriculture. Those in question vary considerably in size, and range from 4 
inches to 8 inches in length. 

The ubiquitous scraper, round and oval, is abundant, and attains to a lai^ge 
size, some being ss much as 3{ inches in diameter. 

Drills or tools for boring are not unfrequent : most of them are very rough, 
though showing evident intention in the shape ; but some have been carefully 
finished by elaborate chipping. 

A few knives, or what may have been used for skinning and cutting, have 
occurred ; and I found two implements, looking very much like the heads of 
spears or javelins : the one is hollowed out at the but, and approaches to the 
barbed form ; the other is of an elongated leaf- shape. Besides these several 
weapons and tools, there are many enigmatical articles to which it is impossible 
to assign cither use or name. 

All these implements have merely been chipped into shape, and I have not met 
with one from the immediate neighbourhood of the pits which shows any trace 
of grinding. 

Besides the articles of flint, numerous water-rolled pebbles of quartzite and 
other stone are abundantly found, showing in the bruised ends and sides that 
they have been used as hammer-stones, and principally, no doubt, for flaking 
flint, for which purpose, from their hardness and toughness, they are well 

Though all these different implements, cores, and chippings are discovered for 
some distance round the pits, they become more frequent the nearer the pits are 
approached, indicating, as indeed might be expected, that the principal manufac- 
ture went on close by the place where the flint was procured. 

This place, consisting of a large assemblage of pits, is called 6rime*s (Graves. 
They are situated in a wood, upon ground sloping slightly towards the north, 


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and are about 264 in number^ placed in an irregnlar faahion, generally about 16 
feet apart, and covering a space from 20 to 21 acres in extent. It does not 
appear necessary to enter into the etymology of the name,* further than to 
mention that the place is in the Hundred of Grimshow, the first part of both 
words being taken either from Grime*an, a witch (and this is the more probable 
origin), or from some Scandinayian possessor of the district called Grim — a name 
by no means uncommon, and which is found in Grimsby, Grimsthorpe, and other 
places. There is a Grimsdyke in Hertfordshire and BuckiDghamshire, another 
in Wiltshire, a third in Essex, and two in Oxfordshire. The same origin ia, 
no doubt, to be found in Grseme's Dyke in the south of Scotland. Another 
name of the same being who gave this designation to theae yarious earthworks 
occurs in combination with Dyke in the Devil's Dyke. The English inhab- 
itants, who were ignorant of the origin and purpose of the pits, attached the 
name of Grim to them, either taking it from the hundred, or giving it to the 
pits themselves in the first instance. However this may be, they called them 
Grime's Graves, that is, Grim's diggings or pits. 

At the east side of tbe collection of pits is a mound, which has figured as a 
speculatorium, and a barrow; for Grime's Graves have been taken to be a 
British village, a Danish encampment, and other equally impossible construc- 
tions. The mound was cut through by the Norfolk Archesological Society, 
when nothing was discovered except a piece of a red deer's antler. It appears 
to be nothing more than a heap of the material taken out of one of the pits, 
possibly from the first that was opened, and when there was no other way of 
disposing of it, there being no existing excavation into which to throw it 

The pits are circular, and vary in diameter from 20 feet to 65 feet. In some 
cases they have run together, and form irregularly shaped hollows. This is 
probably caused by the falling in of the roof of the galleries, to be hereafter 
described, by means of which the ground between two or more pits has settled, 
and so destroyed the original outline. They have all been filled in to within 
about 4 feet of the surface, and present the appearance of a series of bowl-shaped 
depressions, having in some instances a slight mound round the edge, due to 
some of the excavated material not having been thrown back into the pit when 
it was filled in. 

Having thus briefly introduced Grime's Graves, it becomes necessary to give 
a detailed account of the way in which they have been made, as shown by the 
opening and examination of one of them, as well as of the various manufactured 
and other things discovered during the operation. 

The pit which was opened is situated on the east side of the series, near the 
extreme edge, and almost in the south-east angle of the space occupied by the 
pits. It is rather under the medium size, being 28 feet in diameter at the 
mouth, and gradually narrowing to a width of 12 feet at the bottom, which is 
89 feet below the surface. It is cut through a deposit of dark yellow sand, 13 
feet in thickness, here overlying the chalk. Interspersed at various places in 
the sand are irregular- shaped nodules of flint, of a coarse texture and not well 
fitted for the fabrication of implements. The chalk upon which this bed of 
sand rests has also, in the upper part, similar nodules of flint placed after the 
same fashion as those in the sand ; but at a depth of 19 J feet from the top of 
the chalk a regular stratum of flint of a somewhat better quality occurs. This 
is called by the present flint- workers the " wall-stone," from its being used 

* See remarks on this subject in Mr. Manning's paper on " Grime 'sOraveB,*' ante p. 173. 


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for boilding-pttrposes, and is not well adapted for the manulacture of gun-fliutfl, 
on account of its want of fineness of grain, and from not possessing sufficient 
hardness to enable it to resist a continued percussion against steel. It was, 
however, used to a considerable extent by the people who made the pits, as is 
shown by the chippings, cores, and other articles made from it, found on the 
surface of the adjoining ground. In the pit itself, though much of it had been 
thrown back again unmanufactured, several flakes were nevertheless discovered, 
evidencing iu having been made use of in the fabrication of implements. At a 
depth of 7i feet below the stratum of wall-stone, and 39 feet below the surface 
of the ground, a seoond bed was met with, called by the workmen the " floor- 
stone,*' and now worked for the material from which gun-flints are manufac- 
tured. The flint in this bed has an average thickness of about 7 inches, and is 
of the best quality in every respect. Though found at a much greater depth 
than the same stratum about a mile to the S.W., where it is now being worked 
for flint-knapping, it has more than twice its thickness, and is of finer grain 
and closer texture ; and it is not improbable that the ancient workings were 
established at the place on accoimt of these qualities in the flint. 

It has already been mentioned that the pits have all been filled in to within 
about 4 feet of the surface. This seems to have been done by throwing into an 
open shaft the waste materials taken out of one or more pits in course of being 
excavated. By doing this the sand and chalk were at once removed out of the 
way, so that, if there was at any time a necessity to sink a shaft near to a 
former one, it might be done without incurring the additional labour of cutting 
through the debris from the pits. If the material taken out of the shaft and 
galleries had been left round the edge, the access to the workings would have 
been made more difficult. The shaft which I reopened had l>een filled in, 
apparently, from more than one pit; for the way in which the diflerent 
materials were placed in it was such as could scarcely have happened if all had 
been taken from a single pit. The filling in for about 18 feet from the bottom 
was almost pure chalk, taken from that part which lies between the two beds of 
fiint Above that was a considerable thickness of sand, intermixed with flint 
nodules and some pieces of chalk ; then came a deposit of chalk and flint 
chippings, in some parts of which the flint chippings very much preponderated ; 
after that was chalk rubble, then sand, and at the top chalk rubble again. All 
these various deposits were so irregular that they could not be measured with 
any exactness ; and in many cases a mass of chalk rubble at the centre did not 
extend as far as the sides of the pit, whilst in others it only reached from the 
side to near the middle. The whole appearance favoured the opinion that the 
pit had been gradually filled in, the operation being a work of considerable 
time. This impression was further confirmed by finding numerous animal bones 
(most of them broken to extract the marrow), charcoal, burnt sand, chippings 
and cores of flint, pebbles for flaking, tools of deer's horn, and other articles, to 
be specially mentioned in the sequel. These were found scattered indiscri- 
minately throughout the whule of the material which filled in the pit. The 
quantity of charcoal was not very great ; but at one place, close to the east side 
and at a depth of 28 feet, a layer of charcoal and wood ashes was found, 4 feet 
in width, and extending for a distance of 6 feet towards the centre. It appeared 
as if a fire had been lighted on the spot ; for the chalk and flint below and in 
immediate contact with it were partially calcined. It is difficult to account for 
the occurrence of a fire in such a position, removed as it was at so great a depth 


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from tbe suiiaoe ; but it is Bcarcely poeaible to understand bow tbe underlying 
cbalk became burnt in tbe way it was, unless a fire bad been ligbted there ; for 
tbe throwing in of hot embers could not have calcined the chalk to the extent in 
which it was found. 

Having noticed, by way of introduction, those secondary questions which 
appeared to require some explanation, it now remains to describe how the flint 
itself was worked out by tbe prehistoric people who made the pits. The process 
differs in some respects from that adopted by the present flint-raisers. Tbe 
ancient workers sunk a circular shaft, gradually decreasing in size to tbe level of 
the stratum of the best flint, passing through the upper layer of the so-callod 
wall-flint, but not removing any of that bed beyond what occurred within the 
limits of the shaft itself. When the floor-flint was reached, it was workod out 
to the extent of the pit ; and then galleries were excavated in various directions 
upon the level of the bed of flint. In order that sufficient height might be 
obtained to enable the workmen to extract the flint, a considerable quantity of 
the overlying chalk has been removed, tbe galleries being on an average about 3 
feet in height, though in some places the roof was 5 feet high. Their height, 
however, is very irregular, owing in some measure to the manner in which the 
chalk roof had given way in some places more than in others. In no case was 
any of the chalk below the flint bed removed^ a practice contrary to that of 
the present workmen, who, in making their galleries, excavate the chalk both 
above and below the flint. The galleries vary in width from about 4 feet to 7 
feet ; and the flint was worked out beyond their sides as far as was practicable 
without causing the roof to give way. I had not time to examine them to 
the full extent of the workings ; but they no doubt connect all the shafts. A 
side gallery, proceeding from the first gallery opening out of the pit which I 
examined, was found to extend for a distance of 27 feet to the west, where 
it ended in a pit, which still remains filled in. Nor can there be much 
doubt that the whole space occupied by the pits is a complete network of 
galleries, and that, if the chalk rubble were taken out of them, it would be 
possible to travel underground over the space in question. To do this would be 
a work of great labour ; for as one gallery was worked out, it was filled in again 
with the chalk excavated from other galleries, so that nearly the whole of them 
are now filled up with rubble. 

There were no steps cut in tbe side of tbe pit, or any provision of that kind 
for obtaining access to the galleries ; so that the workmen must either have been 
drawn up by ropes, probably of hide, or have ascended by means of a ladder, 
which, if such was the case, was most likely made by cutting notches in a 

The principal instrument used, both in sinking the shaft and in working the 
galleries, was a pick, made from the antler of the red deer, numerous examples 
of which were found in the shaft at various depths, and in the galleries. The 
pick, almost identical in form with that, of iron and wood, used by the present 
workmen, was made by breaking off the horn, at a distance usually of about 16 
or 17 inches from the brow end, and then removing all the tines except the 
brow tine. The process of dividing the antler and breaking off the tines had 
been made more easy by partly burning the horn at the places where it was 
desired to divide it, most of them being partially charred at those parts. There 
were very slight indications of any of them having been cut through ; but one 
antler from a slain deer, having part of the skull attached to the horn, it had 


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been attempted to make more handy by cutting off the piece of skull. This 
has evidently been done by flint flakes ; and the work proving too hard, the 
piece of skull still remains attached to the antler, with the ineffective and 
irregular cuttings still upon it. Another antler, which had the brow tine 
projecting from it at an inconyenient angle, has had it removed by making a 
shallow groove at the base of the tine, and then snapping it through. 

These tools had been used both as picks and aa hammers, the point of the 
brow tine serving for a pick, and the opposite part of the brow acting as a 
hammer, to break off a projecting piece of chalk or flint, the adjacent parts of 
which had been previously removed by the tine. Nearly the whole of the tools 
show signs of use, in the splintered extremity of the tine and in the worn and 
battered brow ; and numerous cuts upon the homfl give indications of the sharp 
edge of the fractured flint having come into contact with the pick and hammer 
part of the antlers. In one instance a piece of flint was firmly fixed in the back 
of the horn, where the appearance showed that it had been used in splintering 
the flint. The marks of both pick and hammer were thickly scattered over the 
walls of the galleries, and appeared as fresh as if made but yesterday. 

The chalk had also been excavated by another implement, one of which was 
found in the first gallery, 4 feet from the entrance. It is a hatchet of basalt ; 
and the marks of its cutting edge were plentiful on the chalk sides of the gallery 
in which it was discovered. 

A very striking occurrence in connection with the working out of the flint was 
met with at the end of the first gallery, 20 feet 8 inches from its mouth. The 
roof had given way about the middle of the gallery, and blocked up the 
whole width of it to the roof. On removing this, and when the end came in 
view, it was seen that the flint had been worked out in three places, at the end, 
forming three hollows extending beyond the chalk face of the end of the gallery. 
In front of two of these hollows were laid two picks, the handle of each 
towards the mouth of the gallery, the tines pointing towards each other, 
showing, in all probability, that they had been used respectively by a right and 
a left-handed man. The day*s work over, the men had laid down each his tool, 
ready for the next day's work ; meanwhile the roof had fallen in, and the picks 
had never been recovered. I learnt from the workmen that it would not have 
been safe to excavate further in that direction, the chalk at the point being 
broken up by cracks so as to prevent the roof from standing firm. It was a 
most impressive sight, and one never to be forgotten, to look, after a lapse, it 
may be, of 3000 years, upon a piece of work unfinished, with the tools of the 
workmen still lying where they had been placed so many centuries ago. 
Between the picks was the scuU of a bird, but none of the other bones. These 
two picks, as was the case with many of those found elsewhere, had upon them 
an incrustation of chalk, the surface of which bore the impression of the 
workmen's fingers, the print of the skin being most apparent. This had been 
caused by the chalk, with which the workmen's hands became coated, being 
transferred to the handle of the pick. 

The galleries extended so far beyond the side of the shaft, that it is impossible 
they could have been excavated without the aid of an artificial light ; and it is 
probable that some rudely-made cup-shaped vessels of chalk had been used for 
lamps. Four of them were found, one in the pit, the others in the galleries, in 
one case placed upon a ledge of the chalk just in the proper position for 
throwing light upon the place being worked. The only objection to their 
having been lamps is the absence of any staining, either fix>ni the smoke of the 


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wick or the oil or tallow which, if used as lamps, they must have held. Thej 
can scarcely, however, have fulfilled any other purpose ; and during the lumg 
interral which has elapsed since they were left in the pit any diacoloratiaB 
arising from the stain of fiEitty matter would prohahly hare disappeared ; and if 
the wick floated on the oil, there would he no remains of its smoke upon tk* 
side of the yessel. 

I now propose to giye a filler and more detailed account than has yet been 
done of the yarious manufactured articles found in the shaft and galleries^ and 
of the circumstances under which they occuired. The first place is due to the 
picks, of stag's horn, both on account of their number and from the primary 
importance they claim as the implements with which the work of excarating 
the chalk and flint was performed. These tools were found in great abundance, 
as well in the shaft as in the galleries, and sometimes lying many of them 
together, in one instance to the number of eight. With two exceptions, they 
are all made from the lower part of the antler, after the fashion already 
described ; and they Tary in length from 14 to 20 inches» the greater number 
being about 16 inches long. The brow tine used for the pick end had a lengtb 
of 11 inches in one case, whilst in others it was worn down by use to a point 
not above three inches long. The exceptional tools hare been made from the 
cup end of the antler, one tine being used for the handle, and another for the 
pick. None of these tools were found until the pit was cleared out to a depth 
of 17 feet ; but from that point to the bottom they occurred here and there 
indiscriminately. There were more, however, in the galleries than in the shaft. 
The whole number was 79, many of them much decayed and broken ; of these 
only 1 1 were antlers from deer which had been killed, the rest being all shed 
ones. The animals to which they belonged had most of them been of large 
size, and much beyond the average of the present Scotch red deer. In tiiis they 
correspond with the antlers found in the Fens, and show that the deer in those 
times attained a greater size, and probably, as a rule, lived to a greater age. 
This is only what might be expected ; for the red deer is now confined to a 
small area in Britain, and that of a higli elevation, and almost entirely devoid 
of any vegetation except ling and very coarse grasses, whereas in prehistoric 
and much later times it occupied a country abounding in wood, and possessing a 
much more varied and nutritious flora than is now possessed by the Highlands 
of Scotland. The large number of tools found in the workings, apparently 
thrown aside, many of them when scarcely used at all, implies a great abundance 
of deer at the time, whilst the relatively small proportion of antlers of slain deer 
to the shed horns would lead us to believe that the capture of the animal was 
not an easy task. It is, I understand, by no means common to find shed horns, 
even where deer are plentiful ; and when the abundance of them found in the 
pit is considered in connexion with this fact, a very strong impression of the 
plentifulness of the animal in the district is conveyed. One of the largest of 
the horns measured 9 inches round its base, immediately above the brow. 
Besides the picks, there were thirteen of the cup end of the antler, and many 
whole and fragmentary tines, the remains of damaged tools, or of tines broken 
off in shaping out the picks. The tines, except in two or perhaps three instances, 
where they have been partly cut through, have been simply snapped off. Many 
of the picks showed that they must have been continued in use for a long time 
before they were thrown aside ; for the horn was worn quite smooth in^those 
parts where the workmen's hands had come into contact with it. 

Two other implements of bone were discovered in the shaft : — a pin or awl, 


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4^ moh«e long^ at a depeh of 17 feet, made from the fibula of eome nsall 
animal, probably a roe deer, split and then rubbed to a point ; and a rounded 
piece of bone 4| inches long, and 1 inch in circumference, carefully rubbed 
smooth, and showiDg signs of use at the ends. It may possibly have been a 
tool for making pottery, or an implement for taking off the lesser flakes of flint, 
in making arrow-points and other small articles. It somewhat resembles, 
though longer, the piece of deer's antler, inserted into a handle of wood or 
fossil ivory, used by the Eskimo for flaking. 

It has already been mentioned that a hatchet of basalt was found in the first 
gallery, and that the marks of its cutting edge were distinctly seen T^pon the 
sides of the gallery, showing that it had been used in excavating the chalk. It 
is of a type not commonly found in East Anglia, but very usual in Yorkshire ; 
and it appears strange that, flint being so plentiful, a hatchet of any other material 
should have been used. I shall have occasion to revert to this fact in the sequel, 
when the question of the people who worked the pits is considered. It is 7| 
inches long, 2| inches wide at the cutting edge, the other end being sharply 
pointed. In one of the pits, at the opposite side of the series, which Lord 
Bosehill partially examined, two rude adze-shaped tools of flint were discovered, 
showing that the material at hand was occasionally used in working the chalk. 

Numerous water-rolled quartzite and other pebbles were found in the pit, at 
various depths, abundance of which, coming out of the boulder-day, are 
scattered over the surface of the adjoining ground. Fourteen of these showed, 
in their bruised ends and sides, that they had been used as hammer-stones, and 
probably for flaking flint, for which purpose, as I can testify from experience, 
they are well adapted. They are quite small, one being not above 1| inch long, 
and they could not, on account of their want of weight, have been used for 
breaking up either the chalk or the flint whilst in the bed. Besides these 
stones, seven large rounded cores of flint occurred, whicih also showed signs of 
having been used for hammering. From their size and weight they might have 
equally served for taking off large flakes, or for breaking the chalk and flint in 
the block. Similar round cores are found abundantly on the surface of the 
adjoining fields, and have the same appearance of having been iised as hammer^ 
stones. At the end of the second gallery a peculiar-shaped flint nodule was 
discovered, which is very like a cat's head. It has been used as a hammer, and 
is most conveniently formed for the purpose. 

Some cup-shaped vessels made of chalk have already been referred to as being 
probably lamps. Of these, three, almost complete, and a fragment of a fourth, 
were found. One of them and the fragment occurred in the shaft, at a depth of 
26 feet, another on a ledge at the end of the second gallery, and the third in a 
gallery branching from the east side of the first one. They have all been 
fashioned and hollowed with flint flakes ; and the marks of the cutting are as 
distinct upon them as when they were flrst made. They are rudely formed, 
oironlar, with a flat bottom : one is about 2 J inches in diameter, another about 
24 inches, the flrst being 1| inch high and the second 2 inches ; the cup part 
in each is not quite an inch in depth ; the third one is rather larger and much 
more irregularly formed. 

Some other articles of chalk were found, the use of which it is almost im- 
possible to determine. One is a roughly-shaped, flat and thin piece, pierced by 
a hole about the middle, which has been drilled from each side. But for the 
softness of the material, it might be taken for one of the so-called tool-stones 


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found not unfrequently in Ireland, though more rarely found in England. It 
occurred at a depth of 18 feet. Another ia not unlike part of a human leg or 
arm. The marks of cutting, probably with flint flakes, are diatinctly seen upon 
it ; and the broken ends show that it fonned part of a larger article ; the present 
length is 10 inches, and it is 14 inches in circumference. A third may haye 
been part of a finger ; it is 1| inch long, 2| inches in circumference, and is only 
a fragment. 

A number of animal bones, principally broken so as to extract the marrow, 
were found scattered amongst the materials which filled in the pit They were 
discoyered frx)m within 4 feet of the top to a depth of about 28 feet, but beyond 
that point and in the galleries they were absent. I am indebted to the kindness 
of Mr. W. Boyd Dawkins, F.E.S., for their identification. The animal whose 
bones are the most numerous, putting aside the red-deer antlers, is the oz, of a 
small species, probably Bat hngifront. A very remarkable and instructiye fact 
connected with these ox-bones is their being to a great extent those of yery 
young calyes. It would appear from this that a principal element in the food of 
these people was milk, and therefore they could not afford to keep the calyes, 
which must haye consumed a large portion of what would otherwise haye been 
ayailable for the use of the household. The herbiyorous animal whose bones are 
next in order of number is the goat or sheep, followed by the horse and pig, and, 
after a long intenral, by two bones of the red deer. Of the camiyora, the only 
animal whose remains were found was the dog. Bones of seyeral indiyiduals 
were discoyered, all of them haying been old when killed ; and it is not im- 
probable that when they were no longer, on account of their age, of much use 
for hunting, they were then made to serye for food. 

The bones were all of domesticated animals, a fact which proyes that the 
people who worked the flint had passed beyond the hunting stage. A similar 
condition of things prevailed on the Yorkshire Wolds at the time of the erection 
of the barrows there ; and an examim&tion of a large series of animal bones frt)m 
those burial-mounds shows that scarcely any are of wild animals. 

From the fact of these yarious bones, hammer-stones, cores, and chippings of 
flint being placed indiscriminately amongst the materials which filled up the pit, 
we may conclude that the people lived close by the mouth of the shaft. If this 
was the case, the remains of their food and tiie waste pieces of the flint struck 
off or left unworked in the process of manufacture would naturally be thrown 
into the adjoining pit, which was being gradually filled up by the chalk and 
sand taken out of other shafts. The shafts must have remained open at different 
levels for a considerable time, and would be most convenient places for the 
depositing of rubbish of all kinds ; and it is surprising that more numerous and 
varied articles were not discovered in the pit which was examined. The 
absence of such things in the shaft may be accounted for on the supposition that 
it was an accident incidental to that especial pit, or that the people who worked 
the flint were not in possession of many implements and utensils. The not find- 
ing any remains of pottery is very remarkable, because, from its fragile and yet 
indestructible nature, it lb one of those things which usually marks the site of 
habitation longer and more abundantly than almost any other article. It is 
impossible to believe that these people were ignorant of its use. 

Until the examination of the pit at Grime's Graves, no ancient workings for 
flint have been explored in England with reference to their former purpose, 
though there can be no doubt that many similar places exist throughout the 


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whole of the flint* bearing districts of the country. There are two instances in 
tlie county of Norfolk where discoyeries have been made, indicating the 
eadstenoe of workings of the same character as those at Grime's Graves. One 
is situated only a few miles distant to the north east, at Buckenham, where, 
in cutting a deep drain to carry away the sewage from the house, at a depth 
of 18 feet, some hollows were discoyered in the chalk. At the time these were 
supposed to haye been the hiding-places of smugglers; but there can be no 
question that they are ancient flint-galleries. Many deer's antlers were found 
in them, which, from the description I have heard, corresponded with the picks 
already described. At Eaton, close to Norwich, deer's antlers, broken off in a 
similar way to those at Grime's Graves, were met with amongst chalk rubble ; 
but they do not appear to have excited any attention, haying been regarded as 
ordinary shed horns, which had not been made use of by man. It seems 
probable that the chalk rubble in question was the fiUing-in of shafts or 
galleries, and that the site of an old flint quarry was there met with. In much 
later days, Norwich was earlier the seat of a gun-flint manufactory than 
Brandon ; and the trade still lingers in the neighbourhood of the city. 

Many pits in the chalk have been known for long, or have been discovered 
from time to time, in the counties of Essex, Hertford, Kent, and Sussex, which 
it is needless to specify j and many different conjectures as to their use have 
been hazarded. Some of these will, no doubt, prove to be prehistoric flint- 
workings ; and it is to be hoped that they will all receive a careful examination, 
with the view of testing this explanation of their use. The extensive series of 
pits within the camp at Cissbury, so fuUy described by Colonel A. Lane Fox 
in the Archaologia^ will probably be found to be the place whence the flint was 
obtained, as they certainly are the site where it was manufactured. The Pen 
Pits, in Wiltshire, described by Sir Richard Colt Hoare, Bart., may have had their 
origin in a similar process of mining ; and there are other hollows like them in 
the same part of England, which may have to take a place in the same category. 

In Belgium, however, the site of a flint-manufactory and the workings from 
which the material was obtained have been carefully examined. The neigh- 
bourhood of Spiennes has long been known to abound not only in chippings and 
cores of flint, but in implements, whole and fragmentary. The greater part of 
the implements found there are unground; but a few ground ones have occurred. 

These various articles have been discovered on the surface of the ground. In 
the year 1842 the ancient workings were first noticed ; and the mode in which 
the flint was obtained, by a system of shafts and galleries, is very similar to that 
of Grime's Graves. Many tools of deer's horn were found in the workings, 
but not of the same form as those from the pits in Norfolk. The Spiennes tools 
have been made by cutting off the horn just above the brow tine, which has been 
left on, apparently to serve as a handle. They must have been used as hammers 
rather than as picks, and they are by no means such efficient inplements as are 
those from Grime's Graves. The chalk in the Spiennes workings seems to have 
been excavated principally with tools made of flint, many of which were found 
in the pits and galleries there. As was the case at Grime's Graves, a single pin 
or awl of bone was discovered at Spiennes, where specimens of pottery, coarse 
and badly baked, occurred in abundfuioe.* 

• Alphonse Briart, Florent Comet, et Auguate Hooaeau de Lehaie, Rapport $ur let 
Dicomenea Oiologiotm et ArcMoloMMe* faitee d S^ennee en 1867, M(moir9t *e., de la 
SoeiStS dee Scimeee, dee Aria, ^., du Hainaut, ann^e 18«6.7 (Mona, 1868), p. 355. 

[vol. VII.] 2 c 


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The question remains for consideration, Who were the people who woiked the 
flint at Grime's Graves, and when did that work go on P There haye heen only 
two periods during which flint of the quality found there has been quarried as 
eztensiYely as these workings imply. One is the age when stone was the material 
used in the fabrication of weapons and cutting implements ; the other and much 
later one, when it was used in the manufacture of gun-flints. It is erident that 
the latter period was not that when these pits were ezcayated ; for the animal 
remains alone point to an earlier one, without taking into oonsideratton the foot 
that, since the invention of firearms, flint and chalk have never been quarried 
by other tools than those of iron. There remains, then, the period during which 
stone was used for weapons and implements. This period, no doubt, was to a 
oertain extent contemporary with ^e age when bronxe was also in use for 
certain articles. But before that time a pure stone age prevailed, when no 
metal, except perhaps gold, was known. To this earlier period, the Neolithic, 
I think these extensive workings must be referred. The quantity of flint that 
has been obtained from the pits at Grime's Graves is so great, and the supply of 
material for implements was so very large, that it is difficult to understand how 
operations on a scale so extensive oould have been required when the use of 
stone must have been, to a great extent, superseded by metal. During the time 
when both stone and metal were in use, flint was required more for smaller 
weapons, such as arrow-points, and for articles like scrapers, saws, and knives, 
than for larger implements such as hatchets. The perforated stone axes, which 
were no doubt in use together with bronze, are never made of flint. We may 
regard these workings, then, as belonging to the neolithic age, when metal was 
unknown, but when the grinding and polishing of stone was understood. The 
paleolithic age, when flint was most extensively used in the same district, 
cannot have been that of the working of these pits ; for, apart from the foot 
that nearly all the drift implements have been made from suifoce flints, and 
those generally not belonging to flint of the quality obtained at Grime's Gravas, 
the greater part of the animal remains found in the pit do not belong to the 
founa of the drift, nor were any bones of the most charaoteristio animals of that 
period discovered there. 

The time occupied in working the whole series of pits and galleries most 
necessarily have been a long one ; for even with a large population such exten- 
sive operations could not have been undertaken in a short period. There oould 
scarcely, however, have ever been a large population settled in the locality ; for 
such oould not have been Bupported--the supply of game, large though that 
may have been, being quite inadequate to afford food for more than a people of 
limited number, and pasturage for domesticated animals being very scanty and 
poor. The evidence supplied by the pits themselves very strongly supports the 
view that a long period of time must have been occupied in quarrying the flint. 
A single pit, with its galleries, would afford stone sufficient for the manufoctove 
of thousands of implements, even allowing for a most lavish and wasteAil 
expenditure ; and when it is considered that the pits number about 260, some 
idea may be formed of the enormous quantity of implements which must have 
been supplied by the Grime's Graves workings alone. There is, however, good 
reason for believing that this series of workings is only one out of many others 
in the same district ; and if such is the case, imagination almost foils to conceive 
the vastness of the supply of material for the people of the stone age pro- 
vided by the chalk of Norfolk. But flint was worked by means of pits in other 


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chalk-bearing oountiea, betides being obtained on the surface, and in the shape 
of rolled pebbles on the sea-beach ; so that we have to add many other sources 
of supply to that of Grime's Grayes and other Norfolk workings. Taking these 
&cts into consideration, we seem to require a Tery extended period for the 
nedithic age itself^ as well as for the time during which the pits in question 
were in operation. We hare no certain factor, however, at present, by which 
to mettsure that period. 

Another and important question which arises is whether the flint was worked 
by a population in possession of the district, or by yarious tribes, who came 
there from different localities for the purpose of obtaining so essential a material 
for their wants. There are certain kinds of stone in North America and in 
Australia to which different tribes haye been in the habit of resorting to obtain 
what they required for one purpose or another. In some instances the people of 
these tribes trayelled from places at a great distance to that where the particular 
atone is found. Was a similar practice in use amongst the people of the 
neolithic age in Britain ? A possession so yaluable as an almost inexhaustible 
mine of flint must haye been, could only haye been retained by a people power- 
ful enough to resist any attack which might haye been made by neighbouring 
tribes, unless there was a political system so complete that the law of nations 
was in force in a stronger way than it was in times long subsequent to that in 
question. It appears unlikely that any single tribe could haye been allowed a 
quiet possession of such a material by any common consent of the adjacent 
communities ; and we must therefore conclude that, if these pits belonged exdu- 
siyely to one tribe, the tribe in question must haye been a more powerful one 
than any of its neighbours. We haye no evidence to show how the country was 
subdivided at the time, if it was so parcelled out, or whether it was all in the 
hands of one large community or of a confederation of tribes. Be this, however, 
as it may, it seems on the whole more probable that the flint was the property of 
a single people, and not of the whole country, and worked by different tribes 
temporarily settling at the place from time to time. Not only would any occa- 
sional residents have found great difficulty in subsLsting during the long extended 
period necessary to sink shafts and work galleries, but the regular and systematic 
way in which the flint has been obtained seems to require a set of workmen ha- 
bituated to the mode of quarrying this stone. The finding of a hatchet of basalt, 
of a type not usual in the cUstrict, in one of the galleries, may seem to favour 
the view that the pits were worked by people from other parts of the country. 
It certainly does appear strange that if the flint was raised by a permanently 
resident population, a material so generally inferior to flint, and at the place so 
much scarcer, should have been used for making a tool to excavate the chalk. 
This particular tool, however, may have come into the hands of the workmen 
in some accidental way ; or, from being superior in toughness to flint, it may 
have been a more useful implement than a hatchet of that stone. This single 
frust, even if it does favour the view of the pits having been worked by tribes 
foreign to the district, is not sufficient to set against the very strong probability, 
on the other hand, that the flint was the property of and worked by a native 
population, to whom it must have been a most valuable possession. 

The quantity of flint obtained at Grime's Graves, as has already been noticed, 
was very great ; and the traffic that went on in it must have been in conse- 
quence extensive. It is, however, most difficult to say what was obtained in 
exchange for it in the way of barter. If the pits had been worked during the 

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bronze age, we might understand that the medium of exchange was that metal ; 
but upon the whole, it leema moet probable that they were in operatioii 
principally, if not altogether, before bronze waa known. Gold, amber, and jet 
were all subBtances used by the people of that age, and which would hmre 
formed fitting materials for barter ; and it is possible that such and other like 
products were exchanged for the flint. But if we are to judge by the oonteiita 
of the barrows in the neighbourhood, we must attribute great poverty in anch 
articles to the people living there. Lord Rosehill opened seven barrows near 
Grime's Graves, finding in them deposits of bamt bones, and those onlj in one 
case placed in a cinerary urn ; but in none of them did he discover any thing 
associated with the interment, It is not necessary to suppose from thia that the 
people were destitute of any thing in the way of ornament, &c. ; but it could 
scarcely happen, if they were rich in puch things, that nothing of the kind 
should have occurred in so many burial-places as were examined. As the 
people who worked the flint appear to have subsisted mainly upon domesticated 
animals, it is not improbable that these formed the product given in exchange 
for the flint ; and indeed, on account of the poverty of the soil, it is not easy 
to understand how any large quantity of domesticated animals could have been 
permanently reared and sustained in the district 

Mr. Morant communicated a note on tlie painted scroll- 
work, of Norman or early English date, found on the vault- 
ing of the Jesus Chapel, in the Cathedral, Mr. Alfred 
Barnard, of Stoke Holy Cross, also reported as follows : — 

" Some years ago it was found that the Norman capitals over the south-east 
door of our Cathedral Church were decorated in colour, and indications were 
also observed that the vaulting of the aisle adjoining waa similarly treated. 
Very recently I observed that the vaulting in several other bays of the aiale 
still bears traces of painting : I need not remind you that the vaults are formed 
simply by the intersection of two hemispheres, and are without ribs or groins. 
In their places, however, are painted bands and double rows of serrated or 
indented ornament ; and in one bay in particular, I found the whole space 
between two of these pseudo ribs re-diapered with a lozenge, or some pattern of 
a similar description ; whilst in another instance it appeared that a quatrefoil 
had been painted at the intersection of these bands of ornament These facta, 
although in themselves of comparative insignificance, cannot be entirely devoid 
of interest, as illustrative of the history or antiquities of our Cathedral Church." 

June 12th. A letter was received from the Rev. H. T. 
Griffith, reporting the discovery of some Roman pottery 
at Bessingham, near Cromer ; and the existence of a mound 
or barrow there, locally called " the Castle." 

The discovery of the interesting mural painting in Starston 
Church, in taking down the north wall of the nave, was 
reported by the Secretaries. This has been described and 


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illustrated in the present volume ; and has since called forth 
numerous observations from writers of experience, in the 
volumes of " Notes and Queries " for 1871. 

Mr. Fitch exhibited some flint implements, of the palae- 
olithic class, found in pits at MiKord bridge, Thetford. 
Pottery, apparently British, was found in the same pits. 

September 13^A, Mr. Fitch exhibited a collection of 
Saxon antiquities found at Thetford, consisting of spindle- 
whirls, an ornamented clasp (P) knife, keys, Ac, bone im- 
plements, and portions of urns. 

December \st. Mr. Fitch exhibited the following an- 
tiquities : a bronze seal of John de Annersly, with a squirrel 
as a device ; a silver seal of the North family; seven badges, 
some of them enamelled, with devices from the arms of the 
Morley, Harsick, and other families * 

1871, March 14dh. The Rbv. J. Qunn exhibited a very 
large groimd stone roller, from Mr. Ewing's chalk pits at 
Eaton, near Norwich ; length 1 ft. 3in., diameter 4 in. It 
was associated with ancient stag's horns. 

The Rev. J. J. Smith exhibited a drawing of a coffin 
lid, found in Loddon Church, with a cross on it, and an 
unusual form of head, being rounded instead of square. 

May 4:th, Mr. Fitch exhibited a small bronze figure, 
of Roman work, foimd at Caistor by Norwich; and a 
bronze celt, from Thetford. 

Mr. Manning exhibited a drawing of an altar stone in 
the Jesus Chapel, Norwich Cathedral, with the usual crosses 
at the comers, having another small square stone, of Pur- 
beck marble, inlaid in it, having also the five crosses. See 

* A Paper was read by Mr. Fitch at the Annual Meeting, 1871, apon these 
and other Badges exhibited by him. 


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"Notes and Queries," 4th Series, vols. vii. pp. 360, 399, 
485 ; viii. p. 192. 

July 7th. The Rbv. W. Botoott reported that in re- 
pairing Burgh St. Peter's Church, near Beccles, some mural 
paintings had been found, "representing knights on gal- 
loping horses, and a sanctuary and altar," which he thought 
might be an illustration of the murder of Thomas & Becket. 
They were obliged to be obliterated, but a careful sketch waa 
previously made of them. 


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Abjurliig the Realm, 266, note 

Aeeoanta, Minister*!, of the Lands of Earl 
Rocrer Bigod, MSS. of, ISA 

Acknowledgements of Rojral Sapremacy, re- 
latmg to Norfolk Monasteries, MSS. of, US 

Acoustic Pottery, All Saints, Norwich, {Report, 
1866, iii.) 352 

Notice of, 98 

Albini Family, Motto of, 350 

Altar, on Seal foond at Castle Awe, 856 

Altars, Side, Randworth Church, 186 

Altar-stone, Jesus Chapel, Norwich Cathedral, 

Antiquities, Collection of, at Didllngton Hall, 
(Report, 1866, ii.) 

Armlet, Silver, from Chelmsford, 855 

Armorial Bearings: Gerbridge, 6; Alliances 
of Gerbridge, 7, 8 ; Prior Bronde, alias 
Catton, 10; Merchant Adventurers at Star 
Hotel, Yarmouth, 250 ; Crowe of Yarmouth 
and Caif ter, 254 ; Richardson, 313 ; Hobart, 
ihid. ; Townshend, iHd, ; Hewitt, ibid. ; 
Palgrare, ibid. ; Bemey, 814 ; Rant, ibid. ; 
Maum (Mann), ibid.; Salter, ibid.; Bacon, 
315 ; Le Strange, ibid. ; Pettns, ibid. ; Doyly, 
ibid.; Guybon, ibid.; Windham, ihid.; 
Jay, 816 ; Payne, ibid. ; Wisse, ibid. ; Wode- 
house, ibid. ; Jenny, 317 ; Sotherton, ibid.; 
Buxton, ibid.; Le Gros, ibid. ; Catlin, ibid.; 
Jay, ibid.; SuckUng, 318; Hoadly, 320; 
Tanbrugh, ibid.; Le Neve, ibid.; Casteler, 
322 ; Knollys, ibid. ; Norwich, 323 ; Beau- 
champ, ibid.; Ingloys, ibid,; Woodstok, 
ibid. ; Felbrigg. ibid. ; Woodhowse, ibid, ; 
Beveriey, ibid. ; Black Prince, 324, 335 ; De 
Boys, 338; on Brass from Ely Cathedral, 853 

Ameborgh, Our Lady of, Chapel of, in Yar- 
mouth Church, 223 

Assize and Plea Rolls, Extracts from, about 
Norwich Thieves, 268 

Astrolabe, the, Mr. O. Morgan* s Remarks on, 

Astronomical Instrument, from Bressingham, 

exhibited, 35S 
Attleborongh Hall, Gold Coins found nt, 356 
Audley Monument, Kenniiighall Church, 297 
AugmenUtion of a Mitre In the Arms of Prior 

Catton, 10 
Aylsham, Church Goods, 29 

Bacon, Robert, of Cromer, captures James I. 

of Scotland, and dincoverM Iceland, 279 
Baconsthorpc, Church Goodw, 31 
Badge, enamelled, found at Framingham, 349 
Badges, enamelled with Heraldic Devices, 373 
Barbadoes, Conch Implements and Carib 

Pottery from, 358 
Barnard, Mr. A., communicates Note on Mural 

Painting, Norwich Cathedral, 372 
Barton, Mr. T., comniunioites Note of Roman 

Coins from Fincham, and Urns from Oving- 

ton, 359 
Barton Turf Screen, Illustrations of, [Report*, 

1868, U., 1869, ii.) 
Beechamwell, Notice of Roman Coins at, 128 
Becket, Thomas k, supposed Representation of 

his Murder, nt Burgh St. Peter's Church, 374 
Bedingfeld Family, 255 
Beighton, Wooden Helmet at Lincoln Hall, 

Bell Inscription, West Somerton Church, 259 
Bells, Randworth Church, 187 
Bells, see Church Goods 
Benest, Mr., exhibits Bronse Candlestick found 

in Norwich, 351 
Bessingham, Roman Pottery and a Mound at, 

Bigod, Earl Roger, MS. Aoooants of his I^ands, 



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Biliiey, West, Gold Ring found at, 359 
Bitlcring Parva, Chureh Gooda, 23 
Blakcney, Ti-ade of, 78 
Blenerha.«set Family, tee Ilainelt 

Descent of, 86 

Blenerhasf^et, William. Will of, 87 
Blomefleld, proposed Memorial to, at Fersfield, 

{Report, 1864, ii.) 
Boileau, i$ir J. P. Bart., comraanicates Notice 

of Stone Hammer and Mortar, from Cong- 
ham, 354 
communicates Notice of the Reaping 

Machines of the andeut Gaulx, 102 
communicates particulars of Saxon Work 

at South Lopham Church, 350 
exhibits Drawings of Mural Paintings, 

Hethersett Church, 353 

Death of, {RepoH 1869, i.) 

Boileau Volume, proposed publication of, 

{Reporlt. 1869, ii., 1870, i ) 
Bolding, Mr., his Discovery of Plan of older 

Church, at Wejboume Priory, 355 
Bone Implements found in Grime's Graves, 368 
Bones of Domrsticated Animals found in Grime's 

Graves, 863 
Booton, Leaden Seal found at, 3' 6 
Boycott, Rev. W., reports Discovery of Mural 

PainUngs, Burgh St. Peter's Church, 374 
Brandon, Gun-flint Manufactory at, 359 
Bransby Family, 254 
Brass, Arms fh)m Ely Cathedral, 853 
Brasses, Yarmouth Church, cast into Town- 

ireighU, 220 
Brass In^irtptions, Randworth Church, 187 

St. John's Tlrobcrhill, Norwich, 353 

of a Hermit at Wellingham, 356 

Brass Plate, for Astronomical use, exhibited, 

Brass, Sculthorpe Cliurch, 339 
Breccles, Seal of the Deanery of, Notice of, 212 
Bres-'ingham, Brass Astronomical Plate from, 

358 ; CoUec'Jon of Curiosities formed there, 

Bridges, Harford, Notice of, 213 
British Settlement, supposed, at Grime's 

Graves, 171 
British Swords found at Saham, [Report^ 1868, 

Broadside, Notes on a, 309 
Bronde, Robert, Prior of Norwch, alias Catton, 

Brunstead, Mural Paintings at, {Report, 1866, 

ii.) 355 
Buckenham, Ancient Flint Workings at, 369 
Buckenham, New, Bight of Gallows in Manor 

Court of, 270 
Bulla, Leaden, found in St. Giles', Norwich, 

Bulwer, Capt, exhibits Locket found at East 

Dereham, 356 
Bulwer, Rev. J., communicates Notice of 

Harford Bridges, 213 

Bulwer, Rev. J., communeatM Notice of Haa- 
sett's House, 79 

— '- exhibits Latten Ewer from Salthoose, 349 ; 
Spear-heads and Pin from Stoke Ferry, 351 

reports Discovery of Foundations at Wej- 
boume Priory, 355 

Burial of a Member of a GoUd, 108, 112, 113, 

Burgh St. Peter Church, Mural Paintings found 
at, 374 

Caister by Yarmouth, Notice of Roman Coioa 

and Antiquitiefl foosd there, 11 

by Yarmouth, Bronxe Wolf found at, 356 

Caister Castle, by Yarmouth, descent of, 255 
Caistor by Norwich, Roman Bronae Figure 

found at, 373 
Cannons, Ancient, Construction of, 240, note 
Carib Pottery and Conch Implements, exhibited, 

Carthew, G. A., Esq., communicates Notice of 

North Creake Abbey, 152 

exhibits Brass Shield of Anns, 353 

Castleacre, Seal found at, 356 

Catfleld Church, Consecration Cross at, 353 

Catton Church, Glast Figure of Prior Bronde, 

formerly in, 10 
Catton, Prior Robert, alios Bronde, of Nor- 
wich, 10 
Celt, Bronze, of peculiar shape, fh)m France, 


Bronze, found at Reedham, 358 

Bronze, found at Thetford, 373 

polished Flint, found at Needham, 857 

Stone, Fritton Lake, 351 

Stone, from Ormesby, 351 

Celts, Flint, from the Drift at Thetford, {Report^ 

1866, ii.) 

palaralithlo, fh>m Santon Downham, 356 

Ceremonies of Guilds, 107 

Chancery Suits, Norfolk, MSS. of, 152 

Chessman, Jet, fh>m Thelton 354; of Irory, 

ftx>m Gawdy Hall, ibid. 

of Jet, from Thelton, [Report, 1860, Ui.) 

Chester, Rev. G. J., exhibits Carib Pottery and 

Conch Implements, from Barbadoes, 358 
Chirographorus, explained, 339 
Chitting, Henry, his MS. Visitation of Norfolk 

Churches, 322 
Chrysome, explained, 230, note 
Churches, Norfolk, MS. Visitation of, 322 
Church Goods of St. Andrew, and St. Mary 

CosUiny, Norwich, Notice of, 45 
Goods, Heylin's Account of their Desecra- 
tion, 46 

Goods, Norfolk, 144 

Goods, temp. Edw. VI., Norfolk, Notioe 

of, 20 
Close, Patent, Fine, and Charter Bolls, Norfolk, 

MSS. of, 152 
Coffin Lid found in Loddon Church, 373 


ized by Google 



Coffin Lid, Stanton Cboroh, 802 

Coffin Slab, of Abbot Hugo of Ltaxgley, at 
Hindringham, 853 

Coin, Gold, of James L, found at Helleadon, 

Coins foond at Diss, Notice of, 841 

Gold, found at Attleborough Hall, 856 

Roman, at Beecbamwell, Notice of, 128 

Roman, found at Caister by Yarmouth, 

Notice of, 11 

Roman, found at Flncham, 859 

Coltishall, Mural Printings, andDouble^played 
Windows, 350 

Compotos of Dionysius HindolToiton, Tar- 
mouth, 280 

of North Creako Abbey, 157 

Conch Implements, from Barbadoes, exhibited, 

Congham, Stone Hammer and Mortar found 
at, 854 

Consecration Cross at St. Andi^ew's, Norwich, 

Crosses, All Saints, Norwich, {Report, 

1866, iU.) 

Crosses, Randworth Chur«h, 186 

Notice of, 852 

Costrel, or Bottle, found in Chapel Field, Nor- 
wich, 355 

Cotton, Bartholomew, Monument of, 8)0 

Court Rolls, MS. relating to Norfolk, 188 

Cranwich Church Tower, Notioe of, 360 

Creake, North, Abbey, Notice of, 158 ; Seal of, 

North, Abbey Ruins, preserration of, 

{B$port, 1864, U.) 

Crockowes, explained, 304 

Cromer, Church Goods, 42 

Notes on the Port and Trade of, 276 

Robert Bacon, a Mariner of, 279 

Wills relating to, 880 

Crowe Family, at Yarmouth, 253 

Crucifix, Stone, found at Randworth, 180 

Cups of Chalk, found in Grime's Grayes, 867 

Dashwood, Rer. G H., Death of, (Rtport, 1868, 

Deanery, Rural, Seals of, 212 

Decapitation for Theft, 273 

Deeds of Surrender, relating to Norfolk Monas- 
teries, MSS. of, 143 

Deer, Red, in Norfolk, 368 

Denver Church, Mural Painting at, 858 

Derebara, East, Brnss Locket found at, 856 

Devil's Dyke, Weeting, 173, 176 

Didlington Ilall, Collection of Antiquities at, 
{Repot t, 1866, ii.) 

Die, or Stamp, of Copper, 350 

Dim, Notioe of Coins found at, 341 

Dole, "Christ's half," in the Herring Fishery, 
232, note 

Dornets, a doubtful word, 232, note 

Draper, Gregory, his Seals and Merchant's 

Mark, 857 
Duel, Trial by, 268 

Earlham, Manor of. Verses on Tenure of, 214 

Silver Ring found at, 858 

Earthworks, at Kenninghall, 292 
Eaton, Picks of Deer Horn, found at, 869 
Stone Roller and Stags' Horns, found at, 

Edgefield, British Drinking Vessel found at, 

Elisabeth, Queen, visita Norwich, 214 

visits Kenninghall, 295 

Ely Cathedral, Brass f^om, 358 

Ewer, Latten, found at Salthonse Fen, 849 

Exchequer Books, Norfolk, MSS. of, 148 

Fersfield Church, proposed Memorial to Blome- 
fleld in, (J2epor<, 1864, ii.) 

Fineham, Roman Coins found at, 359 

Fines, Feet of, MS. of, 138 

Fireplace at Fundenhall, 355 

Fisheries on Norfolk Coast, 277 

Fitch, R. Esq., communicates Notioe of Roman 
Coins at Beaohamwell, 128 ; communicates 
Particulars of Screen, St. John de Sepulohrs 
Church, Norwich, 354; reports Discovery of 
Gold Coins at Attleborough Hall, 356; ex- 
hibits Enamelled Roundell found at Framing- 
ham, 849; Roman Amphora from Thorpe, 
349; Leaden Seals, Ipswich, 849; Copper 
Die, 850 ; Bronze Seal of Tailey Abbey, 850 ; 
Bronze Seal from Heigham, 850 ; Bronze 
Mortar, 850 ; Drawings of Coltishall Church 
and Paintings, 850 ; Flints from the Drift at 
Thetford, 353 ; Silver Seal from St. Augus- 
tine's, Norwich, 858; Silver Armlet, or 
Fibula, from Chelmsford, 355 ; Costrel, found 
in Chapel Field, 855 ; Gold Coin found at 
HelleBdon,356; Brass Seal of Flegg Hundred, 
856 ; Bronze Wolf found at Caister by Yar- 
mouth, 856 ; Silver Mould, 856; Leaden Seal 
found at Booton, 356; Celts trom Santon 
Downham, 356 ; Leaden Bulla from St. Giles', 
Norwich, 357 ; Seal of the Hundred of 
Lothlngland, 357; Conch Implements and 
Carib Pottery from Barbadoes, 858 ; Stone 
Implements from Denmark, Sweden, and 
Ireland, 858; Silver Ring from Earlham, 
358 ; Bronze Celt from Reedham, 858 ; Stone 
Implement from Lakenheath, 858 ; Gim- 
mel Ring, 859; British fictile Drinking 
Vessel from Edgefield, 859 ; Gold Ring found 
at West Bilney, 359 ; Flint Implemento and 
British Pottery from Thetford, 373; Saxon 
Antiquities found at Thetford, 878 ; En- 
amelled Badges of Norfolk Families, 873; 
Roman Bronze Figure from Caistor by Nor- 
wich, 878 ; Bronze Celt from Thetford, 878 


ized by Google 



Yiegg, Bnm Seal of Hundred oC; S66 
FUnto tnm the Drift, Thetford, 858 
Flint, Beds of, at Brandon, 860 

Implements, Ancient Manofiictare of, 860 

Working! at Orime*f Qraves, Aoooontof, 

860; Ageof, 870 
— Ancient Mode of Working Fits for ex- 
tracting, 862 
— — Quarry, at Grime's Orayee, {Report, 1870, 

Font, Soolthorpe Chnxoh, 888 
Font CoTer, Remalne of, at KenninghaU, 298 
Framlngham, Enamelled BoondeU foond at, 

France, Aooustio Pottery in Chnrchee there, 95 
Frecsingfleld, Gold Riog found at, 855 
Fritton, Suffolk, Stone Celt from, 851 
Fundenhall, Fireplace at, 855 

Guilds in Yarmouth, 224 

Ounn, Rev. J., exhibits Stone Gelt from Fritton, 


exhibits Marmot found in Norwich, 851 

reports discoTery of Mural Paintings at 

Brunstead Church, 355 

exhibits stone roller from Eaton, 878 

OallowB, Right of, in Manors, 278 

Gauls, Heaping Machines of the Ancient, Notice 

of, 102 
Gentry of Norfolk and Norwich, Notes on a 

Letter and Declaration of, to General Monk, 

Gerbridge Family, Notices of, 3 ; Monuments 

of, 6 
Oillett, RCT. E., exhibits Wooden Helmet and 

Crest from Beighton, 358 
Glass Painting, formerly in Catton Church, 10 
Goods, Randworth Church, 196, 209 
Grant of Arms to Bishop Hoadly, 818 
Greenwell, Canon, his Account of Disooveries 

at Grime* s Graves, Weeting, 859, {Beport, 

1870, i.) 
Griffith, Rev. H. T., communicates Note of 

Roman Pottery, and a Moond, at Bessing- 

ham, 872 
Grigjon, Rev. W.. communicates Notes on 

Norfolk Gentry of the 17th Century, 810 
Gxime*B GraTes, Weeting, Notice of, 169; De- 

rivaUon of, 178, 862 
-^ — Inrestigation of, [Retort, 1870, i.) 

Canon Greenwell's Diaooyeries at, 859 

Grlmeshoe Hundred, Deriration of, 175 
Guilds, Norfolk, Notice of, 10& 

Hanging, Case of Resuscitation after, 264, 275 
Hanworth, Church Goods, 32 
Harford Bridges, Notice of, 318 
Harleston, Gawdy Hall, iTory Chessman at, 

Harling, East, Lectern at, 183 
Harpiey Church, Armorial Battlements at, 888 

Harrod, H., Esq., oommnnicates Notice of 
Norwich Tbleyes of the 18th Century, 268 

commnnieates Note of the Date of Lynn 

Subsidy Boll, 857 

Death of, (Sapart, 1870, Ui.) 

HufAtk Family, Badge of, 878 

Hassett's House, Fockthorpe, Notice of, 79 

Hatchet of Basalt, found in Grime's GraTes, 

Heart, Brass of a, 192 

Hellesdon, Coin found at, 856 

Helmet and Crest, Wooden, at Lincoln Hall, 
Beighton, 858 

Hermit, or Anchorite, Brass Legend to, at 
Wellingham, 356 

Hethersett Church, Mural Paintings at, 858 
{Bspmrt, 1866, ii.) 

Hhidringham Church, Coffin Slab to Abbot 
Hugo of Langley, 858 

Hoadly, Bishop, Grant of Arms to, 818 

Holme Hale, Church Goods, 21 

Horns, Stags', from Pits at Eaton, 373 

Tued as picki*, 864, 866 

Horse, Sculpture of, at Kenntnghall, 297 

Hospitallers, explained, 236, note 

Howard Burials, at KenninghaU, 299 

Howroan, Rev. £. J., presents Drawing of 
Mural Painting at Denver Church, S58 

Hoxne, " Gold Spur'* Bridge, Dani»h Javelin- 
head, found at, 357 

Hundred Rolls, Norfolk, MSS. of, 161 

Hunstanton Church, Sanctuary in, 273 

Screen, {Report, 1868, id.) 

Hunworth, Church Goods, 85 

Ingham Church, Monument in, {Report, 1870, 


Sir Oliver, Tomb of, ibid, 

Inquisltiones, Post-mortem, MSS. of, 147 
Institutions to Benefices, Norfolk, MSS. of, 144 
Inventories of Norfolk Church Goods, 24 

James I. of Scotland, taken Prisoner near 

Cromer, 279 
Jeckyli, Mr. T., exhibits Sketch of Fireplace 

at Fundenhall, 355 
Jerbridge Family, »ee Gerbridge 
Jews, Abduction of a Child by the, 263 
Jones, Mrs. Herbert, communicates Notes on 

Scultborpe Church, 321 
Judgement, the Last, Mural Painting of, 258 

KenninghaU, NoUoe of, 289; Derivation of, 
291 ; Saxon Cemetery at, 292 ; Antiquities 
firom, ibid. ; Earthworks, ibid. ; East Hall, 
293 ; Manor, ibid, ; Palace, 294 ; Royal Visits, 
294, 295 ; Palace taken down, 896; Tenuie, 
297 ; Church, ibid. ; Monuments, ibid. ; 
Bracket with Rebus, 298 ; Font Cover, ibid.; 
Saxon Antiquities from, exhibited, 358 


ized by Google 



Kerriacm Funily, Monunakte in Bandworth 

Chnrch, 188» 198 
King's Books, for Norfolk Bvneflees, M8S. of, 

KnoUys, Sir Robert, his Arms, 83S, 338; 

History, S34 ; porohases Soolthorpe, 381 ; 

Churohes boilt by, 832 ; Estates, 834 ; Death, 

886; Bnrial,iKd. 

Lake Dwellings in Wretham Mere, 855 
Lakenheath, Stone Implement from, 858 
Langley, Coffin Slab of Abbot Hngo, at Hin- 

dringham, 353 
Leaden Objects, found at Lererington, 857 
Lectern, Randworth Church, 181 
Leotems, Ancient, in Norfolk Chorches, Notice 

0^123; List of, 126 
Le NcTC, Peter, Seal and Arms of, 820 
L' Estrange, Mr, J., commnnicates Notice of a 

Lock Plate in Norwich Cathedral, 9 
communicates Notice of Church Goods of 

St Andrew, and St. MaryCoslany, Norwich, 

communicates Notice of Norfolk Guilds, 

—•communicates Notice of Randworth 

Church, 178 
oommunioatee Notice of Mural Paintings, 

West Somerton Church, 256 
-^communicates Notice of Consecration 

Grosses at AU Saints' Church, Norwich, 852 
communicates Drawing of Coffin Blab 

tram Hindringham Church, 858 
— — communicates Liformation respecting 

Brass Inscription, 8. John's Timberhill, 

Norwich, 858 
commnnicates Extracts from a Will, re- 
lating to Snettisham Church, 855 
exhibits Cast of Carying from Triming- 

ham Church, 853 
exhibits Deeds with Seals of Gregory 

Draper, 857 
Leveiington, Objects found at, 857 
Locket, Brass, found at East Dereham, 356 
Lock Plate, Norwich Cathedral, Notice of; 9 
Loddon Church, Coffin Lid at, 378 
Lopham, South, Church, Saxon Work at, 850 
Lothingland, Seal of the Hundred of, 857 
Lynn, Subsidy Roll, Date of, 857 

Manning, Rev. C. R., communicates Notice of 

Wickhampton Church, 1 
communicates Notice of Ancient Lecterns, 

communicates Notice of Grime's Grayes, 

Weeting, 169 

oonmiunicates Notice of Kenninghall, 289 

communicates Notice of Coins found at 

Diss, 841 
exhibits Enamelled Purse Stretcher, 350 ; 

Seal found at Hadleigh, 350 ; Gold Ring 

from West Norfolk, 851; MSS. of Swan 

Marks and Herbal, 851 ; Jet Chessman from 
Thdton, 354 ; iTOry Cheennan firom Gawdy 
HaU, 354; Gold Ring found at Fressingiield, 
855 ; Flint Celt fkom Needham, 857 ; Objects 
found at Leverington, 857 ; Danish Javelin- 
head from Hoxne, 357 ; Saxon Antiquities 
fh>m Kenninghall, 858; Brass Astronomical 
Plate fh>m Bressingham, 858 ; Drawing of 
Altar Stone, Jesus Chapel, Norwich Cathe- 
dral, 373 

presents Pamphlet containing Notice of 

Lake Dwellings in Wretham Mere, 355 

Manor Courts, Powers of, 270 

Manuscript, Chitting's YisiUtion of Norfolk 
Churches, 322 

Manuscripts in the Public Record Office, re- 
lating to Norfolk, Notice of, 137 

relating to North Creake Abbey, 156 

Mark, Merchant's, used by Gregory Draper, 

Marmot, found in Norwich, 351 

Mary, Queen, yisits Kenninghall, 294 

Mary, the B. Virgin, supposed Repreeentatton 
of the Death of, 301 

Millard, Rot. J. W., exhibits MSS. of Swan- 
Marks and Herbal, 351 

Minns, Rev. G. W. W., communicates Notice 
of Acoustic Pottery, 98 

Exhibits Seal found at OssUeacre, 856 

Monk, General, Notes on a Letter and Declara- 
tion of the Gentry of Norfolk and Norwich 
to, 800 

Montunents, at Kenninghall Church, 297; of 
Qerbridge Family at Wickhampton, 6 ; 
Starston Church, 300, 802 

Mmrant, A. W., Esq., communicates Notice of 
Roman Coins and Antiquities found at 
Caister by Yarmouth, 11 

communicates Notice of Randworth 

Church, 178 

communicates Notice of Yarmouth Chnroh^ 


communicates Notes on a Letter and 

Declaration of the Gentry of Norfolk and 
Norwich to General Monk, 800 

communicates Note on Mural Paintinga, 

Norwich Cathedral, 372 

Morgan, Mr. O., his Remarks on the Astro- 
labe, 859 

Morley Family, Badge of, 878 

Mortar, Bronze, 850 

Mould, Silver, with SS. Peter and Paul, 356 

Mound, or " Castle " at Bessingham, 372 

MSS., Swan-Marks and Herbal, exhibited, 851 

Munford, ReT. G., his Names of Places in 
Norfolk, {Bepmrts, 1867, U.; 1868, iii.; 1870, 

Musical Notes on Randworth Lectern, 124 

Names of Places in Norfolk, Rev. J. Munford' s, 
( Jieporte 1867, ii ; 1868, iii. ; 1870, U.) 


ized by Google 



Needham. Celt found at, 357 

Newton St. Faith's Charch.ConsecrationCroesefl 

at, 352 
Norfolk and Norwich Gentry, Letter and 

Declaration of, to General Monk, Notes on, 

Norfolk GuUda, NoUoe of, 106 
Norfolk, Portrait of Thomas, 4th Dnke of, 396 
Norman Doorway at Kenninghall, 297 
Norwich, All Saints' Church, Acoustic Pottery 

and Consecration Croases at, {Beportt lS6d, 

iii.) 352 
Blshopgate Street, Marmot found in, 351 

Cathedral, Notice of a Lock PUte in, 

9; Date of Erection of Screen and Doorway 
in South Transept, 10 ; Burning of In 1372, 
208, 366; Mural Painting in, 372; AlUr 
Stone in Jesus Chapel, 378 ; Restoration of 
Jeras Chapel, {Report, 1870, ii.) 

Chapel Field, Costrel found in, 855 

Church Goods of St. Andrew, and St. 

Mary Coslany, Notice of, 45 
— — Coroner's Rolls, of the 18th Century, 264 

Discontent in 1627, 147 

Guilds, of St. Mary at the Black 

Friars, 108; of St. Botolph, 109; of St. 

James, 111; of St. Michael, 112; of St. 

Katharine, at SS. Simon and Jude's Church, 

113 ; of the Holy Trinity, in the Cathedral, 

115 ; of St. Mary and St. John Baptist, 116 ; 

of the Holy Trinity and St. WilUam, in the 

Cathedral, 117 

Orders for Strangi^rs, MS. of, 146 

Penalty on City for Wrongful Execution 

and Pardon, 265, 866 
Rampant Horse Street, Candlestick found 

in, 851 

Sanctuary in Churches of, 265 

Seal of the Hundred of Lothingland, 

found in, 357 

State of Prisons in 13th century, 267 

St. Andrew's Church, Consecration Cross 

at, 356 

St. .\ugustine's. Silver Seal found at, 353 

St. Giles*, Leaden Bulla found in, 357 

St. John de Sepulchre, Consecration 

Cross at, 352 ; Screen at, 354, ( Report, 1 866, iii. ] 

St. John's Timberhill, Brass Inscription 

at, 358 

St. Michael at Thorn, Lectern at, 124, 

St. Peter's Mancroft Church, Acoustic 

Pottery in, 98 
St. Peter per Mountergatc Church, 

Acoustic Pottery, 99 ; Consecration Crosses 

at, 352 
Thieves of the 13th century, Notice of, 


Ormesby, Celt found at, 351 

Ovington Cburch, Consecration Cross at, 852 

Ovington, Roman Urns found at, 359 

Paintings, Mural, at Brunstead, {Report, 1866, 

at llethersett, {Report, 1866, ii.) 

at Sporle, {Report, 1866, U.) 

at Wickhampton, 2. 

Yarmouth Church, 220 

West Somerton Church, Notice of, 256 

at SUrston, Notes on, 300, {Report, 1870, 


Sporle Church, Notice of, 903 

Coltishall Church, 350 

at Hethersett Church, 353 

at Brunstead Church, 355 

at St Andrew's Church, Norwich, 356 

at Denver Church, 358 

in Norwich Cathedral, 872 

found at Burgh St. Peter's Church, 374 

on Screen, Randworth Church, 182, 211 

Palladius, his Description of a Reaping 

Machine, 101 
Parliamentory Surveys of Crown Lands in 

Norfolk, MSS. of, 148 
Particulars for Grants relating to the surrender 

of Norfolk Monasteries, MSS. of, 143 
Pavement, Snettisham Church, 355 
Phipson, R. M., Esq., communicates Notice of 

Starston Church, 300 
I Picks of Deer-Horn, used as tools, 364, 366 
Pipe Rolls, Norfolk, 148 
Pit Dwellings, supposed, in Norfolk, 171 
Plate, Church, iee Church Goods. 
Pleas, Common, Norfolk, MSS. of, 150 
Pliny, his Description of a Reaping Machine, 

Plowright, Mr. H., communicates Notice of 

the Seal of the Deanery of Breccles, 213 
Pockthnrpe, Notice of BaiMwtt's House, 79 
Portrait of Thoman, 4th Duke of Norfolk, 296 
Potter's Mark, Roman, 129 
Pottery, Acoustic, Notice of, 93 
Acoustic, All Saints', Norwich, {R^ort, 

1866, iii.) 

British, from Edgefield, 359 

British, found at Thetford, 373 

Roman, at Beechamwell, 129 

Roman Amphora, found at Thorpe by 

Norwich, 349 

Roman, found at Ovington, 359 

Roman, found at Bessingham, 872 

Saxon, found at Thetford, 373 

Pre-historic Archaeology, International Con- 
gress of, {Report, 1868, i.) 

Prices in the 14th century, 161 
Prisons, State of, in 13th century, 267 
Purse Stretcher, Enamelled Copper, 350 

Randworth Church, Notice of, 178 ; Lectemat, 
123; Record of Decay of, in VisiUtion 
Books, 197; Vicars of, 200 ; Terriers of, 205 

Reaping Machines of the Ancient Gauls» 
Notice of, 102 


ized by Google 



Record Offloe, Public, M8S. relating to Nor* 

folk in, 137 
Records, Chancery, relating to Norfolk, MS8. 

of, 141 
Recusants, Popish, in Norwich, MS. list of, 142 
Redenball Church, Lecterns at, 134 
Reedham, Bronze Celt found at, 3M 
Repps, Church Goods, 38 
Reredos, Yarmouth Church, 831 
Resurrection of Christ, Mural Painting of, 258 
Rhine, Stone from the, in Yarmouth Church 

Tower, 216 
Ring, Silrer, found at Earlham, 358 

Oinunel, exhibited, 359 

Gold, found at Fressingfleld, 355 

Gold, found at West Bihiey, 359 

Gold, firom West Norfolk, 331 

Rolls, Crown Pleas, Ac, relating to Norfolk, 

MSS. of, 189 
Extracts from the Asaize and Plea, about 

Norwich Thieres, 263 
Subsidy and Patent, relating to Sbipden, 

Roman Antiquities, found near Brandon, 177 
Bronze Figure, found at Caistor by Nor- 
wich, 873 
Coins and Antiquities, found at Gaister 

by Yarmouth, 11 

Coins at Beachamwell, Notice of, 128 

Rood, in Stone, at Wickhampton, 3 
Roundel, Enamelled, found at Framlngham, 

Royalist Composition Papers, Norfolk, MSS. 

of, 144 
Rye Walter, Esq., communicates Notice of 

Norfolk Church Goods, temp. Edw. VI., 20 
communicates Notice of Norfolk Guilds, 

communicates Notice of MSS. relating to 

Norfolk in the Public Record Office, 137 
communicates Notes on the Port and 

Trade of Cromer, 276 

Saham, British Swords found at, {Beport, 

1868, ii ) 

Roman Flue, found at, 349 

St. Catharine, Mural Paintings of, at Sporle, 

{Report, 1866, ii.) 304, 305 
St. John Baptist, supposed Head of, on Seal, 

Head in a Charger, Canring of, at Trlm- 

ingham Church, 353 
St. Wandragesllius, 234, note 
St. William of Norwich, Guild and AlUr of. 

Saints, Bandworth Screen, 182, 811 
BalthooBC Fen, Latten Ewer found at, 849 
Sanctuary, Right of, in Norwich, 265, 266; 

Hunstanton, 273 
Santott Downham, palaeolithic Celts from, 356 
Saxon Antiquities found at Kenninghall, 293 ; 

from Kenninghall, exhibited, 358 

Saxon Antiquities found at Thetford, 373 
Saxon Period, Cranwich Church Tower, 260 

Coltishall Church, 350 

South Lopham Church, 350 

Scole Church, Lectern at, 124 
Screen-Paintings of Norfolk, Publication of, 

{Ssport, 1864, iii.) 
Screen, Rand worth Church, 182, 211, {Report, 

1867, ii.) 
St. John de Sepulchre, Norwich, {Report, 

1866, iU.) 

Trimingham Church, Carring from, 353 

St. John Sepulchre Church, Norwich, 354 

Sculthorpe Church, Notes on, 321; original 

Form of, 837 ; Font, 838 ; Monuments, 889 
Sea, Inroads of the, at Cromer, 877 
Seal of North Creake Abbey, 168 

of the Deanery of Breocles, Notice of, 212 

of John Yanbrugh and Peter le Nere, 380 

Bronze, found at Heigham, 350 

Bronze, of Talley Abbey, 850 

found at Badleigh, 850 

SilTcr, St Augustine Gates, Norwich, 353 

Brass, of Flegg Hundred, 356 

Lead, found at Bootmi, 856 

found at Castle Acre, of Robert de Wrid- 


of the Hundred of LothingUnd, 357 

Silver, of the North Family, 873 

— — Bronze, of John de Annersly, 873 
Seals of Lead, found at Ipswich, 849 
Shipdham Church, Lecterns at, 125 
Shipdon, tee Cromer 
Shipden, Subsidy and Patent Rolls, 282 
Shotesham Church, Consecration Crosses at, 

Signaculum, a forged one, exhibited, 357 
Singing Breads, explained, 286, note 
Smith, BcT. J. J., exhibits Drawing of Coffin 

Lid, Loddon Church, 373 
Snettisham Church, ancient Pavement of, 355 
Somerton, West, Mural Paintings at. Notice of, 

Spear-head, iron, Danish, found at Hoxne, 357 
Spear-heads found near Stoke Ferry, 351 
Spiennes, Belgium, Flint Working at, 369 
Sporle Church, Notice of Mural Painting in, 

803, {Report, 1866, ii.) 
Spurs, Tenure of a pair of Gold, 214 
Starston Church, Notes on, 300 
SUrston, Mural Painting, 372, {BepoH, 1870, ii.) 
State Papers, Norfolk. MSS. of, 145 
State Trials, Norfolk, MSS. of, 142 
Stevenson, S. W., Esq., his catalogue of Roman 

Coins at Beechamwell, 128 
Stoko Ferry, Spear-heads and Pin found near, 

Stone Hammer and Mortar, found at Cong- 
ham, 354 
Stone Implement from Lakenheath, 358 
fr^m Denmark, Sweden, and Ireland, ex- 
hibited, 858 


ized by Google 



Stone Implement foand at Tbetford, 878 
Stone Roller, fh»m Chalk Pit. Eaton, 878 
Subsidy BoUs, Norfolk, MSS. of, 188 

relating to Sbipden, 283 

Sotten, Rer. A., oooununicatea Notlee of 

Cranwiob Choreh Tower, 260 
Swan-markfl, MB. of, exhibited, 851 
Swords, BritSih, foond at SeJiam, {Bepcrt, 

1868, ii.) 
Symonda, Rev. Precentor, ezhibitB Bronae Celt 

froir Trance, 3A7 

Taylor, Rev. E. S., hla Notice of Roman Coins 
and Antiqnltiei foond at Gaiater by Tar- 
mouth, II 

Thelton, Jet Chessman finmd at, 854 

Thetford, Flint Celts firom the Drift, {B^port, 
1866, tt.) 853 

British Pottery found 4t, 878 

Bronae Celt found at, 878 

— — PaleeoUthic Implements found at, 878 

Saxon Antiquities found at, 878 

ThicTea, Norwich, of the 18th Century, Notice 
of, 268 

Thorpe by Norwich, Amphora found at, 849 

Thurlton, or Thurrerton, Manor of, 288, tute 

Tibenham, Church Goods, 84 

Tithes, Norfolk, MSS. of, 144 

Towers, Round, 261 

Tracery, "Runic" Cross in Window, Cran- 
wich Tower, 262 

Trial by Duel, 268 

Trimingham Church, Wood Carring of St. 
John Baptist's Head, 853 

Unton Family, Monuments of, 889 

Yanbrugh, John, Seal and Arms of, 820 
Yestments, sm Church Goods 
TisiUtion of Norfolk, Publication of, {Rejwrt, 
1864, iii.) 

Walsingham, Great, Church Goods, 88 
Walsingham, Little, Church Goods, 40 
Warner, Rev. J. Lee, exhibits Rubbing of 

Brass from WeUingham, 8S6 
Waynilete, William de, his Helmet and Crest 

at Beighton, 853 

Weeting, Grime's OrsTes, Notice of, 160 
Canon Oreenweirs Discoveries at, S59, 

[Biport, 1870, i.) 
Wellingham, Brass Legend at, 856 
WeUs, Church Goods, 82 
Weyboome Pits, 170 
Priory, Plan of older Church disoovered, 

Wiekhampton Church, Notice of, 1 
Wighton, Church Goods, 86 
WiU of Nicholas de Stow, Ezlnet from, 855 

of Robert Mihrard, Randworth, 191 

of Roger Eryng, Randworth, 180 

Wills, relating to Cromer and Shipden, 980 
Winch in Randworth Church, 180 
Window, Saxon, Cranwich Church, 262 
Windows, Cords used instead of Glass In early 

times, 851 
Windows, Double-splayed, at Coltishall, 850; 

South Lopham, 850 
Winter, Mr. C. J. W., eommunlcatos Notice 

of Mural Painting, Sporle Church, 808 
Wolf of Bronne, found at Caister by Tarmouth, 

Wootton, South, Church Goods, 88 
Words requiring explanation, 168 
Worship, Mr. F., exhibits a forged Signaeu- 

lum, 857 
Wretham Mere, Lake-dwelUngs in, 855 
WridUngton, Robert de. Seal of, 856 

Tare, Derivation of, 218 

Tarmouth, Auguatine Ftiara, Architectural 
Fragments from, 252 

Church, Dimensions of, 215 ; Notice of, 

915; Design of intended West Front, 218; 
Brasses cast into Town Weights, 220 ; Mursl 
Paintings, 220 ; Beredoa, 221 ; Altar Stone, 
Tomb, and Reading Desk, 221 ; Church- 
yard Inscriptions, 221; Chapels and Lights, 
922 ; Guilds, 324, 937 ; Foundation of, 926; 
Compotus ot Brother Dlonysius Hindolves- 
ton, 280; Herring Fishery, "Christ's Half 
Dole," 282, note 

Petition against Pirates, MS. of, 146 

Star Hotel, Notice of, 349 

Zodiac, Signs of; on a Purse-etreteher, 850 




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